Winter sports are sports performed in or on snow or ice or otherwise needing freezing temperatures.
- Main article: Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing, also known as downhill skiing (although Telemark skiing also fits the term), is a popular sport involving sliding down snow-covered terrain with skis attached to each foot. Ski resorts around the world attract millions of travelers yearly.
Biathlon is cross-country skiing combined with rifle shooting: you ski around a circuit whilst carrying a rifle on your back. At certain intervals you will stop and take aim at targets with the rifle and each miss of the target adds some to the skiers time. In addition to being good at skiing and shooting, you have to have good enough nerves and judgement neither to hurry too much nor use too much time at the targets.
Cross country skiing
- Main article: Cross country skiing
Cross country skiing can be used as a mean to travel easily in thick snow in the wilderness or as an alternative pastime at ski resorts. It can allow quite easy access to places which seem untouched by man. The skis are different from those normally used in downhill skiing.
Cross-country skiing involves either shuffling or skating over tracks. As with all Nordic skis the heel is not attached to the ski. This style of skiing is highly energetic as there is no downhill cruising involved, the skier is constantly pushing with their poles and moving their skis across the flat or uphill terrain. Occasionally there is a small downhill section. Cross-country is in no way similar to Alpine skiing, it is a form of transport in the Nordic countries, Russia and rural areas in parts of the Baltic states. Depending on conditions (and the skier) the speed will be from about as using snowshoes to faster than running. Due to the flat or rolling terrain in much of Scandinavia cross-country is a widely practised sport, the equivalent to jogging in the summer. Larger alpine skiing resorts will most likely have some marked tracks and a rental shop available to the public.
Ice sailing can allow very fast speeds, often as a sport. Either an iceboat is used, or a skater carries a sail himself.
- Main article: Ice skating
There are several ways of using (different kinds of) skates, such as ice hockey, figure-skating, racing and long distance skating.
- Main article: Snowboarding
Snowboarding is another way of going downhill, more difficult than downhill skiing.
Snowkiting is "winter's newest extreme sport", requiring only the wind, a snowkite, skies or snowboard, and an attitude for fun. The sport has endless possibilities, such as backcountry skiing without a ski lift or resort – your snowkite will pull you uphill and downhill at varying speeds. Snowkites can accelerate up to 50 mph. The lifting power of the wind will allow you to jump to distances of up to 100 feet.
When snowkiting in the backcountry be aware of avalanche danger! Always snowkite in groups, wear an avalanche beacon, dress warm, and never exceed your limits.
Snowmobiling is a sport involving riding over snow on a motorized vehicle. It is popular throughout the western United States of America as well as in Canada and Alaska. In northern parts of the Nordic countries it is a common way of getting around for locals and for tourist tours.
- Main article: Telemark skiing
Telemark skiing is another way of downhill skiing, with loose heel. Practitioners often think it is more enjoyable than the alpine variant. It also allows covering rolling terrain as it is easy to walk up hills with the loose heel. The technique is more difficult than alpine skiing and beginners to snow sports should usually not start with Telemark, but progress on to it.