Metric and Imperial equivalents
Most countries in the world now use the metric system. The old British imperial system of weights and measures survives, in various forms, in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Liberia, to greater or lesser extents. For example, in the U.S., you'll find the metric system only used in scientific or military contexts, while in the UK and Canada, usage is more mixed. In scientific usage, the metric system is used exclusively in all countries of the world.
To get by in countries that use a different system than you're used to, it's helpful to know some rough equivalents. We use "=" signs below, but some are approximatations.
A Celsius poem
Zero is freezing
100 °C = 212 °F = Water boils 58 °C = 136 °F = Highest temperature recorded on Earth 37 °C = 98.6°F = Human body temperature 20 °C = 68 °F = Room temperature 0 °C = 32 °F = Water freezes -18 °C = 0 °F = -40 °C = -40 °F = Forty below zero! -89 °C = -129 °F = Lowest temperature recorded on earth -273 °C = -459 °F = Absolute zero
To convert Metric (Celsius) to Fahrenheit, double the number and add 30. To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 30 and divide in half. Close enough for our purpose. For science use
Length and distance
- 1 inch (1") = 2.54 cm
- 1 foot (1') = 30 cm
- 1 mile = 1.6 km
- A credit card is about 0.75 mm (3/4 of a millimetre) thick
- 1 cm (centimetre) is the width of an average fingernail.
- Most adults are between 1.5 and 2 metres tall.
- 1 km (Kilometre) takes about 15 minutes to walk.
- 1 kg = 2.2 pounds
- 1 ounce = 28.54 grams
- 1 pound = 454 grams
For China, the jing is almost exactly 500 grams.
For small things, one might use square inches or square centimeters. There are about 6.5 cm2 in one in2.
For floor area of an apartment, there are about 11 square feet in one square meter.
For large areas, there are about 2.5 acres in one hectare.
The standard metric unit of volume is the litre.
Many things, however, are measured in ml (millilitres) or equivalently in cc (cubic centimetres). Roughly, a teaspoon is 5 cc and a fluid ounce is 30 cc.
In both the US and Imperial systems, 4 quarts = 1 gallon and 2 pints = 1 quart. However, the US units are smaller than Imperial counterparts. A US quart is 32 fluid ounces while Imperial is 40; a litre is in between at 35. A US gallon is 128 ounces or 3.78 litres, while an Imperial gallon is 160 ounces or 4.54 litres.
For car and motorcycle engines, displacement might be given in cc or litres or cubic inches. 1000 cc or one litre is 61 cubic inches.
- 1 L of water weighs 1 kg. Since many liquids (milk, orange juice) are sold in litre containers it is easy to judge 1 L or 1 kg.
- 1 L is equivalent to a cube 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm.
- 1 Cubic m (1 m3) = 1000 litres. 1 m3 of water weighs 1000 kg = 1 Tonne. Do not try to pick this up yourself!
- In Europe, wine is usually sold in 750 mL (0.75 L) bottles (occasionally 700 mL or 1 L).
1 mm = 1/1000th metre
1 mg = 1/1000th g
1 ml = 1/1000th litre
1 cm = 1/100th metre
1 km = 1000 metres
1 kg = 1000 grams