Science tourism is a travel topic grouping scientific attractions. It covers interests in visiting and exploring scientific landmarks, including museums, laboratories, observatories and universities.
For the museum sites, check the relevant opening hours and entry fees, where applicable. As many of the listed laboratories have ongoing scientific research, one needs a scientific reason to visit a laboratory. Hence one needs to plan in advance and check for the days were there are special public access possibilities. Observatories are usually open to the public and have tours showcasing their astronomical research.
- Nobel Museum, Nobelmuseet Stortorget 2, Stockholm/Gamla Stan, Sweden, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. It has exhibitions about the Nobel Prize.
- Sweden Solar System in greater Stockholm, contains the world's largest scale model of the Solar System.
- Heureka, Kuninkaalantie 7 (Near Tikkurila railway station). M-W, Th 10AM-8PM, F 10AM-5PM, Sa-Su 10AM-6PM.. Heureka in Vantaa is an interactive science museum, with different kinds of exhibitions about technology, physics, chemistry, medicine, astronomy and so on. Really exciting for children interested in science. Adult: €19; Children (6-15): €12.50.
- Peenemünde ( Historisch-Technisches Museum Peenemünde), Im Kraftwerk, Peenemünde, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Apr-Sep: 10:00-18:00, Oct-Mar: 10:00-16:00, open daily (Nov-Mar: Mon closed). A place where the Germans developed some of the world's first rockets before and during WW2. Regular: €8, Discount: €5.
- Marie Curie Museum, ul. Freta 16, 00-227 Warszawa, Poland, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. History of radioactivity
- Auto & Technik Museum (Signposted from exits 33 or 34 on the A6 Autobahn.). open daily. In Sinsheim, southwestern Germany. Has interesting displays of many vintage and historic cars, motorcycles, other machinery, and an extensive collection of aircraft, including a Russian Tu 144 and French Concorde.
- Deutsches Museum (German Museum of Masterpieces of Science and Technology), Museumsinsel 1 (S-bahn station Isartor, then follow signs, alternatively U-bahn Fraunhoferstrasse Tram 16: Deutsches Museum), ☎ , fax: +49 89 2179324, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Daily 09:00-17:00. One of the greatest scientific and technical museums in the world, it is one of the most important sights in the area and absolute "must see's" of Munich, visited by roughly 1.5 million visitors per year. Topics range from aviation to brewing, from computer sciences to bridge building. There are many guided tours on specific themes and in different languages. There is a planetarium and two branch offices in other locations, which show vehicles that found no place in downtown Munich. Adults €8.50, Concessions €3.
- The city of Friedrichshafen offers a museum dedicated to zeppelins and another to Dornier aircraft.
- Science Museum London (South Kensington), ☎ .
- The Down House, Luxted Road, Downe, Kent, England, ☎ . Opening hours vary according seasons, on open days 10:00-16:00. This place is unique piece in the history of science as the theory of evolution by natural selection got worked out here. A visit of the home of the English naturalist Charles Darwin allows glimpses in his life. Darwin wrote 'On the Origin of Species' in this house. The house has also carnivorous plants and exotic orchids. Adult £10.00.
- Leonardo da Vinci Museum of Science and Technology (Museo Nazionale della Scienza e della Tecnologia), S.Vittore Street (reachable by bus or subway, line MM2 Sant'Ambrogio Station). Located in Milan. As the name tells, it is a museum to learn more about science and technology. Hosted in a former monastery, San Vittore al Corpo.
- In the outskirts of Moscow there are a couple of sites dedicated to the Soviet and Russian contributions to science and technology. These include the Memorial Museum of Astronautics, the All-Russia Exhibition Centre and the Monument to the Conquerers of Space. While you're there, check out the 540m high concrete transmission tower, Ostankino Tower.
- Explonatorium, San Francisco
- Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral - The launch site for NASA's space missions. All 12 persons who have traveled to the Moon so far have started their journeys from here.
- Space Center Houston in Webster, Texas - NASA space museum, plus tram tours of Johnson Space Center, including astronaut training facilities, Mission Control, and the actual Apollo and Mercury launch vehicles.
- Powerhouse Museum, 500 Harris Street, Ultimo (If walking, follow the signs from Darling Harbour near the Exhibition Centre. If driving, access via Harris St), ☎ . 10:00-17:00 daily. The Powerhouse Museum is a large museum, essentially of popular culture. It has displays on the history of fashion and transport, decorative arts, music, and space exploration exhibits. It also partly plays on a sci-tech theme, with interactive hands-on and discovery displays of technology, design and industry There is usually a special exhibition on as well. There are in-depth displays for all ages, but also displays especially created for young children to discover and play. $10 adults, $5 children.
- Questacon (The National Science and Technology Centre), King Edward Terrace, Parkes, Canberra, ☎ , toll-free: 1800 020 603. 09:00-17:00. Questacon is an interactive museum of science with exhibits illustrating scientific ideas from the principles of physics to the motion of an earthquake. Great for kids and excellent science books can be picked up here. Allow at least half a day. $15.50 adults, $10.50 concessions, $9 children, and $46 for a family of 2 adults and 3 children..
- Alcântara, in Northeast Brazil, is the rocket launch site for the Brazilian Space Agency, and hosts a museum on the site
- Kourou in French Guyana hosts the Guyana Space Centre, the primary rocket launch site for the European Space Agency.
Many European countries participate on the European Organization for Nuclear Research, which has his laboratories including the famous Large Hadron Collider on the French/Swiss border. Plus the bigger European countries like France, Germany, Italy and UK operate national laboratories. Most laboratories have open days for public visits.
- Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA). The CEA has 5 divisions: nuclear energy, technological research, life sciences, sciences of matter and military applications. It has one of the top 100 supercomputers in the world, the Tera-100.
- CEA Saclay (South of Paris, RER B + bus). The biggest research center of the CEA hosts nuclear research reactors.
- CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland (Tram 18, final stop "CERN"), ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. At CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, physicists and engineers are probing the fundamental structure of the universe. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest experiment and most complex scientific accelerator. Founded in 1954, the CERN laboratory sits astride the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva. The weak force got discovered here in 1973 and in 1983 subsequently the W and Z bosons. In 1995 it created the first Anti-Hydrogen atoms of which the ASACUSA experiment can since 2014 produce a beam of. In 2012 the ATLAS and CMS experiment announced the discovery of a boson with 125 GeV, whose properties got confirmed to be the long-sought Higgs boson.
- Microcosm. M-F 08:30-17:30, Sa 09:00-17:00 (There may be some exceptional closures at holidays). In front of the entrance of the CERN laboratory there is a permanent exposition retracing its history. free of charge.
- CERN Guided Tours. Both as individual or as group it is possible from time to time to visit the experiments.
- DESY (Hamburg)
- Gran Sasso
- National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, UK (Buses 281, 285, R68, 33, 481 and X26 serve Teddington, trains from London Waterloo ~30 mins). The National Physical Laboratory is the birthplace of atomic timekeeping. In the 1950s, Louis Essen and John Parry constructed the atomic clock, Caesium Mk. 1. This new clock kept time more accurately. It paved the way for redefining the second in 1967, based on the fundamental properties of CS atoms, rather than the quite irregular Earth rotation. The facilities in Teddington are among the world's most extensive and sophisticated for measurement science. On 20 May 2014, NPL Open House will give people the chance to explore much of the science that goes on at NPL and the facilities that are used to do it: NPL Open House 2014. While children are allowed, the exhibits are aimed for adults, and children must be kept under adult supervision at all times. free - registration required.
- Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (ALT), Chilton, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, ☎ . The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory is a national scientific research laboratories in the UK operated by the Science and Technology Facilities Council. It is a multidisciplinary centre for research both in physical and life sciences. It had in 1957 a 50 MeV proton linear accelerator. RAL hosts ISIS, a spallation neutron source and the Central Laser Facility. RAL organises a monthly public scientific lecture: Talking Science registration. free, registration required.
In the United States of America overseen by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) the Office of science operates ten national laboratories. In total there are 17 national laboratories funded by the DOE. Most of the sites hold open houses where the public can come in for free and see how American tax dollars are invested in research. This used to include nuclear facilities, but those have been restricted since 9/11.
- Ames Laboratory (Ames Lab) (Iowa State University campus), ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Ames Laboratory conducts research into various areas, including the synthesis and study of new materials, energy resources, high-speed computer design, and environmental cleanup and restoration. The Ames Project purpose was to produce high purity uranium to accompany the Manhattan Project. It's most notable faculty member Dan Shechtman won the 2011 Chemistry Nobel price. Contact the Lab in advance of your visit. Group tours can be arranged through the public affairs office.
- Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 (Metra train to the Westmont Metra station + PACE bus #715), ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. Argonne National Laboratory was founded in 1946 to carry out Enrico Fermi's work on nuclear reactors as part of the Manhattan Project. Today Argonne is a multidisciplinary science and engineering research center, to address vital national challenges in clean energy, environment, technology and national security. Argonne welcomes all members of the public age 16 or older to take guided tours of the scientific and engineering facilities and grounds. Tours last about two and a half hours and are by reservation only (call or email).
- Brookhaven National Laboratory (Brookhaven Lab), William Floyd Parkway, County Road 46 (Ronkokoma station from the Long Island Rail Road (LIR) + Taxi). Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multipurpose research institution funded primarily by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. Located on the center of Long Island, New York, Brookhaven Lab operates large-scale facilities for studies in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and applied science. It is the home of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which first observed/created the Quark-Gluon-Plasma. Brookhaven scientists won 7 Nobel prices including the Ribosome discovery (2009). The lab is open to the public on Sundays during the summer for tours and special programs.
- Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Kirk Road and Pine Street in Batavia, Illinois, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. 8:00AM-8:00PM, 8:00AM-6:00PM Nov-March. Fermilab is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Hence many components of the Large Hadron Collider got engineered and tested here. The Top quark was discovered in 1995 by both the CDF and DØ experiments of the Tevatron accelerator at Fermilab. The 2008 Nobel price was given for the prediction of the third generation of quarks (Bottom and Top quarks). Fermilab visitors are allowed to visit two buildings on their own: the first and ground floor of Wilson Hall and the Lederman Science Center, Groups of six or more must book a visit by calling the Center.
- Lawrence Berkeley Nation Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) (Lab bus from the Berkeley downtown BART station, otherwise 15min walk uphill). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was founded in 1931 by Ernest Orlando Lawrence. 13 Nobel prizes have been awarded to LBNL scientists, the most recent one (2011) for the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. It started as a particle physics laboratory, became involved for the study of nuclear matter and discovered 16 chemical elements. It is today a multi-programm research site. Visitors need special clearance or may take advantage of the open days. The site on top of the hill nicely overlooks the San Francisco Bay.
- Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (7 miles from the center of the city of Oak Ridge), ☎ , e-mail: ORNLvisit@ornl.gov. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram science and energy laboratory, with scientific and technical capabilities spanning from basic to applied research. ORNL is famous to host the Titan supercomputer. The Spallation Neutron Source is an accelerator-based neutron source facility that provides the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. Oak Ridge National Laboratory hosts thousands of visitors every year. It is very important, if you are not a DOE or DOE contractor employee, to arrange your visit to ORNL ahead of time.
- Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, WA. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has many research projects for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the National Nuclear Security Administration. All PNNL visitors, regardless of nationality, will need to have visitor badges to go past the Lobby.
- Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), 100 Stellarator Road Princeton, NJ, 08540 (NJ Transit Northeast Corridor line train (southbound) to Trenton Station / switch to the SEPTA R7 train to Philadelphia; From the West Trenton Station (I-95 south, exit 2, Bear Tavern Road south) take the SEPTA R3 train to Philadelphia), ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. M-F 09:00-14:00. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory researches plasma physics and nuclear fusion science. PPPL is located on Princeton University's Forrestal Campus. The free tours are led by engineers and physicists who can answer questions about magnetic fusion. In order to visit email to request a tour and give PPPL two weekdays when you would like to visit and some background on your group, including where your group is from, how many people are in your group, the age-range and the educational background of your group.
- SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, SLAC), Sand Hill Road. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory does experimental and theoretical research in elementary particle physics using electron beams and a broad program of research in atomic and solid-state physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine using synchrotron radiation. It discovered the charm quark, the quark structure inside the protons and neutrons and the tau lepton (3 Nobel prizes). At this time, all public and educational tours of the laboratory have been suspended. SLAC hopes to have them back and asks to check their website periodically for updates.
- Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), Newport News, VA, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. May 17, 2014 9AM-3PM. The Jefferson Lab main facility is the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, which is 1400m in length and accelerates electrons up to 6 GeV. The most powerful free-electron laser in the world has an output of over 14 kilowatts. The lab has an open house once a year that includes a tour of the accelerator tunnel and the free electron laser. No registration of visitors is required during the open house. The open house tours involve extended periods of walking, and many tour stops include stairs. Also, much of the event is outdoors. Free.
- Biosphere 2, 32540 A Biosphere Rd, Mile marker 96.5, Oracle, AZ (.5 hour north of Tucson on Hwy 77), ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. 9AM-4PM daily, no reservations required. This facility was designed as an artificially closed complete ecology, and was the setting for research on human interaction with natural systems. The site is now owned and maintained by the University of Arizona, which conducts tours for the public. Beware that the scientific credentials of the initial project phase is quite unclear as it started as theatre group. For example no input was taken from the Antarctic research stations, where researcher experience extreme confinement. $20/adults, $13/children.
- Stjerneborg observatory, Hven Island, Sweden - observatory Tycho Brahe's.
- Mt Graham International Observatory, 1651 W Discovery Park Blvd, Safford, AZ (Discovery Park Campus), ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. May-Oct, depending on weather. Operated by the University of Arizona and situated in the Pinaleño Mountains west of Safford, this observatory offers periodic tours for the public. Reservations required, preferably two or more weeks in advance. Tours depart from the Discovery Park Campus in Safford. $40/person, includes lunch.
- Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tohono O'Odham Reservation, AZ (90 minutes southwest of Tucson), ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. 9AM-3:45PM daily. Operates several astronomical telescopes plus a large solar telescope. Several guided tours are available, as well as a nightly observation program (reservations required). $9.75 for all three tours (adults).
- Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, 670 Mt Hopkins Rd, Amado, AZ (one hour due south of Tucson off I-19), ☎ . M-F 8:30AM-4:30PM. Call ahead for tour information.
- European Southern Observatory
- New Technology Telescope, La Silla, Chile
- Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile
- Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, Llano de Chajnantor, Chile
The most prestigious universities generally attract excellent scientists and have fine science programs. University campuses are usually open to the public, though permission from guards is sometimes required, and there may be some café or cafeteria or mensa or restaurant or even a university shop on site. Universities usually offer public lectures about ongoing research. Otherwise, their seminars and buildings are reserved for the students and the working faculty including post-doctoral researchers or professors. Universities compete on a worldwide basis; hence, they are not ordered by geographical position or alphabetized. Below is a list of the 20 highest-ranked universities according to 2013/2014 QS world university ranking (of course rankings may differ according to year and specific subject).
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Harvard University (Harvard). Established in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard is the oldest institution of higher education in the United States.
- University of Cambridge (Cambridge), The Old Schools, Trinity Lane, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK. The University of Cambridge is a collegiate research university in Cambridge, England. It was founded in 1209 making it the the world's third-oldest university. It includes 31 constituent colleges and academic departments which are organised into six Schools. 90 Nobel laureates count as affiliated.
- University College London (UCL), Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom, ☎ . University College London is a public research university in London, England. It is based in the heart of London. It was founded in 1826. There are 27 Nobel Prize winners and three Fields Medallists amongst UCL's alumni and current and former staff.
- Imperial College London (Imperial), South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, ☎ . Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, England specialised in science, engineering, medicine and business. The former constituent college of the federal University of London became independent in 2007. Imperial is locate in Central London. It lists currently 15 Nobel laureates and two Fields Medallists amongst Imperial's alumni and current and former faculty.
- University of Oxford
- Stanford University (Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford). Stanford University is a private research university in Stanford, California founded in 1885.
- Yale University (Yale). Yale University is a private research university located in New Haven, Connecticut. Fifty-one Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the University as students, faculty, or staff.
- University of Chicago (UChicago, Chicago). The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois.
- California Institute of Technology
- Princeton University
- ETH Zürich (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich). This Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is is an engineering, science, technology, mathematics and management university. Twenty-one Nobel Prizes have been awarded to students or professors, the most famous of which is Albert Einstein in 1921. It is currently the top-ranked university in continental Europe.
- University of Pennsylvania
- Columbia University
- Cornell University
- John Hopkins University
- University of Edinburgh
- University of Toronto
- Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
- King's College London (KCL)
- Boltzmann's grave, Zentralfriedhof, Vienna. The Boltzmann equation was originally formulated by Ludwig Boltzmann between 1872 to 1875. It relates the entropy S of an ideal gas to the quantity W, which is the number of microstates corresponding to a given macrostate. In the ideal gas limit it exactly corresponds to the proper thermodynamic entropy.
- Schrödinger's grave, Alpbach. The Schrödinger equation is a partial differential equation that describes how the quantum state of some physical system evolves with time. It was formulated in late 1925. It is inscribed above his name on his grave site.