English language varieties
English is the main language in many places, an important language in others, and spoken as a second language more-or-less everywhere. However, there are some significant differences in pronunciation, spelling and word usage around the world. This article aims to provide a list of some of these differences that may be useful to travellers.
The clearest distinction is between what can be loosely called the Commonwealth and U.S. varieties of English. Many areas — Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and other former British possessions in Africa, Hong Kong, Singapore, India, Pakistan, Malaysia, and current and former British possessions in the Caribbean — (not all of them Commonwealth members) generally follow British rather than American usage. Therefore, for the most part, their usage is indicated under the column labelled "British (UK) English," whereas the usage in areas like the Philippines and Israel, which are heavily influenced by U.S. English, is generally indicated under "American (U.S.) English". Some exceptions to the purely dichotomous treatment of English are noted in comments in the tables below, but this guide is meant to be a practical aid for travellers, and not exhaustive.
Canada generally follows British spelling conventions and American vocabulary choices. Most Canadian accents are very close to a Midwestern U.S. accent. In Québec, where the anglophone population is a minority, a few extra terms of French origin may slip into the language. People in areas without a history of direct colonial or military influence by English-speaking nations now tend to be more familiar with American than British vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation, because of the overwhelming popularity of U.S. films, TV series and music.
Noah Webster, compiler of the first major dictionary of American English in the early 19th century, made a number of "simplifications" in the spelling. These are now standard in the U.S., but generally not used elsewhere.
See Wikivoyage:Spelling for discussion of which variants to use in articles.
British English doubles the final consonant in some words when adding an ending, for example in "traveller". American English spells it "traveler".
British English changes a "C" to an "S" to distinguish a noun from a verb. James Bond has a "licence" to kill, and was "licensed" after qualifying as a spy. The American form always uses the "S".
American usage drops the "U" in "-our" endings:
Words borrowed from French keep the French "-re" ending in British English, but get changed to the more phonetic "-er" in American English:
In British English, a "metre" is a unit of length while a "meter" is a measuring instrument. In American English both are a "meter".
Some words have silent letters dropped or are spelled more phonetically in American English:
|program||programme||UK usage is mixed: 'computer program' vs. 'television programme'|
This last group is the only one where Canadian usage mostly follows American spellings, with rare exceptions like "cheque" and sometimes "programme".
Many American spellings of words, such as "program" and "analog", are widely adopted and understood outside the U.S.
Incidentally, punctuation usage differs slightly as well, but doesn't follow the same division between British and American English. Quotations are marked by double quotation marks (“…”) in the U.S., Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, while single quotation marks (‘…’) are used in the UK and South Africa.
English has an enormous range of accents and dialects — the UK alone has dozens — and some can be almost incomprehensible to other English speakers, let alone the poor traveller for whom English is a second language.
Educated people from almost anywhere in the English-speaking world can talk to each other without serious difficulty. Consider an international crew on an oil rig somewhere. The engineers and managers would almost certainly be able to talk to each other without any real problems, whether they studied in Edinburgh or Edmonton. However, two working guys from the same two countries — say working class Glasgow and a Newfoundland fishing village — would be quite likely to find communication a bit difficult.
An important difference in English dialects is whether "R" is pronounced after a vowel. Words such as "fork", "word" or "mother" are quite different in the two types, though everyone pronounces the "R" in other contexts, for example in "rabbit" or "area".
- Dialects with the "R": Scots, Irish, Canadian, much of the U.S.
- Dialects without "R": Most of England, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, India, Pakistan, Boston, Southern U.S., and some New York City accents.
All dialects pronounce the linking "R" in an expression like "the mother of", even the ones that would not pronounce it in "I saw his mother." Some insert a linking "R" sound between words like "the arear of a circle".
People not familiar with dialects other than their own sometimes lump all "R"-less dialects together, as when an American takes a New Zealand accent for British, and others make the opposite error, like an Englishwoman taking a Canadian accent for Irish.
Certain words are pronounced very differently. In parts of the U.S., "borough" rhymes with "furrow" but elsewhere the final consonant is an "uh" sound.
The words "route" and "router" can be pronounced to rhyme with "shoot" and "shooter" anywhere, but in North America they can also rhyme with "shout" and "shouter". Sometimes it is safer to use the latter pronunciation, whatever your own dialect has, because in Australian and New Zealand English, "root" is slang for sex, much the way "screw" is in North American English.
|car/automobile||car/motorcar||"Motorcar" is understood but very old-fashioned in the U.S.|
|carry-on bag||hand luggage|
|divided highway||dual carriageway|
|highway/freeway/expressway/limited-access road||motorway||"Interstate" is the name of a specific U.S. highway system|
|hood (of a car)||bonnet|
|parking lot||car park|
|rent||hire||In the U.S., "hire" is used only in the sense of "employ".|
|speed bump||speed bump/hump/ sleeping policeman|
|subway||underground/tube||"Subway" is used in Glasgow. "Metro" is also used in places like Montreal, Washington, D.C. and Newcastle upon Tyne.|
|trunk (of a car)||boot|
|undivided highway||single carriageway|
See and do
|football||American football||Occasionally called "gridiron football". Don't confuse with "soccer".|
|soccer||football||The U.S., Canada, and Australia all have varieties of football that are quite distinct from what is known in the UK and much of the rest of the world as "football".|
|hockey||ice hockey||The game played on ice, the national sport in Canada.|
|field hockey||hockey||The game played on grass, popular in India and Pakistan.|
|movie theater||cinema||European usage follows the French pattern where a "salle de cinéma" (a moviehouse) is distinguished from the "théâtre" (a live performance venue) by using different terms for each. "Cinema" is also a universally recognized term in the U.S.|
|ATM||cash point/cash machine/hole-in-the-wall||"ATM" stands for "automated teller machine"|
|bill (money)||bank note|
|fanny pack||bum bag|
|Main Street||high street|
|pants||trousers||In the UK, pants refers to underwear. Australia, New Zealand and Canada follow American usage.|
|pump (women's shoe)||court shoe|
|shopping cart||trolley||Also called "buggy" in some U.S. dialects|
|check (restaurant)||bill||"Check" is U.S.-only; even Canadians use "bill."|
|entrée||main course||"Main course" is also understood in the U.S.|
|jelly||jam||In the U.S., "jam" contains fruit flesh and "jelly" is filtered to just the thickened juice.|
|napkin||serviette||Serviettes refer only to paper napkins. Cloth napkins are also called napkins in the UK.|
|cider||pure apple juice||In the U.S., the alcoholic drink is called "hard cider"; "apple juice" is filtered and "cider" is unfiltered, and both are non-alcoholic|
|liquor store/package store||off licence/off sales|
|lemon-lime soda (e.g. Sprite, 7-UP)||lemonade|
|lemonade (squeezed lemons and sugar)||traditional lemonade|
|rent||let||"Lease" is also used in both varieties of English.|
|drug store||chemist||"Pharmacy" is also used in all dialects|
|stroller||pushchair/pram||"(Baby) buggy" is common in both U.S. and UK|
|family doctor||GP (General Practitioner)|
|call (to use a telephone)||ring|
|cell phone||mobile phone||Singapore: "handphone". Some European English speakers use "handy", from a German misconception of English slang|
|prepaid||pay as you go|
|ZIP code||postcode||ZIP ("Zone Improvement Plan") was a name trademarked by the U.S. Postal Service, and is only understood in the U.S.; use "postal code" or "postcode" everywhere else|
Weights and measures
The U.S. is the only major country still exclusively using the old Imperial system of weights and measures rather than the metric system. See Metric and Imperial equivalents for conversion information. The UK is partially metricated, and uses the metric system for some measures such as temperature and fuel volume, but uses imperial units for other measures such as road distances and beer volume. Measurements in scientific fields use the metric system in all countries including the US. All other English-speaking countries such as Canada, Australia and New Zealand officially use the metric system, though the imperial system survives to varying extents in colloquial usage.
In measures for liquids, the U.S. uses its own variant of Imperial measures (simply called "U.S. customary measures"). An Imperial gallon is 160 fluid ounces (4.5 liters) but a U.S. gallon is 128 ounces (3.78 liters). Both sizes of gallon are subdivided into four quarts or eight pints. A handy but very rough approximate conversion is to treat a liter as a quart; actually 1 liter is about 34 fluid ounces, more than a U.S. quart (32 ounces) but less than an imperial quart (40 ounces).
In road signs, both the U.S. and the UK continue to use the old Imperial system. This means that speed limits are marked in miles per hour, and distances are also written in miles. 1 mile is roughly equivalent to 1.6 km.
A "pint" of beer in many places is now 500 ml. The traditional British pint is 568 ml.
|ass/buttocks/fanny||bum/bottom/arse||UK "fanny" means female genitalia|
|cigarette||fag||"Fag" is a derogatory term for a homosexual man in the US.|
|fall (season)||autumn||"Autumn" is also acceptable in the U.S.|
|first name||Christian name/given name||The phrase "Christian name" has fallen out of use|
|last name||surname||"Surname" is also understood in the U.S.|
|pissed||angry||UK "pissed" means drunk. The UK equivalent of the U.S. meaning would be "pissed off," which is also used with the same meaning in the U.S. ("pissed" in the U.S. is short for "pissed off").|
|restroom/bathroom/lavatory||WC/toilet/loo/bog||However, although "toilet paper" is universal, Brits may refer to "loo roll" or "bog roll". In British English, a WC or water closet is a public toilet and a bathroom is where you take a bath or shower.|
|soda/pop/soft drink||soft drink/pop/fizzy drink/coke||In the Southeastern U.S., "coke" is often a generic name for soda, but in the rest of the U.S., "coke" refers only to Coca-Cola.|
|vacation||holiday||"Holiday" in American English is roughly equivalent to "bank holiday" in British English. "Vacations" are either longer periods off from work/school (at least a week) or leisure trips.|
Same words, different meaning
- To table a motion: In the UK, it means to put the motion up for consideration; in the U.S., it means to remove it from consideration.
- Rubber: Refers to an eraser in the UK; means condom in the U.S.