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Chittagonian (চিটাইঙ্গা / চাটগাঁইয়া ৱাশা) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Rangamati, Bandarban & Khagrachhari in Bangladesh. It is not mutually intelligible with Bangla and it has its own grammar, phonology and vocabulary. That's why it is considered by linguists to be a separate language. It is estimated to have 14 million speakers, United States and other countries. According to the status of Top 100 Languages by Population by Ethnologue, Chittagong ranked 75th of the world.

Grammar[edit]

Chittagonian grammar is similar to that of Bangla, with significant variations in inflectional morphology (prefixes, suffixes, particles, etc.), and some variation in word order. Like related languages of the eastern subcontinent, Chittagonian is a head-final language, with a subject–object–verb basic word order. Like Assamese (Ôxômiya) but unlike Bengali (Bangla), Chittagonian has preverbal negation. This means that the negative particle will precede the verb in Chittagonian, where the corresponding Bangla version would have a negative particle following the verb.

Bangla: Ami jabo na

Chittagonian: Añi no zeiyum

The following is a sample text in Chittagonian of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations):

দ়ারা ১: বিয়াক্ মানুশ ইজ্‌জত এদ্দে অ়কর্ ই়শাফে আজাদ্ আর্ ও়ঁৰাইন্‌না অ়ইয়েরে ফ়য়দা অ়য়্। ই়তারাত্‌তু আহল্ এদ্‌দে বিবেক্ আস়ে; এ়তল্‌লায়্ এজ্‌জন্ আরেজ্‌জনর্ ও়ঁৰারে ৱেইয়র না৴ন বেৱার গরন দরহারি।
— Chittagonian in the Chittagonian alphabet

Dàra ek: Biàk manush izzôt edde òkor ìshafe azad ar òwainna òiyere foyda òy. ìtarattu ahôl edde bibek asè; ètollay ezzon arezzonor òöware bèiyôr nān bebàr gôrônnan dôrhari.
— Chittagonian in transcription, faithful to pronunciation.

Clause 1: All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do. Their reason and intelligence is; therefore everyone-indeed one another's towards brotherhood-ly attitude taken conduct do should.
— Word to word gloss.

Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
— Translation.

Classification[edit]

Chittagonian is a member of the Bengali-Assamese sub-branch of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages, a branch of the wider and more vast Indo-European language family. Its sister languages include Sylheti (Cilôţi), Bengali (Bangla), Assamese (Ôxômiya), Oriya, the Bihari languages, and also less directly all other Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi. Like other Indo-Aryan languages, it is derived from Pali, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European.

Vocabulary/Lexis[edit]

Like Bangla, most of the vocabulary of Chittagonian is derived from Sanskrit. It also, like Bengali, includes a significant number of imported words from Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, as well as, to a lesser extent, Portuguese. In addition, English words are widely used in spoken Chittagonian, just as it is in almost all other Indian languages, as a result of the legacy of the British Empire. Although much of the vocabulary of Chittagonian Bengali is the same as standard Bangla, there are several distinguishing features. The contribution of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish words to Chittagonian Bengali is far greater than that to standard. This is because Chittagong was a port city that was open to traders from Arabia, Persia and Turkey since ancient times, naturally absorbing their words. This is also meant that Chittagonians were amongst the first to convert to Islam an d consequently, as Muslims, they were further influenced by Arabic, Persian, and Turkish vocabulary, as these were the languages spoken by the Muslims of the time, especially the traders. Among Europeans, the Portuguese colonists were amongst the first to reach Bengal, and Chittagong as a port city, was for a time under the administration of the Portuguese. This has meant that there is a larger proportion of Portuguese loanwords in the usage of Chittagonian speakers than that of standard Bengali speakers.

Sounds/Phonology[edit]

Fricatives Chittagonian is distinguished from Bangla by its large inventory of fricatives, which often correspond to plosives in Bangla. For example, the Chittagonian voiceless velar fricative [x] (like the Arabic "kh" or German "ch") in [xabar] corresponds to the Bangla voiceless aspirated velar plosive [kʰ], and the Chittagonian voiceless labiodental fricative [f] corresponds to the Bangla voiceless aspirated bilabial plosive [pʰ]. Some of these pronunciations are used in eastern dialects of Bangla as well.

Nasal vowels[edit]

Nasalization of vowels is contrastive in Chittagonian, as with other Eastern Indic languages. A word can change its meaning solely by changing an oral vowel into a nasal vowel, as in আর ar "and" vs. আঁর ãr "my". Below are examples of Chittagonian phrases that include nasal vowels. How are you (Bengali: তুমি কেমন আছ?): -তুঁই কেন আসো? Tñui ken aso? / অনে কেন আসন ? Ône ken ason? I am fine (Bengali: আমি ভাল আছি।): -আঁই গম আসি। Añi gom asi. I am not fine (Bengali: আমি ভাল নাই।): -আঁই গম নাই । Añi gom nai. I am not feeling well. (Bengali: আমার ভাল লাগছে না।): -আঁত্তে গম ন লা৴র। Añtte gom no lār. I will play Cricket (Bengali:আমি ক্রিকেট খেলব।): -আঁই ক্রিকেট ক়েইল্যম । Añi kriket kèillom । I don't want to eat anymore,i am full (Bengali:আর খেতে ইচ্ছে করছে না, পেট ভরা।):-আঁত্তে আর হ়াইত মনত ন হর, ফেট ৱরি গিয়্যই। Añtte ar hàito monot no hor, fet bòri gioi. Where are you (Bengali: তুমি কোথায়?): -তুঁই হন্ডে? Tñui honde? What's your name (Bengali: তোমার নাম কী?): -তোঁয়ার নাম কী? Tñuar nam ki? My name is _(whatever your name is) (Standard Bengali: আমার নাম নয়ন।): -আঁর নাম নয়ন। Añr nam _(whatever your name is). I miss you (Bengali: তোমার অভাব অনুভব করছি): -তোঁয়ার লাই আঁর ফেড ফুরের। Tñuar lai añr fed furer. I miss you too.(Bengali: আমিও তোমার অভাব অনুভব করছি): -তোঁয়ার লাইঅ আঁর ফেড ফুরের। Tñuar laiô añr fed furer./-আঁত্তেঅ তোঁয়ার লাই ফেড ফুরের। Añtteô Tñuar lai fed furer. I love you (Bengali: আমি তোমাকে ভালবাসি): -আঁত্তে তুঁয়ারে বেশি গম লা৴য়। Añtte tñure beshi gom lage. Where are you going (Bengali: তুমি কোথায় যাচ্ছ?): -- তুঁই হন্ডে যর? Tñui honde zor? Where are you from? (Bengali: তুমি কোথা থেকে আসছ?): - তুঁই হত্তুন আইশ্যু ? Tñui hottun aishshu? Where do you live? (Bengali: তুমি কোথায় থাক?): -- তুঁই হন্ডে ত়াহ ?Tñui honde tàho? I live in _(where ever you live) (Bengali:আমি সুলতান মাস্টার বাড়ী, বেঙ্গুরা, বোয়ালখালি তে থাকি।): - Añi _t(where ever you live) tàhi. I'm sad. (Bengali: আমার মন ভালো নেই।): - আঁর দিল গম নাই। Añr dil gom nai. Chittagong is in my heart. (Bengali: হৃদয়ে চট্টগ্রাম ।):সিটাঙ আঁর হইলজার টুঁ৴রো। Sitang añr hoilzar tñūro.

Word Order[edit]

Chittagonian word order is subject - object - verb.

( ই়তারা হামত যার গুই ।) Ítara(They) hamót(to work) zar gui(go).

Subjectt Object Verb
Añi(I) bát(rice) hài(eat).
Ité(He) TV(TV) sāy(watches).
Ití(She) sairkélot(bicycle) sorér(is riding ).

Writing system[edit]

Chittagonian is being written in Bengali script and Latin script.

Phrase list[edit]

Basics[edit]

Common signs


OPEN
(kùilla)
CLOSED
(bôn)
ENTRANCE
(Gòlon duar)
EXIT
(Niyolon)
PUSH
(Dàkka don)
PULL
(Tanon)
TOILET
(Tattihàna) (formal)
(Fehàna) (Commonly used)
MEN
(Morodfua)
WOMEN
(Meifua)
FORBIDDEN
(Mana)


Hello.

(Assalamualaikum)

How are you?

(Ône kên ason?) (formal)
(Tñui kên aso?) (informal)
(Tui ken asos?) (Used with close friends and younger relatives)

(I'm) fine.

(Añi) gom (asi).

Good morning.

(Shubò beinna) (formal)

Good evening.

(Shubò àzuinna). (formal)

Good night.

(Shubò rait). (highly formal)

What is your name?

(Ônor naam ki?) (formal)
(Tñuar naam ki?) (informal)
(Tur naam ki?) (When asking a child)

I'm ______ .

(Añi ______)

My name is ______ .

(Añr naam ______) .

Nice to meet you.

(Ônor lo deha oiyene gom leigge.) (formal)
(Tñuar lo deha oiyene gom leigge.) (informal)
(Tur lo deha oiyene gom leigge.) (When speaking to a very young person/ younger family member)

Please.

(Mērbani gori) (formal)

Thank you.

(Shukria) (formal)

You're welcome.

(Khosh amded)
Please don't mind.

(Kisu mono no goirgun) (formal)
(Kisu mono no goirgo) (informal)

Yes.

(Òy), (Ji).

No.

(Ji na) (formal)
(Na) (informal)

A little.

(Ekkana)

Excuse me. (getting attention)

(Sāi ekkana)
(Owa) (Both getting attention and finding someone while passing by)

When addressing someone...

(Bodda) (when addressing a man of similar age)
(Bobbu) (when addressing a lady)

I love you

(Añi tñuare mōbbot gori)

I like you

(Añi tñuare foson gori)
(Añttun tñuare gom leigge)

I'm sorry.

(Maaf goirgun)

I'm very sorry.

(Añi beshabeshi sorry)

I made a mistake.

(Añi ekkan bùl gori feilli)

Forgive me.

Añre maaf goirgun (formal)
(Maf goirgo). (informal)

Goodbye

Hòda àfez
(Ta-Ta) (Informal)

See you soon

(Abar shōre dehà òibo)

Problems[edit]

Problem(s)

Mushkil

I can't speak Chittagonian (that well).

(Añi) sitainga (Eille gom gori) hoit nofari.

Do you speak English?

Ône ki Ingreji hōit faron na? (formal)
Tñui-ki Ingreji hōit faro na? (informal) Ingreji hō na? (Informal)

Is there someone here who speaks English?

Ende honikka ason na, ziba Ingreji hōit faron?

Help!

Basōn!
Modot goron!

Can you help me?

Ône ki añre modot gorit fariban na?

Look out!

Sāiyo!
Ùshiar!

I don't understand.

(Añi) buzinnofarir.
(Añi) buzit nofaillam.
(Añi) no buzilam.
(Añi) nō buzi.

Where is the toilet?

Tattihàna-wo honde?
bathroom honmikka?

Numbers[edit]

Chittagonian numerals


০ (Shuinno)
0 (Zero)
১ (Êk)
1 (One)
২ (Dui)
2 (Two)
৩ (Tin)
3 (Three)
৪ (Sair)
4 (Four)
৫ (Fñas)
5 (Five)
৬ (Sò)
6 (Six)
৭ (Shaat)
7 (Seven)
৮ (Ashto)
8 (Eight)
৯ (Nô)
9 (Nine)
0
Shuinno
1
Êk
2
Dui
3
Tin
4
Sair
5
Fñas
6
7
Shaat
8
Ashto
9
10
Dôsh
11
Êgaro
12
Baro
13
Têro
14
Soiddo
15
Fondro
16
Sholo
17
Shôtoro
18
Adàro
19
Unnish


20
Bish
21
Ekus
22
Bais
23
Teis
30
Tirish
40
Sollish
50
Fônsaish
60
Shait
70
Shottor
80
Ashi
90
Nobboi


100
Êk sho
1000
Êk àjar
10,000
Dôsh àjar
1,00,000 / 100,000
Lakk
10,00,000 / 1,000,000
Dôsh lakk
1,00,00,000 / 10,000,000
Kuti

Time[edit]

Time

অক্ত Ôkto

Clock time[edit]

9:45

Fone Dosh ta

10:00

Dosh ta

10:15

Show-aa-Dosh ta

10:30

Share Dosh ta

Duration[edit]

Week (shôfta)[edit]

Monday

Shombar

Tuesday

Moñlbar

Wednesday

Buitbar

Thursday

Bishudbar

Friday

Shukkurbar

Saturday

Shonibar

Sunday

Rōibar

Months[edit]

Gregorian calendar[edit]

In everyday life, most Chittagonians use the Gregorian Calendar.

January
জানুয়ারি (january)
February
ফেব্রুয়ারি (february)
March
মার্চ (march)
April
এপ্রিল (april)
May
মে (may)
June
জুন (june)
July
জুলাই (july)
August
আগস্ট (aagost)
September
সেপ্টেম্বর (september)
October
অক্টোবর (october)
November
নভেম্বর (november)
December
ডিসেম্বর (december)
Chittagonian calendar[edit]

Boishak: বইশাক় (Bôishakh)
Joishtho: জেট়/জের (Jyôishţhô)
Ashar: আশার
Shōn: শ৴ন
Bàdo: ৱাদঅ
Ashin: আশিন
Hati: হাতি
Ôñn: অঁ৴ন
Fūsh: ফু৴শ
Mag: মাগ়
Fōn: ফ়৴ন
Soit: সইত

Writing time and date[edit]

Colors[edit]

black

Hala

white

Shada

red

Lal

pink

golabi

orange

Hoñla

yellow

Òloidda

green

Hñosso

blue

Nila

purple

Bayuni

Bus & Train[edit]

Directions[edit]

here

ende

there

ènde

(on/to the) right

dain (mikka)

(on/to the) left

bam (mikka)

(on/to the) north

utur (mikka)

(on/to the) south

doin (mikka)

(on/to the) east

fug (mikka)

(on/to the) west

fosim (mikka)

straight

uzu/shida

in front

sammodi/mundi

behind

fise
fis mikka/barisdi

Go (___).

(___) zon. (formal)
(___) zo.

Turn around (___).

(___) Gùron. (formal)
(___) Gùro.

Keep going (___).

(___) Zaat tàhon. (formal)
(___) Zaat tàho.

Stop (___).

(___) Tìyon. (formal)
(___) Tìyo.

Taxi[edit]

Lodging[edit]

Do you have any rooms available?
হনঅ রুম ৱারা ফন যেইবোনা? (hono room bàra fon zeibona?)
How much is a room for one person/two people?
এক/দুইজনর লাই দর হত? (Ek/Duijonor lai dor hoto?)
Does the room come with...
রুমত কি ... আসেনা? (Roomot ki ... asena?)
...bedsheets?
বেশ্যিট (besshit?)
...a bathroom?
উগ্যো টাট্টিহ়ানা? (uggo tattihàna?)
...a telephone?
উগ্যো টেলিফোন? (uggo telephone?)
...a TV?
উগ্যো টিভি? (uggo tv?)
May I see the room first?
আঁই কি রুম্মো আগদি সা৴ইত্তাইজ্জুম না? (Añi ki roomwo agodi sāittaijjum na?)
Do you have anything quieter?
ইবাত্তুন নিমাতারা রুম আসেনা? (Ibattun nimatara room asena?)
...bigger?
(ইবাত্তুন) ডঁ৴র? ((Ibattun) dñōr?)
...cleaner?
ইবাত্তুন সা৴ফ? (Ibattun saaf?)
...cheaper?
ইবাত্তুন অ়স্তা? (Ibattun òsta?)
OK, I'll take it.
টিগাসে, আঁই ইবা লইয়ুম। (Tigase, añi iba loiyum.)
I will stay for _____ night(s).
আঁই_____ রাইত ত়াইক্কুম। (Añi _____ rait tàikkum.)
Can you suggest another hotel?
অনে কি অইন্য হনঅ ও়টেলর নাম হইত ফারিবান না? (Ône ki oinno hono òtelor nam hoit fariban na?)
Do you have a safe?
অনত্তুন শিন্দুক/সেফ আসেনা? (Ônottun shinduk/safe asena?)
...lockers?
লকার? (locker?)
Is breakfast/supper included?
নাস্তা/রাইতুর হ়ানা উ়দ্যো? (Nastaa/raitur hàna ùddo?)
What time is breakfast/supper?
নাস্তা/রাইতুর হানা হটা বাজে? (Nastaa/raitur hàna hota baze?)
Please clean my room.
রুম্মো সা৴ফ গরন? (roomwo saaf goron.)
Can you wake me at _____?
অনে কি আঁরে _____ -টার ই়ক্কা জাগাইত ফারিবান না? (Ône ki añre _____-tar ìkka zagait fariban na?)
I want to check out.
আঁই সেক আউট গইত্তম সাই। (Añi sek out goittom sai.)

Money[edit]

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars?
অনে কি আমেরিকান/অস্ট্রেলিয়ান/কানাডিয়ান ডলার লন না? (Ône ki American/Australian/Canadian dollar lon na?)
Do you accept British pounds?
অনে কি ব্রিটিশ ফাউন্ড লন না? (Ône ki British found lon na?)
Do you accept euros?
অনে কি ইউরো লন না? (Ône ki Euro lon na?)
Do you accept credit cards?
অনে কি ক্রেডিট কার্ড লন না? (Ône ki credit card lon na?)
Can you change money for me?
অনে কি আঁর তরফত্তুন টিঁয়া ভাঁইত ফারিবান না? (Ône ki añr torfottun tñia bàñait fariban na?)
Where can I get money changed?
আঁই হন্ডে টিঁয়া ভাঁইত ফারি? (Añi honde tñia bàñait fari?)
Can you change a traveler's check for me?
অঁনে কি আঁর তরফত্তুন উগ্যো ট্র্যাভেলার্স সেক ভাঁইত ফারিবান না? (Ône ki añr torfottun uggo traveler's sek bàñait fariban na?)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed?
আঁই হন্ডে উগ্যো ট্র্যাভেলার্স চেক ভাঁইত ফারি? (Añi honde uggo traveler's sek bàñait fari?)
What is the exchange rate?
বিনিময় দর হত? (Binimoy dor hoto?)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)?
অটোম্যাটিক টেলার মেশিন (এটিএম) হন্ডে? (Automatic teller machine (ATM) honde?)

See also:[edit]




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