|Government||President : Harold Martin|
|Currency||Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (XPF): per US dollar - 96.04 (2004), 105.66 (2003), 126.71 (2002), 133.26 (2001), 129.43 (2000)|
|Area||total: 19,060 km2
water: 485 km2
land: 18,575 km2
|Population||216,494 (July 2006 est.)|
|Language||French (official), 33 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects|
|Religion||Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%|
New Caledonia  (French:Nouvelle-Caledonie) is a dependent overseas territory of France lying in the western Pacific Ocean, in the Coral Sea, to the east of Australia and west of Vanuatu. The territory consists of the main island of Grand Terre, the archipelago of the Loyalty Islands (Iles Loyauté), and numerous small, sparsely populated islands and atolls.
New Caledonia offers beaches, mountaintop fondue in chalets, camping, amazing snorkeling and diving, and fabulous French food.
New Caledonia is a collectivity of France with a particular status, it has its own laws and its own government, New Caledonia sets its own rules for everything except for national defense and the foreign policy, still sets by France.
The people of New Caledonia are split into 5 major groups:
- the Kanaks, melanesian inhabitants of New Caledonia, they were here long before the Europeans, many of them are still living outside of Noumea in tribes and the traditional autority of the tribe's chief is legal and recognized by French law.
- the Caldoches, descendants of European and North African prisoners and settlers, some families are living in New Caledonia since more than 100 years.
- people from metropolitain France and other French overseas territories, locally refered as "zoreils", most are newcomers and here for a few years only to work in Noumea.
- Asians, descendants of those who came to work in the nickel mines of New Caledonia about a century ago, most are Vietnamese, Chinese and Indonesian.
- Polynesians, people from French Polynesia and Wallis&Futuna, most are living in Noumea for work, as French citizens they can move freely between New Caledonia and Polynesia.
Since the events of Ouvéa cave hostage taking in 1988, there is a political move towards more autonomy in New Caledonia as listed on the UN list of non-self governing territories, and it was decided in the Nouméa Accord (Accords de Nouméa) that the territorial Congress will have the right to call for a referendum on the future status of the territory (including possible independence) between 2014 and 2019, at a time of its choosing.
Settled by both Britain and France during the first half of the 19th century, the island became a French possession in 1853. It served as a penal colony for four decades after 1864.
The islands have been an overseas territory of France since 1956.
The 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to the islands; formally under French law. Agitation for independence during the 1980s and early 1990s seems to have dissipated. A referendum on independence was to be held in 1998 but eventually cancelled, as the Noumea accord decided ; a new referendum is scheduled for after 2014.
In New Caledonia, as elsewhere in France, the national holiday is Bastille Day (14 July).
New Caledonia has a semi-tropical climate, modified by southeast trade winds. It is often hot and humid in January and February. The islands are subject to tropical cyclones, most frequent from November to March. During winter (April to August) the daytime temperature is around 22 degrees. The water may still be warm, but it often feels too cool to really want to go swimming.
The main island of New Caledonia is one of the largest in the Pacific Ocean and its terrain consist of coastal plains with interior mountains. The highest point is Mont Panie (1,628 m).
Grand Terre is rich in minerals, and is an important source of many ores, mainly nickel and chromium. There is a mountainous interior green with subtropical foliage. The outlying islands are coral-based, and have stunning white sand, and sport palm trees.
The main island. It is one of the largest islands in the Pacific. The barrier reef lying off New Caledonia is second only to the Great Barrier Reef in size.
|Loyalty Islands (Îles Loyauté)
Three large populated islands just east of Grande Terre.
|Île des Pins
Was one of the few places in the Pacific with trees tall and sturdy enough to provide replacement masts for ships.
The islets and reefs to the north of Grande Terre, with a small community living on Belep Isle.
Uninhabited and incredibly remote, the Chesterfield Islands are an expedition.
- Nouméa — the capital, and the only city of any size.
- Bourail — a farming town.
- Port Bousie
Get in 
By plane 
- New Caledonia Airport (IATA: NOU) (ICAO: NWWW), in Païta, 52km northwest of the capital city of Noumea, (687) 35 11 18, [www.cci-nc.com/tontouta] Air France provides code-share flights from Paris via Tokyo, Osaka, or Seoul. Regular flights are available from Tokyo and Osaka on Aircalin, as New Caledonia is very popular with the Japanese. Air New Zealand  and Qantas  also serve the airport. There are also flights from various Pacific nations, New Zealand, Australia, and Southeast Asia. However, there aren't many flights overall, so beware of availability. There is little or no competition on routes, so be very wary of high flight prices.
- Noumea-Magenta Airport (IATA: GEA) , 4 km from the city center, (687) 25 14 00. Serves all domestic flights within New Caledonia, such as the Loyalty Islands (Maré, Tiga, Lifou, Ouvéa), from Isle of Pines in the south to Belep Islands in the northern tip of the mainland as well as Koné and Koumac on the west coast and Touho on the east coast.
By boat 
Noumea is a popular port of call for people sailing around the Pacific, though most dare not sail during cyclone season.
Get around 
By car 
Rentals - cheapest are:
- Red point (requires drivers above 24 years of age)
By bus or taxi 
The buses are not too bad and go pretty much everywhere, but they are infrequent. But they are worth trying and will save you money. You can catch a bus that will take you very conveniently from the Baie Des Citrons to downtown Noumea for 200CFP each way. This is a good alternative to a taxi. The bus that services this route is the No 1 Bus and it is green. This will assist you on your return to the Baie Des Citrons (and Anse Vata) since you will be looking for the Green Number 1 Bus. The bus ride takes about 15 to 20 minutes. A taxi for the same destination will cost approximately 850CFP each way, compared to 200CFP each way by bus. Taxis do not cruise the streets to pick up passengers as in other cities; they have to be telephoned to come to where you are. This makes the bus a good alternative as the total journey time is not much longer than by taxi.
If you are in a hotel or other accommodation you can just ask them to call you a taxi. The same applies if you are shopping in Noumea – if you have just purchased something, even groceries in a small store, they will be happy to call you a taxi.
Hitching is possible, but not advisable. Around celebrations there are many drunk drivers on the roads. Locals prefer to travel during daylight hours when possible as the roads at night are very dangerous and few drivers have sufficient insurance.
- Tjibaou Cultural Center, a gift from the French Government. The architect was Renzo Piano, an Italian architect.
- Botanical garden
- Wandering along the waterfront in Noumea - Baie des Citrons and Anse Vata.
- Snorkeling, diving, windsurfing
- Îlot Canard just outside the Anse Vata is a good place for beginners
- Aguille de Prony is an amazing underwater structure in the Prony bay south of Noumea
- relaxing, tanning, and generally doing nothing
- Baie des Citrons and the Anse Vata are common beaches at the Noumea peninsula
- Îlot Maitre has a resort. This can be reached by taxi boat from the Anse Vata, and by boat from the Baie de Mouselle
- Numerous other tourist resorts can be found throughout the Grande Terre and Île des Pins
- eating French and local cuisine
- hiking, camping
- Parc Rivière Bleu in the Yaté region south of Noumea
- Joining a hiking group is generally a good idea, since you then can really enjoy the great scenery without fear of getting lost, or having to stick with conventional tourist spots
The official language is French, and it is difficult to find English speakers outside of Noumea. In Noumea, French, English, and Japanese are widely spoken at hotels, restaurants, and shops. To enjoy a place like this, you should really endeavor to learn some French.
The cartoon series La Brousse en Folie and Le Sentier Des Hommes by Bernard Berger will give you an insight in the local culture and tradition. The comics are written in French, the former imitating the local accent and grammar (or lack thereof)
Other than that, plenty of conventional souvenirs shops may be found throughout Noumea.
New Caledonia is very expensive, since much of the food needs to be imported. There is no culture of bargaining either and attempting such might cause offense.
- Bougna, a traditional meal among the native Melanesians, which consists of some form of meat, pork, chicken, fruitbat, crab, etc, along with roots such as yams and sweet potatoes. This is wrapped in banana leaves and cooked under hot rocks heated in a fire.
- Coconut crabs
- All fruits seem to taste very good
Buy food from local markets, which are common to almost every town.
Restaurants are expensive. You can eat quite well for about 10EUR at a couple of eateries opposite the library in town. For travellers on a budget, you'll need to observe what the Kanaks do for the best deals.
French food is (obviously) a specialty, but the range of foods available can be a little limited.
Try kava. You can recognize a Kava bar by a red light outside and dim lighting inside. It is about 100CFP compared to 500CFP for a beer, so about a fifth of the price. You drink the Kava immediately once you've purchased it and then go off to a dark bench to relax.
There are many places around New Caledonia that are affordable and in good condition. All you have to do is search around and you will find somewhere to sleep within your price range.
Voluntary service 
Volontariat Civil à l'Aide Technique ( VCAT ). Conditions: you must be French or from another EU-member state or a country belonging to the European Economic Area. You must be between 18 and 28 years old (inclusive). You must not have had your civic rights revoked by a court or have been convicted of certain offenses.
Stay safe 
New Caledonia is fairly safe, but it is wise to take the following precautions:
- When snorkeling, avoid contact with sea urchins, which are often poisonous, and coral structures, which can cause scrapes that swell badly and take a long time to heal.
- A seasnake known locally as the Tricot Rayé has a potentially lethal venom, but is not aggressive when left alone, and only attacks when threatened.
- There are sharks, some of them quite large, though Great White Sharks are rare. Avoid shark attacks by:
- Not carrying fish that you have caught (and may be bleeding) while in the water
- Facing the shark, so that to the shark you appear large, vertical and difficult to bite
- There are no crocodiles native to New Caledonia. Rogue individuals have been observed on the island no more than twice within the past 200 years, probably swept out from the Solomon Islands.
Stay healthy 
Iodine or a similar disinfectant is invaluable to fight off small infections, which quite commonly occur in most sores and scratches.
Some mosquitoes carry the dengue fever virus. There is no vaccination for this, so it is important to prevent mosquito bites to the extent possible. Consult a doctor for more information, and see the Wikivoyage article.