|Currency||Armenian dram (de facto), Nagorno-Karabakh dram|
|Population||137,700 (2005 est.)|
|Country code||+374 47|
Nagorno-Karabakh (Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ ; Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ), officially the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, is a de facto independent republic in the Caucasus. It is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan but is closely linked in every way to Armenia. It is only accessible through Armenia.
Current political status
Nagorno-Karabakh has lain in an indefinite state of political limbo since the 1994 ceasefire of a war which saw the establishment of its independence. The ceasefire agreement has left the region de facto independent – Azerbaijan's government has no control. It remains internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan by all UN member states, and has been recognized only by Transnistria, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia, which have limited international recognition themselves. Although Armenia supports Nagorno-Karabakh economically and militarily, they have not formally recognized the region's independence.
This region has long been populated by Armenians and it has historically and culturally been part of Armenia. The Soviets, insensitive to such cultural distinctions, included it as an autonomous region of their Azerbaijan republic and so sowed the seeds of the current unrest. As Soviet dominion withered, the Armenians sought to incorporate the region into their newly independent country. This led to a war of independence, similar to those in Transnistria and in other ethnically mixed areas on the former Soviet empire's fringe.
The fighting stopped with the 1994 ceasefire and the dispute moved from the theatre of war to diplomatic circles (the O.S.C.E. Minsk Group), where the region is still squabbled over by Armenia and its Russian backers and Azerbaijan and its Turkish allies.
During the conflict, the Azeri population fled and the region is culturally a part of Armenia. However there is a distinct border complete with immigration formalities on the road from Armenia. Investment and development in the region has invariably come from Armenians, further entrenching Armenian cultural ties.
The region is largely rural with a few small towns. Its charms lie in its historic Armenian ruins & medieval monasteries and its natural features. There's also the frisson of visiting a disputed republic (and even getting permits to visit destroyed towns near the front line).
Nagorno-Karabakh is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains. It is mostly mountainous and forested and has an area of 8,223 km2 (3,175 mi2).
- Stepanakert (Khankendi) — the capital is a very small city and your likely base for exploring the region
- Berdzor (Lachin) — the first town you pass through upon entering Karabakh
- Hadrut — a small southern town with several nearby 13th and 14th century monasteries
- Martakert (Aghdara) — administrative center of Martakert Province with the Sarsang Reservoir
- Martuni (Khojavend) — a small town near the small historically important Amaras Monastery
- Shushi (Shusha) — the historic capital of Karabakh and formerly one of the cultural capitals of the Caucasus; has lots to see, although the town is largely in ruins from the war and is a shell of its former self
- Agdam — a ghost town
- Vank - small town close to the monastery of Gandzasar, one of Karabakh's top attractions. Also known for a hotel in the shape of a boat with a zoo, and the wall of license plates.
Entry to Nagorno-Karabakh can only be made from Armenia and such entry is considered illegal entry into Azerbaijani territory by Azerbaijan.
Visas for Nagorno-Karabakh are usually obtained from the Permanent Mission to the Republic of Armenia, 17A Nairi Zaryan St, Yerevan, Armenia (tel.: +37410 24 97 05, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). It is also possible to obtain a visa upon arrival at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Azatamartikneri 28, Stepanakert, N.K.R. (tel.: +37447 94 14 18, E-mail: email@example.com). While this seemed to require a sufficient level of Armenian, Russian, sweet-talking and/or low-level bribery to persuade the border guards that you are indeed allowed to do this, in May 2013 crossing the border was straightforward: The border guards just ask you to give them your registration card (which you will get with your visa in Stepanakert) on the way back out.
Tourist visas cost 3,000 Armenian drams (roughly US$10 or € :6) and are valid for 21 days after issue. Visas with longer validity and multiple entries are also available at different prices. An English language version of the Foreign Office visa application is available online (in Yerevan a slightly different form is used). Visa applications in Yeveran require a 3×4 cm photograph, those in Stepanakert do not (but still accept it, of course). Visa applications can be made Mon-Fri 9:00 to 17:00 (lunch hour from 13:00). Applications lodged in the morning are ready for collection after lunch. Registration papers (showing the regions permitted) are issued with the visa, so there is no longer a need to register separately with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Stepanakert.
The main road into the region runs from Yerevan in Armenia to the region's capital Stepanakert via the Lachin Corridor, a mountain pass near the town of Lachin (renamed Berdzor in Armenian). It is in good shape and the journey takes 4 hours rather than the previous 8–9 hours.
Another usable road crosses the Karvajar (Kelbajar) pass further north.
The embassy in Yerevan and also tour companies there (Artsakh in Armenian)can arrange drivers to take you to Stepanakert and to show you the region's biggest attractions. This costs about US$100–150 per person.
There is one daily bus from Yerevan to Stepanakert, which is relatively cheap, but takes forever (or at least it seems so).
Despite Stepanakert having a newly renovated airport (the only one in the region) and an airline, Artsakh Air, political wrangling has prevented any planes from taking off. The Azeris have even made bombastic threats to shoot down any flights that it does not control. There was some progress in 2012 towards the establishment of flights the Armenian capital but don't hold your breath.
Helicopter trips, however, are available.
Currently there is no working train line between Yerevan and Stepanakert.
The newly reconstructed Hadrut-Stepanakert-Askeran-Martakert motorway runs north-south through the region and has drastically reduced travel times to just a couple hours from just about any place in the country (excluding small villages & monasteries secluded in hilly terrain).
Both Stepanakert and Shushi have a good number of hotel options. Shushi has a lot more specific sites of interest to see, more history, and is more interesting, while Stepanakert is right on the main highway and a lot more developed. If you're going to be heading in and out of the countryside a fair bit, you should consider that staying in Stepanakert will shave 20 minutes off of your drive in each direction.
If you plan to travel to Karabakh from Yerevan, there are several car rental agencies in Yerevan that provide cars which can also be driven into N.K.R. — given that you are comfortable with the rather crazy Armenian traffic.
If your Armenian or Russian is good, you may be able to hitch a ride for less than a taxi (although don't pay too much less, as these are certainly not affluent people), and you could very easily be invited for dinner with them (in which you should have some gift, especially wine, coffee, or chocolates, and do NOT offer money) as the people of NKR are doing this out of hospitality.
Taxis are available in most cities, with a new North-South road across the NKR making for a smooth and quicker (than you'd expect) ride across the region. These cost about ֏120/km within a town, or ֏150/km if you take the cab out of town.
Marshrutkas are available, but they may not run as often as in Armenia.
All cities are small and fairly safe, so it is best to walk around the few cities in NKR. Not only will you save a little money, but you will get a good sense of the region and its people.
Janapar Trail - One way to see much of Karabakh is simply to walk from one end to the other on the Janapar. There is a marked trail which is broken up into day hikes which extend for 2 weeks of hiking. There are side trails and alternative routes as well. Trails take you to ancient monasteries and fortresses, through forests and valleys, to hot springs and villages. Each night you can either stay with a village family or camp out.
Armenian and Russian are both widely used. Karabakh Armenians speak a dialect of Eastern Armenian that differs slightly from Armenian mainly because of the inclusion of many Russian words. A good amount of the population speaks Azeri but it is never heard and becoming forgotten. Very little of the population speaks English (though those working in tourist-related areas, i.e. hotels and restaurants, often do speak a reasonable bit of English or at least can find someone around who speaks the language) so it may be wise to travel to Karabakh with a guide or translator from Armenia if you are travelling off the beaten track. Anyway, hands-and-feet language often works as well.
Tourist attractions include:
- Stepanakert, the capital city
- Shuka (Farmers market)
- Mamik and Babik (famous monument on northern outskirts)
- Ghazanchetsots Cathedral of the Holy Savior.
- City walls
- Govharagha Mosque
- Jtrtuz overlook of Karkar Canyon
- Zontik Waterfall (1.5 hour hike on Janapar Trail)
- Gandzasar monastery, main tourist attraction.
- Dadivank Monastery.
- Gtichavank monastery.
- Amaras Monastery.
- Tzitzernavank Monastery.
- St. Yeghish Arakyal Monastery.
- Yeritsmankants Monastery (also Yerits Mankants)
Other tourist attractions include:
- The ancient city of Tigranakert, one of four cities that were founded in the 1st century BC in opposite corners of Armenia and named after King Tigran II the Great, ruler of the short-lived Armenian Empire. Tigranakert, which has been undegoing archaeological excavations since 2005, is located in Mardakert District.
- Askeran / Mayraberd Fortress (10th–18th centuries) served as the primary bulwark against Turko-nomadic incursions from the eastern steppe. The fort is found to the northeast of the region's capital city of Stepanakert in Askeran.
The N.K.R. uses the Armenian dram (֏ or AMD) for most transactions. The state bank has also issued limited amounts of another currency, Nagorno-Karabakh drams (no symbol or ISO code). The N.K. dram is available in 2 & 10 dram banknotes and 50 luma (0.5 dram), 1 dram, & 5 dram coins. All banknotes & coins are dated 2004. N.K. drams are increasingly less common, since they were printed in limited quantities, aren't worth much, and many note & coins have been taken out of the region as souvenirs or to sell to collectors. U.S. dollars & Russian rubles are accepted by some merchants, hotels, and others.
There are several Tourist/Souvenir Stores within Stepanakert. A great idea is to buy a rug made in Karabakh. They are known for their Ancient rugs, and it is said that many people in the region and bordering countries learned rug making from the ancient Armenians of Karabakh.
- Jingalov Hats — a bread that has greens baked into it, a local specialty.
- Tutti Chamich — mulberry raisins, available at the market (shuka)
Many Mulberry trees are to be found, but ensure you are eating only ripe fruit (dark red) and not unripe fruit (whitish), as unripe fruit as well as the green portions of the tree contain a white sap which is intoxicating and mildly hallucinogenic.
Tutti Oghi — Mulberry Vodka, which Karabakh is famous for, often reaching 80% alcohol, and with a distinct taste.
- Hotel Eclectic — a crazy hotel located in the small village of Vank, some 40 km north of Stepankert. The hotel is meant to resemble the Titanic, and is build by a Russian millionaire who was born in Vank. Nice rooms from ֏7000 (Armenian drams). There is even a swimming pool at one of the hotel "decks".
Limitless volunteer work for the willing. Incredibly low cost of living. The government will gladly give most people land as long as they are willing to farm and tend to it.
Western governments still advise their citizens to avoid the region but in spite of that, hundreds of westerners visit Nagorno-Karabakh every year.
Don't venture east of the Mardakert-Martuni highway, where the ceasefire line is located. Otherwise, it is very safe to travel around and interact with people. When you first arrive in Karabakh, you must go to what is called the "MIT", the Stepanakert foreign affairs office, to get your travel papers. This will prevent any confusion if one gets pulled over or stopped by local authorities.
If you are planning to hike, be in rural areas, or stay on the outskirts of cities note that the area is inhabited by bears and wolves. While they will not attack if unprovoked, practice bear safety and walk away slowly if unexpectedly approached. If you are planning to hike, the Janapar Trail has been broken into day-long hikes and it is best to take advantage of the homestays offered rather than to camp alongside the trails. If you do camp, make sure to keep your food high in a tree and a few dozen meters (a hundred feet or so) from your tent and do not simply sleep on the ground or in a sleeping bag...sleep inside a tent.
While the region is fairly safe in terms of crime, you must not lose your passport. There are no foreign embassies in the NKR, and you may have a hard time leaving Nagorno-Karabakh without a passport or visa. The US embassy in Baku says that "because of the existing state of hostilities, consular services are not available to Americans in Nagorno-Karabakh." It would be safe to assume that this applies to all other nationalities and their embassies in Baku.
Drink bottled water if you are not accustomed to the local water. However if you are hiking, drinking water in mountain streams and ponds in reasonably safe, as long as you are sure it is not downstream from a large town (in which case it is likely contaminated with chemicals, street runoff, and/or waste.
Remember that this is a rural region, and in the event of a medical emergency the hospitals in N.K.R. are no more than a modest clinic. The nearest major hospital is in Yerevan, a long distance in the event of a heart attack or complications with any medical problems you may have. It is best to have with you a small first aid kit with bandaids, bandages, anti-biotic cream, ibuprofen, and any other medicine you may need.
The people of N.K.R. are very friendly and inviting, and if your Armenian or Russian is good enough, you will easily meet people who will invite you to their house for dinner (and some will even harass you until you accept). Unlike many parts of the world, you should not worry about your safety, no matter how much they harass you, and accept their invitation. Even though these people do not have much and, like many persons in developing countries, view westerners as rich, they will vehemently refuse any type of money given to them (although you may find luck saying it is "for the children"). However, do not show up empty-handed! You will be expected to bring some sort of gift, with food (wine, chocolates, coffee, etc.) being best. You should also bring something to show/give them from your home country (postcard, book, photos, etc.) to have a conversation or at least get their interest. You never know, they may likely have family in another place and what you thought was just dinner could turn into inviting you to other family's businesses (discounts), homes (to stay the night), or another meal.
The wiki on the Janapar trail recommends no trace camping and if you bathe, make sure no locals are around (it may be offensive). Just as stated above, you will receive offers of food and rest. Have gifts for such people, but do not offer money.