- 1 Caltanissetta (Nissa or Cartanisetta) — the capital
- 2 Gela — one of the most important old Greek cities, archaeological centre e sea resort on the south coast
- 3 Santa Caterina Villarmosa (Santa Catarina)
Other than common central-western Sicilian food, Caltanissetta Province has a very unique pastry-making tradition, in large part based on the use of ricotta cheese. Typical pastries not found anywhere outside of the Province and its capital city are:
- Rollò. Made of ricotta cheese cream and almond paste, rolled in a sponge cake.
- Raviola. A fried puff pastry pocket filled with ricotta cheese cream.
- Spina Santa. and Crocetta. They are two types of pastries traditionally prepared by the nuns of the monastery of the Holy Cross in Caltanissetta. Their recipes got lost in 1908 and have been recently rediscovered by a local artisan, who keeps them secret and has only shared them with four pious women belonging to the Holy Cross parish.
Common street food found in many places around the province:
- Arancine. Fried rice balls usually filled with tomato sauce and meat, although other variants are common.
- Panelle. Fried chickpea fritters.
- Stigghiole. Roasted lamb guts, seasoned and rolled around a leek.
Furthermore, the famous Cannolo (a fried tube of pastry dough filled with ricotta cheese cream) was invented in Caltanissetta, although the exact origin is debated. Historian Pino Correnti claims it was first produced by some nuns in a monastery in the city, while the tradition predates it to Arabic times and claims it was invented by the women in the harem of the city Emir, who were living in the Pietrarossa castle. Nowadays it's possible to taste this delicacy in most pastry shops in all towns of the province.