|Currency||New Taiwan dollar (TWD)|
|Population||23.5 million (2016)|
|Electricity||110±0 volt / 60±0 hertz (Type A, Type B)|
|edit on Wikidata|
Taiwan (Traditional Chinese: 台灣 or 臺灣, Tái wān) is an island nation of about 36,000 km² located off the coast of southeastern mainland China, southwest of Japan's Okinawa and north of the Philippines. The island is officially known as and governed by the Republic of China (中華民國 Zhōnghuá Mínguó) or ROC. Shaped roughly like a sweet potato, the nation is home to more than 23 million people and is one of the most densely populated places in the world. Besides its crowded cities, Taiwan is also known for steep mountains and lush forests. In addition to the island of Taiwan, the Republic of China governs the tiny Pescadores (Penghu), Quemoy (Kinmen/Jinmen), and Matsu.
|Northern Taiwan (Hsinchu, Hsinchu County, Keelung, New Taipei, Taipei, Taoyuan, Yangmingshan National Park)
The capital city, main airport and technology hub of the island
|Central Taiwan (Changhua County, Miaoli County, Nantou County, Sun Moon Lake and Taichung)
Scenic mountains and lakes and major national parks
|Eastern Taiwan (Yilan County, Hualien, Hualien County, Taitung County, Taroko Gorge, Taitung)
Hualien and Taitung are cut off from the rest of the island by the central mountains; this is a region of great natural beauty
|Southern Taiwan (Chiayi County, Kaohsiung, Pingtung County, Tainan and Yunlin County)
The tropics of Taiwan with beaches and palm trees and the second largest city
|Outlying Islands (Kinmen and Matsu, just off the coast of mainland China's Fujian Province, Penghu in the straits, Green Island and Orchid Island, east of Taiwan)
Small islands that are popular getaway destinations with the locals.
- Taipei (臺北 or 台北) is the seat of government of Taiwan ROC, as well as the center of commerce and culture. Taipei is also home to Taipei 101, one of the world's tallest skyscrapers.
- Hsinchu (新竹) is a center of hi-tech industry, and one of the world's leading manufacturers of hi-tech components. Hsinchu Science Park is the home to many hi-tech companies.
- Hualien (花蓮) is located near Taroko Gorge, and is considered one of the most pleasant of Taiwan's cities.
- Jiufen (九份) - this former gold mining town located on the northeast coast is now a popular tourist destination.
- Kaohsiung (高雄) is the second-largest city on the island. It has one of the busiest sea ports (the Port of Kaohsiung) in the world and it has the island's second-largest airport, Kaohsiung International Airport (KHH IATA).
- Keelung (基隆) is the a center of transshipment in the north, and is located about a thirty minute drive or a twenty minute bicycle ride from downtown Taipei.
- New Taipei (新北) is the most populous city of Taiwan. The area includes a substantial stretch of Taiwan's northern coastline and surrounds the Taipei Basin.
- Puli (埔里) is located at the geographical center of the island, making it a good base for exploring the central mountains and Sun Moon Lake.
- Tainan (臺南 or 台南) is the oldest city in Taiwan and was the capital during imperial times. It is famous for its historic buildings.
People tend to think of Taiwan as a small, crowded island filled mostly with electronic factories, and if you stay in Taipei or along the west coast you might indeed maintain that impression. However, the island is also home to high mountain ranges, great beaches and stunning national parks - many with hot springs.
- Alishan (阿里山) - misty forests of giant cypresses and amazing sunrises at the center of the island, reached by a scenic narrow-gauge train
- Kenting National Park (墾丁國家公園) - located at the extreme southern tip of the island, this park is famous for its beaches and lush vegetation.
- Shei-pa National Park (雪霸國家公園) - a park spanning mountains and rivers located in Hsinchu County - great hiking trails
- Sun Moon Lake (日月潭) - nestled at 762 m (2,500 ft) in lofty mountains in Nantou County, this lake is famous for its clear sparkling blue water and picturesque mountain backdrop.
- Taipingshan (太平山) - a historic logging area and one of Taiwan's most scenic spots. Located in Yilan County.
- Taroko Gorge (太魯閣峽谷 Tàilǔgé)- an impressive gorge located off the east coast
- Yangmingshan National Park (陽明山國家公園) - spanning a mountain range overlooking Taipei
- Yushan (Jade Mountain/玉山) - at 3,952 m (12,966 ft) the highest mountain in not just Taiwan, but in the entire eastern 2/3 of East Asia
- Lalashan (拉拉山) - in Taoyuan County. "Lala" means "beauty" in the indigenous Atayal language. Mt. Lala is one of natural protection zones in Taiwan. There are some 500-to-2,800-year-old "divine" trees including the No. 5 divine tree, which is reputedly even older than Confucius. Lalashan is best known for its peach trees, and peach season (July - August) is the most beautiful time to visit Mt. Lala.
Taiwan is home to a large number of impressive scenic sites, and Taipei is a cultural center of entertainment and leisure activities. The island is also a center of Chinese pop culture with a substantial entertainment industry. Taiwanese cuisine is also highly praised.
The Japanese enjoy taking short trips to come over and stay and enjoy its neighboring hospitalities. In recent years there is an increasing number of Chinese visiting the country. Taiwan is home to some of the well known international companies such as Acer, MSI, Asus, HTC, and Giant Bicycles, whose technologies are some of the most advanced in the world.
Taiwan has been populated for thousands of years by more than a dozen non-east Asian aboriginal tribes. Written history begins with the partial colonization of Taiwan by the Dutch and then the Portuguese in the early 17th century. (The old name of Taiwan, Formosa, comes from the Portuguese Ilha Formosa for "beautiful island".) Han Chinese immigrants arrived in significant numbers with the onset of European trade. Although controlled by the Dutch, the Ming loyalist Koxinga defeated the Dutch garrisons and set up Taiwan as a rump Ming Empire with the hope of reconquering Qing China. His grandson surrendered to the Qing in the late 1600s. Although contact between China and Taiwan dates back thousands of years, it was not until larger numbers of Han residents arrived during the Qing dynasty that Taiwan was formally integrated into the rest of China as part of Hokkien (Fujian) province. It became a separate province in 1887. Defeated by the Japanese, the Qing Empire ceded Taiwan to Japan under the terms of the treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895. Japan ruled the island all the way until the end of World War II in 1945, and exerted profound influences on its development. The island's entertainment and pop culture was and still is heavily influenced by that of Japan. Much of the Japanese-built infrastructure can still be seen on the island today, and has been in fact continuously used up to the present day (e.g. railroad crossing gates, administrative buildings, and the old port at Kaohsiung).
In the early 20th century, the Nationalists (Kuomintang, KMT, 國民黨) and Communists fought a major bloody civil war in mainland China. Although the two sides were briefly united against Japan during World War II, they quickly began fighting again after the war was over. Eventually, the Communists were victorious in 1949. The Nationalist government, the remnant of their army, and hundreds of thousands of supporters then fled to Taiwan. From Taipei, they continued to assert their right as the sole legitimate government of all China. Initially very repressive, the government began to loosen control in its fourth decade under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek's son, Chiang Ching-kuo. Taiwan also experienced rapid economic growth and modernisation under the leadership of Chiang Ching-kuo, becoming one of the world's richest and most modern economies and earning it a place as one of the East Asian Tigers. Today, Taiwan is generally regarded as a modern, developed economy, and still remains a leader in consumer electronics that is home to well-known computer brands such as Acer, Asus, Garmin, Gigabyte and HTC. Democratization began in earnest through the 1980s and 1990s, culminating with the first direct presidential elections in 1996, and the first peaceful transition of power between two political parties in 2000.
Taiwanese politics remain dominated by the issue of relations between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China, which still claims Taiwan as a "renegade province" and regularly threatens military action if Taiwan attempts to break away from the current awkward One China status quo, where both sides agree that there is only one Chinese nation, but disagree on whether that one nation is governed by the PRC or the ROC. To summarize a very complex situation, the Pan-Blue (泛藍) group spearheaded by the KMT supports eventual unification with the mainland when the political climate is right, while the Pan-Green (泛綠) group led by the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) supports eventual independence under the name "Taiwan". The split extends down to trivial issues like Chinese romanization — the KMT prefers the mainland's Hanyu pinyin, the DPP prefers a Taiwan-made variant called Tongyong pinyin — and political demonstrations and rallies, always turbulent, on occasion even turn violent.
Taiwan was originally populated by indigenous peoples that spoke various Austronesian languages, which are related to Malay, Tagalog and Indonesian. Today the remaining indigenous peoples make up only about 2% of the population, while the other 98% are considered ethnically Han Chinese. The ethnically Han Chinese are further split into Taiwanese, who make up about 84% of the population and whose culture is derived from people who migrated during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, as well as mainlanders, who make up about 14% of the population and whose families fled to Taiwan from the mainland after the communist takeover in China in 1949. Among the Taiwanese group, Hoklo (Minnan) speakers form the majority, which is about 70% of the population while the remaining 14% are largely Hakka speakers. There is also a sizeable Japanese community, with many of its members working in the entertainment industry.
The Taiwanese (who make up 84% of the Taiwan's population and are culturally Chinese) are to a large extent the descendants of immigrants from the mainland in recent centuries who intermarried with indigenous people. As a result, the genetic makeup of the Taiwanese is noticeably different from that of the mainlanders. In recent years there are also Vietnamese, Indonesian and Filipino migrant workers living harmoniously with other Asian minorities and Mainland Chinese immigrants. As for the 14 million post-1949 immigrants, they come from every province and consist of many non-Han residents.
Taiwanese culture is largely based on traditional Chinese culture, particularly that of Fujian province, because most Taiwanese are ethnic Chinese whose ancestors migrated to Taiwan from that region. However, due to recent historical events, Taiwanese culture has also somewhat diverged from that of mainland China. Substantial Japanese influences can be seen in modern Taiwanese culture because of 50 years of Japanese rule, and this can be seen in its cuisine and in its pop culture. In addition, the Japanese introduced baseball and hot-spring bathing to Taiwan, and these remain popular pastimes for the Taiwanese to this day. The Taiwanese have also retained many elements of traditional Chinese culture that have been lost in mainland China because Taiwan was spared from the excesses of the Cultural Revolution that devastated mainland China.
Lowland Taiwan has a marine tropical climate during the summer, with sweltering, humid weather (above 30°C, 86°F) from Jun-Sep. In the winter the weather is influenced by the nearby continent, and in the northern areas the temperature can go as low as 8°C at night. The best time of year to visit is from Oct-Dec, although even then occasional typhoons can spoil the fun. Spring is also nice, although it rains more than during autumn. During the typhoon season, the east coast bears the brunt of the damage as it is facing the Pacific Ocean.
On the other hand, when you head into the mountainous regions you will encounter more temperate conditions. Rapid weather change can endanger unprepared visitors, so advice on proper preparation should be obtained before visiting those areas. In fact, it snows every year on Taiwan's highest mountains and occasionally even on mountains like Alishan.
The Minguo (民國, ROC) calendar, counting years from the establishment of the ROC (1911), is commonly used in Taiwan. To convert a Minguo date to A.D., just add 1911. Months and days are according to the standard Gregorian calendar. 2014 is 103st Minguo. Most Taiwanese use the traditional Chinese lunar calendar for holidays.
Lunar New Year dates
The year of the Rooster started on 28 Jan 2017
As Taiwan is majority Han Chinese, traditional Chinese festivals are celebrated in Taiwan. Among the most notable are:
- Chinese New Year (春節). This is the most important festival for the Taiwanese and many shops and restaurants close on the first three days so it is not an ideal time to visit. However, the days leading up to the festival and the fourth to fifteenth days are ideal for soaking up the atmosphere and listening to Chinese New Year songs.
- Tomb Sweeping Day (Ching Ming Festival, 清明節). This is when many Taiwanese would pay respects at their ancestors' graves.
- Dragon Boat Festival (端午節). This festival honors Qu Yuan, a patriotic official from the state of Chu during the Warring States period of Chinese history who committed suicide by jumping into a river when Chu was conquered by Qin. To prevent the fishes from eating his body, villagers threw rice dumplings into the river to feed the fishes and rowed dragon boats with drums being beaten on them to scare away the fishes. Since then, dragon boat racing has been carried out on this day and rice dumplings are also eaten.
- Hungry Ghost Festival (Ghost Month, 中元節). This festival runs throughout the seventh month of the Chinese calendar. It is believed that the gates of hell open during this period and hungry ghosts are allowed to roam freely into our world. In order to appease the ghosts and prevent misfortune, many Taiwanese will offer food and burn joss paper for them. In addition, traditional Chinese performances such as Chinese opera and puppet shows are held to appease these wandering spirits.
- Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival, 中秋節). Legend has it that on this day, a woman known as Chang E swallowed some divine pills to prevent her power hungry husband from becoming immortal. Afraid of being killed by her husband, she fled to the moon and it is believed that the moon shines brightest on this day. This is when many lanterns will be put up for decoration in various parks and shops, which is quite a beautiful sight. Mooncakes are also eaten on this day so it would be an ideal time to try some.
Taiwan is largely mountainous with a chain of mountains running from north to south at the centre of the island. The west coast is largely plains and unsurprisingly is where most of the population is concentrated, and is where all the larger cities like Taichung and Kaohsiung are located. The east coast also has some plains but they are more sparsely populated due to the higher typhoon risk, but is also home to the cities of Hualien and Taitung with significant populations.
Baseball was brought to Taiwan by the Japanese during the colonial period. Its popularity rose greatly when the Taiwanese baseball team finished second in the Japanese national championships. Today, baseball retains a strong following and remains by far the most popular spectator sport in Taiwan. Several Taiwanese players have also gone on to successful careers in the U.S. Major League Baseball (MLB) and Japanese Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB), and the Taiwanese national team is considered to be one of the strongest in the world.
Besides baseball, basketball also has a sizeable following in Taiwan and is quite popular among teenagers. When the class is over, the basketball courts inside schools are not only open to students but also the public.
Billiard is another popular sport in Taiwan. It's easy to find billiard rooms throughout the country and there are also many championship-winning players in Taiwan, most of whom started training when they were still teens.
Other sports which are popular include Taekwondo, table tennis and golf.
Foreign nationals of the following 44 countries can enter Taiwan visa-free as a visitor provided that their passports are valid for at least 6 months upon entry:
For up to 90 days: All 28 European Union member states, Australia, Canada, Iceland, Israel, Japan, South Korea, Liechtenstein, Monaco, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, the United States, Vatican City
For up to 30 days: Malaysia, Singapore
Temporary policies: Australia (90 days until 31 December 2017), Brunei and Thailand (30 days until 31 July 2018)
If citizens of the above countries present an emergency or temporary passport, they will be required to apply for a landing visa on arrival by supplying a passport photo and paying a fee of NT$2400.
Citizens of Japan need only present a passport with at least 3 months' validity (rather than 6 months' validity) upon entry. Citizens of the United States can enter Taiwan on a passport with less than 6 months' validity on the date of arrival by supplying a passport photo and paying a fee of $184 USD or NT$5600.
Citizens of Canada and the United Kingdom can extend their stay for an extra 90 days (i.e. a total stay of up to 180 days) free of charge - more information is available on this Bureau of Consular Affairs information sheet.
Residents of Hong Kong and Macau who hold valid passports should apply for an entry permit, which can be done on arrival or online before departure if they were born in their respective territories or have been to Taiwan previously after 1983.
Residents of Mainland China (Chinese passport holders) may visit Taiwan for tourism if they join an approved guided tour since 2008. Residents in 13 cities of Mainland China have been permitted to travel to Taiwan individually since 2011.
Citizens of India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam who have a valid entry visa or permanent resident card issued by a Schengen country, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, the United Kingdom or the United States can obtain a 30-day Visa on Arrival after making an online application.
Detailed information about visas is available at the website of the Bureau of Consular Affairs. Taiwan does not have formal embassies in most of the world's countries (due to the 'One China' policy of mainland China preventing formal diplomatic relations with Taiwan). Instead Taiwan operates a "Taipei Representative Office" or something of a similar name in most major countries, and these act as de facto embassies and consulates that can issue Taiwanese visas.
- Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport (Taipei) (台灣桃園國際機場, formerly Chiang Kai-Shek International Airport 中正國際機場) (TPE IATA) is the primary international airport of Taiwan. Located 40 km to the southwest of Taipei, it has good connections to neighbouring countries and North America, and decent connections to Europe and Oceania. The airport has a MRT (metro/subway) connection to Taipei, and direct buses to Taipei, Taichung and other nearby cities. Alternatively, the MRT train and U-Bus company shuttles reach HSR Taoyuan station (台灣高鐵桃園站) for high-speed train connections to other cities; and to Zhongli (中壢) Station for mainline TRA (Taiwan Railways Administration 台灣鐵路管理局) train and southbound bus connections to Tainan, Hsinchu (新竹) etc.
- Kaohsiung International Airport (高雄國際機場) (KHH IATA) is the largest airport in southern Taiwan, with decent connections to neighbouring countries and domestic destinations.
- Songshan Airport (松山機場) (TSA IATA) is a smaller airport in downtown Taipei which serves mostly domestic flights with some flights to China, Tokyo Haneda Airport and Seoul Gimpo Airport.
- Taichung Airport (台中機場)(RMQ IATA) serves domestic and international flights to Hong Kong, Vietnam and China.
- Hualien Airport (花蓮機場) (HUN IATA) serves domestic flights and some international charter flights to Japan, South Korea and Macau. It is also one of the airports designated to serve cross-strait direct flights.
In addition, the airports at Makung (馬公), Taitung (台東) and Kinmen (金門) have been designated for cross-strait flights to mainland China, though of these, only Makung has regular flights to mainland China.
After a break of almost 60 years, regular cross-Strait flights between Taiwan and mainland China resumed in 2008, and travel times on some popular routes have been reduced significantly as flights no longer have to be routed through Hong Kong airspace.
All scheduled passenger ferry services between Taiwan and Japan have been suspended. Star Cruises operates limited cruise services from Keelung (基隆) and Kaohsiung (高雄) to Hong Kong and various Japanese islands.
From Fuzhou (福州), China, there are two daily ferries to Matsu (馬祖). Take bus 69 from Fuzhou train station to Wuyilu, then bus 73 to the end station Mawei harbor (馬尾港). The ferry costs RMB350 from China and NT$1300 from Taiwan. The trip takes two hours. From Matsu, there are two daily ferries to Keelung in Taiwan. NT$1050 includes a bed, as the trip takes 10 hours. Bookings can be made at +886 2 2424 6868.
At Mawei harbor in Fuzhou there is an opportunity to buy an inclusive ticket all the way to Taipei (臺北) that includes the Fuzhou to Matsu ferry above and a domestic flight from Matsu to Taipei (or Taichung). The price (RMB780) includes transfer between port and airport on Matsu, and a coupon for lunch at the airport while you wait for your connection. The ferry leaves Fuzhou at 09:30. Get to Mawei at 08:00 to buy tickets.
There are also several ferry services between Xiamen and Quanzhou on the mainland and the island of Kinmen (金門). Now there also is one weekly ferry from Dongdu Harbor (東渡碼頭) in Xiamen to Keelung, that leaves on Thursdays at 18:00 starting at less than RMB500, and one to Taichung leaving on Tuesdays. Call 0592-2393128 for information or 0592-6011758 for bookings from China. You can also check here for news.
The Cosco Star leaves Xiamen every Thursday at 18:00 and arrives in the north end of Taiwan (Keelung) at 08:30 the next morning. The ship also leaves Xiamen every Monday evening to arrive at the south end of Taiwan (Kaohsiung) the next morning and then central Taiwan (Taichung) the day after that. From Taiwan back to the mainland, the ship leaves Keelung every Sunday at 19:00, arriving Xiamen the next morning at 09:00. The ship also leaves Taichung every Wednesday at 21:00 for an overnight sailing to Xiamen. Prices start at NT$3500. See the website for more info.
Taiwan is fairly compact with a modern and efficient rail network, so flying is more of a luxury than a necessity when travelling around the main island. That being said, flying remains the most practical way to reach Taiwan's outlying islands.
Taiwan's main domestic carriers are Mandarin Airlines, a China Airlines subsidiary; and UNI Air, controlled by EVA. Flights are frequent, and it is usually unnecessary to book flights in advance. Taipei and Kaohsiung have regular services and links to most other domestic airports; however, it may not be possible to fly from one domestic airport to another. The popularity of the high-speed train has drastically cut flights on the once popular west coast sectors.
Fares for domestic flights are not too expensive, and local planes are very good. The domestic airport in Taipei is Songshan Airport, which is in the north of the Taipei and easily reached by taxi. Domestic destinations include Taitung, Hualien, Makung (Penghu/Pescadores), Kinmen, Hengchun, Nangan and Beigan. Travelers heading to Kenting can avail themselves of the direct and frequent bus service from Kaohsiung airport that connect with flights arriving from Taipei.
If you want to visit Taiwan's smaller islands, the plane is still the best option, and is the only practical option for travelling to Kinmen and the easiest method of reaching Penghu and Matsu. For travel to Green Island and Orchid Island, the plane from Taitung saves several hours over taking the ferry which is notorious among Taiwanese for its rough ride.
In mid-sized and smaller cities, your main reference point is going to be the train station.
Taiwan's train system is excellent, with stops in all major cities. Train stations are often located in the centers of most cities and towns and serve as a convenient hub for most types of transportation. In addition, the train system allows you to bypass the highways, which can become extremely crowded on weekends and national holidays.
The new train backbone is Taiwan High Speed Rail (HSR, 高鐵 gāotiě) , a high speed train based on Japanese Shinkansen technology that covers the 345 km (215 mi) route on the West Coast from Taipei to Zuoying (Kaohsiung) in 90 min. Other stops on the route are Banqiao, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi and Tainan, but many THSR stations have been built a fair distance from the cities they serve (e.g. a taxi from downtown Tainan costs up to NT$400, but there's a free shuttle bus). Taipei, Banciao, Taoyuan, and Kaohsiung (Zuoying) stations are connected with metro. Taichung stations is built next to a railway staiton, convenient to transfer to the city center. Hsinchu and Tainan stations are connected to the city center with branch railway lines. Other stations can only be reached by bus. A one way ticket from Taipei to Kaohsiung costs NT$1630 in economy or NT$2140 in business class, but economy seats have plush seats and ample legroom, so there's little reason to pay extra. All signage and announcements are in English as well, making navigation a snap. Bookings are accepted online and via phone up to two weeks in advance at +886-2-6626-8000 (English spoken), with payment required only when you pick up the tickets. Credit cards are accepted.
Bookings can be easily made by internet, and you can pay online or pay and pick up your tickets at almost every FamilyMart and 7-Eleven. You can also avoid the queues for long distance tickets at major stations by buying your tickets from the automated ticket machines. The English prompts on the automated machines are hard to spot but they are present,usually in the top left corner of the screen. The stations and platforms are wheelchair-friendly and all trains include a wheelchair-accessible car (wider doors, ample space, accessible bathroom). The Tfficial English guide for online reservations distinguishes between "senior or disabled tickets" and "handicap-friendly seats"; while it's possible to buy a ticket for the former online ("correct passenger ID" required), a ticket for the latter has to be reserved by calling the ticketing office on the phone. Early Bird tickets are sold from 28 days before the day, and the discount to is up to 35% off.
Mainline trains are run by the separate Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA, 台鐵) , whose services are generally efficient and reliable. Reserving tickets well in advance is recommended when traveling with the train on weekends, especially for long distance travel. Slower (but more frequent) commuter trains without reserved seating are also available. Train timetables and online booking (up to 2 weeks in advance) are available on the TRA website for 24 hours. BookBng online only establishes a reservation as there is no Internet payment option. You must pay for the tickets you reserved at your local train station or post office to actually receive it. You can also buy the tickets of TRA in convenient stores now (you can reserve first and take tickets in convenient stores). The way to buy tickets is same to high speed rail's. Children under 115 cm (45 in) height go free, and taller kids shorter than 150 cm (59 in) and under 12 years of age get half-price tickets. If you get return tickets there is a small discount depending upon travel distance. There are also vending machines at the larger stations.
It is good for you to know the card "easycard"(悠遊卡), which you can buy in any of stations of Taipei MRT and most convenient stores. It was sold in the price of NT$200, with NT$100 deposit. You can pay by easycard in Taipei MRT, bus all over Taiwan, convenient stores, and some restaurants and shops. When you want to add money into the card, you can do in MRT stations, TRA stations, and convenient stores. You can use it to take TRA train as well. The price is calculated with the price of local train and 10% off discount. However, you can even take Tzu-Chiang limited express, although without reserved seat. The usage range is divided into two different parts: northern Taiwan (Fulong, Rueifang, Keelung, Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Miaoli, Pinghsi line, and Neiwan line) and southern Taiwan (Chiayi, Tainan, Kaohsiung, Pingtung, Shalun line). You CAN't use it from northern Taiwan to southern Taiwan
Aside from THSR, the fastest train is Tzu-Chiang (limited express), and the slowest is Pingkuai (Ordinary/Express). There is often little to choose between prices and destination times for adjacent train classes, but the gap can be quite large between the fastest and the slowest.
- Tze-Chiang (自強 ziqiang): The fastest (and most expensive). Assigned seating. Non-reserved (standing) tickets are also sold at full price. There are Taroko and Puyuma for Hualien, which only sell reserved tickets.
- Chu-Kuang (莒光 juguang): Second fastest. Assigned seating. In western Taiwan, it is as slow as local train; in eastern Taiwan, it is still a fast, convenient train.
- local train (區間 qujian) : Short to medium distance commuter train, stops at all stations. No assigned seating. There is few local-fast train, which doesn't stop at every station.
- Express / Ordinary (普通 putong): Stops at all stations, no air conditioning, most inexpensive. No assigned seating. Some Express trains (the light blue ones running on West Trunk Line) are air-conditioned while others (dark blue ones) are not equipped with air conditioners.
For travel to nearby cities, you can travel on local commuter trains. These arrive very frequently (about once every ten to fifteen minutes). In addition, "standing tickets" may be purchased on trains with assigned seating that have no available seats. Standing tickets are 80% the original ticket price and may be useful for last minute travelers. The downside is, of course, that you will be required to stand during your entire trip.
Also, try to get your destination station written in Chinese and try to do some "mix and match" with the system map. Look out for the matching Chinese characters written on the station. Announcements are only made in Mandarin, Taiwanese and Hakka, so English would not be of much help in the train. Therefore, be alert and always be on the lookout for your destination station, or you risk missing it. It is good for you to ask a passenger to tell you when you are arriving, and it is useful.
Similar to Japan and South Korea, Taiwan also offers several rail passes to foreign tourists for unlimited train travel within a stipulated period.
The TR Pass can be used by foreigners for unlimited travel on TRA lines for a stipulated period of time. The TR Pass can be bought at railway stations in Taiwan. The TR pass also allows you to reserve seats for free on trains that have assigned seating.
|3 Days||5 Days|
|full price||reduced price||4-person-group||full price||reduced price||4-person-group|
- The 4-person-group ticket must be used by four people simultaneously.
- You cannot take the high-speed rail, since it is not operated by the TRA.
- Validity has to be for consecutive days.
- Reduced apply children (age 7-12), senior citizens (age 65+) and disabled people.
- TR Pass Student
The student version of the TR Pass is significantly cheaper than the general version, though unlike the general version, it is not valid for use on Tzu-Chiang limited express trains, and also cannot be used to ride in train cars with reserved seating. In order to qualify for this pass, you will need to show your passport and a valid International Student Identity Card (ISIC)
Ticket types and prices:
- 5-day ticket: NT$599
- 7-day ticket: NT$799
- 10-day ticket: NT$1098
The Taiwan High Speed Rail also issues a separate THSR Pass for use on the high speed rail trains. These cost NT$2400 for a regular 3-day pass, or NT$3200 for a flexible 3-day pass. While a regular 3-day pass must be used in 3 consecutive days, the 3 days in a flexible 3-day pass may be spread out over any 7-day period. The 5-day joint passes allow for unlimited rides on the high speed rail for 2 days within a 5 day period, and unlimited rides on TRA lines within the same 5-day period. These cost NT$2800 for a standard pass, which does not allow you to ride on Tzu-Chiang trains, and NT$3600 for an express pass, which allows you to ride on all TRA lines. The THSR passes may only be used by foreigners who are in Taiwan on tourist visas (or visa exemptions), and must be purchased from travel agents overseas before you arrive in Taiwan.
Taiwan has an extensive bus network, run mostly by private bus companies. Travelling by bus is generally cheaper than by train, especially for long-distance trips. However, on holidays, travel time may be much longer and tickets are more likely to be sold out. There are two categories: intercity buses (客運) and local buses (公車). Google Maps is a quick way to find a route to your destination, but is not always reliable, especially for trips with changes.
Taiwan Tourist Shuttle is a set of distinctly branded bus routes (some intercity, some local) that serve tourist sites, and are generally easier to use than regular routes. The official website offers route maps, timetables and recommended itineraries, but is somewhat confusing to navigate. There is, however, a toll-free number for inquiries. There are also information desks at major transport hubs.
To find an intercity route, and information such as operator, timetables and fares, one can use the Highway Bus Information System website. The site is not completely reliable and may contain errors, but is generally quite helpful. Despite the "Express For Highway Bus" on the top panel, most intercity routes can be found regardless of type. Intercity routes generally have a four-digit number, and can be found by searching with start and end regions/areas. Note that there are often different variants of the same number. The "Bus Line" tab allows searching by route number or other methods. It is recommended to visit the official website of the bus company for more accurate details. A manual search is needed for this as there are no links on the site.
Many cities have local buses. They are managed by local governments, therefore information can generally be found on the websites of the respective transportation bureaus. For major cities however, Google Maps works quite well for finding routes. Drivers are usually happy to help, but may not speak English. Route maps at bus stops are mostly in Chinese. For visitors, it may be helpful to have your hotel or accommodation host suggest some routes for you and circle your destination on a map, then show it to the bus driver to make sure you're on the right bus. Announcements are in English, but hopefully the driver will remember to tell you when to get off in case you miss it. Most buses accept either cash (no change) or IC cards (see "By train" section). Minor cities and towns do not have local buses, but have intercity routes that make frequent stops. These can be found using the method in the previous paragraph.
Occasionally a bus driver might stop a bus away from the curb at a bus stop. Sometimes it is due to a vehicle illegally parked at a bus stop. (Taiwanese traffic law and regulation prohibit vehicles from stopping or parking within 10 m (33 ft) of a bus stop.) However, a bus driver might stop a bus away from the curb just because he or she does not want to wait for overtaking traffic while leaving a bus stop. Therefore, be much more careful when getting on or off a bus stopped away from a curb, as many motorcycles, motor scooters, and bicycles will definitely be tempted to overtake on the right side of the stopped bus where people get on and off! (As traffic drives on the right side of the road in Taiwan, buses have doors on the right side.)
In Taiwan you need to hail the bus you are taking as you see it coming - much like hailing a taxi. The terminal stop of the route is listed on the front of the bus in Chinese and sometimes English, so it is important to make sure the bus you get on is going the right direction. Sometimes you pay when boarding, sometimes when alighting, sometimes both (whether with cash or an IC card). As you get on the bus there will be an LED sign indicating that, opposite the entrance. Sometimes it's only in Chinese: 上 means on boarding, 下 means on alighting (or just watch other people). In some cities such as Kaohsiung and Taichung, failing to swipe your card correctly will result in a locked card.
The following areas are served by metro, also known as MRT:
- Taipei and New Taipei by Taipei Metro
- Linkou Plateau, western Taipei and northeastern Taoyuan City by Taoyuan Metro
- Kaohsiung by Kaohsiung MRT
It is prohibited to eat, drink or smoke in all metro systems past the fare gates. If multiple journeys are to be made, one can purchase a rechargeable IC card. There are 4 cards: EasyCard (悠遊卡), iPASS (一卡通), icash and HappyCash. For basic transport purposes there is little difference between them; a notable one being the EasyCard cannot be topped-up in Kaohsiung MRT stations.
All metro systems are reliable, safe, clean and accessible. Disruptions are rare. Nearly all stations have toilets, elevators and info desks. There are also special waiting areas that is monitored by security camera for those who are concerned about security late at night.
Betel nut beauties (檳榔西施)
The highways of Taiwan are lined with brightly lit booths staffed by attractive, skimpily dressed girls, but they're not plying the world's oldest trade; instead, they're betel nut beauties, who compete for the attention of customers to sell the mildly addictive stimulant betel (檳榔 bīnláng), consisting of areca nuts and slaked lime wrapped in a betel leaf, not themselves. The trade has prompted much moral hand-wringing and sale by scantily clad girls is banned in Taipei and a handful of other counties - mostly out of fears of a negative international reputation or more practically the fear of traffic accidents and congestion from rubber-necking. Nonetheless, the practice is still going strong in much of the country, and betel is available everywhere from small roadside shops and stalls. Betel itself is worth a try and there is a chance you will be offered it in the company of farmers or working-class Taiwanese. Be warned - it stains your teeth blood red. To consume it, bite and spit off the cap at the top of the nut, then chew the rest of the bundle. Only the first mouthful of saliva must be spit and afterwards one can either choose to spit or swallow and enjoy the buzz. One sampling on your trip shouldn't be a problem, but do keep in mind that this little treat is habit-forming and cancer-causing for long-term "users".
Taxis are very common in major Taiwanese cities. You don't need to look for a taxi - they'll be looking for you. The standard yellow taxis scour roads looking for potential riders such as lost foreigners. It is possible but generally unnecessary to phone for a taxi. To hail one, simply place your hand in front of you parallel to the ground. But they'll often stop for you even if you're just waiting to cross the street or for a bus. In less heavily trafficked areas further out from the transit hubs, taxis are always available by calling taxi dispatch centers or using mobile apps.
Drivers generally cannot converse in English or read Westernized addresses (except for special Taoyuan airport taxis). Get the hotel staff or a Taiwanese friend write out your destination in Chinese, and also take a business card from the hotel. Show the driver the Chinese writing of where you are going.
Taxis are visibly metered (starting point priced at NT$70), and taxi drivers are strictly forbidden from taking tips. A maximum of four people can ride in one cab, and for the price of one. Compared to European or American taxis, those in Taiwan are inexpensive.
Although taxi drivers in Taiwan tend to be more honest than in many other countries, not all are trustworthy. An indirect trip might cost you half again as much. A cab driver using night-time rates during the daytime will cost you 30% more (make sure he presses the large button on the left on his meter before 23:00). Avoid the especially overzealous drivers who congregate at the exits of train stations. Also, stand your ground and insist on paying meter price only if any driving on mountain roads is involved - some drivers like to tack on surcharges or use night-time rates if driving to places like Wenshan (文山) or Wulai (烏來). Such attempts to cheat are against the law.
From Taoyuan Airport (TPE), buses are a much more economical option but if you want a direct route Taoyuan airport drivers are the best choice. They're quite comfortable and get you to your destination as quick as possible. All the TPE taxi drivers are interlinked by radio so they could be forewarned if there are police. Sometimes, if there are traffic jams and no police around, the driver will drive in the emergency lane. Taxis from TPE to destinations in Tao Yuan, parts of Taipei county and some other destinations are 'allowed' to add an additional 50% to the meter fare.
The badge and taxi driver identification are displayed inside and the license number marked on the outside. You must also be wary that the driver turns on his meter, otherwise he might rip you off - in such a case, you aren't obliged to pay; but make sure you can find a police officer to settle the matter. If there are stories of passengers boarding fake taxis and being attacked by the driver, it is best not to be paranoid about it. Drivers may be more worried about passengers attacking them!
If you do call a taxi dispatch center, you will be given a taxi number to identify the vehicle when it arrives. Generally, dispatch is extremely rapid and efficient, as the taxis are constantly monitoring dispatch calls from the headquarters using radio while they are on the move. This is also the safest way to take a taxi, especially for females.
Taxis are also a flexible although relatively expensive way to travel to nearby cities. They have the advantage over the electric trains in that they run very late at night. Drivers are required to provide a receipt if asked, though you might find them unwilling to do so.
Taxis, as elsewhere in Asia, are not keen on exchanging large bills. Try to keep some smaller denomination bills on hand to avoid the hassle of fighting with the driver for change.
Taxi drivers are known for their strong political opinions. Many are supporters of the pan-green coalition and Taiwanese independence, spending all day listening to Taiwanese political talk radio. Drivers also have negative connotations as being former prisoners. Be careful about your opinions on sensitive political subjects (including, but not necessarily limited to cross-strait relations); also be careful of describing your destination which may be perceived politically (such as the President's Office or Chiang-Kai-Shek Memorial Hall). Also watch out for drivers who discriminate against other cultures such as taping "No Korean passengers" on their cars. This is sometimes unavoidable as some drivers provoke such discussion.In addition, if you see what looks like blood spewing from the driver's mouth, or him spitting blood onto the street - not to fret, it's merely him chewing betel nut (see box). Keep in mind, however, that betel nuts are a stimulant.
Taxi drivers are generally friendly towards foreigners, and a few of them take the opportunity to try their limited English skills. They are most likely to ask you about yourself, and are a patient audience to your attempts at speaking Mandarin. If you are traveling with small children, don't be surprised if they are given candy when you disembark.
Women are sometimes warned not to take taxis alone at night. This is not an extreme risk, although there have been incidents where women have been attacked. To be more safe, women can have the hotel or restaurant phone a cab for them (ensuring a licensed driver), have a companion write down the license number of the driver (clearly displayed on the dashboard), or keep a cell phone handy. Do not get in if the driver doesn't have a license with picture clearly displayed in the cab.
By scooter or motorcycle
Scooters with an engine size of 50cc require a license to drive, and should be insured and registered in the owner's name. Foreign nationals with stay less than 30 days do not have an easy way to get a scooter license. Until 2003 it wasn't possible to get a scooter above 150cc. Many of the scooters within cities are only 50cc and incapable of going faster than 80 km/h (50 mph). The more powerful versions known as zhongxing (重型, heavy format) scooters are now quite common and can be rented for short-term use, or found for sale used at English In Taiwan if you're going to need it for a while. They are not allowed on freeways even if they are capable of going faster than 100 km/h (62 mph) unless used for certain police purposes, but that just means you have to take the scenic route.
If you're just learning to drive a scooter on the streets of Taiwan, it would be a good idea to practice a bit on a back road or alley until you have a feel for the scooter - attempting to do so in the busier cities could easily be fatal. Certainly, things can get pretty hairy on Taiwanese roads and Taipei in particular has narrower more congested roads than many other cities. However if you know what you're doing, it's the perfect way to get around in a city.
It should be possible to rent a scooter by the day, week or month, depending on the city in which you're staying. One Taipei motorcycle and scooter rental service with English language service is Bikefarm, which is run by a very friendly and helpful English guy called Jeremy. In Taichung, Foreigner Assistance Services In Taiwan F.A.S.T offers a rental service for foreign visitors. Otherwise, scooters are generally easy to rent in most major cities, with many such places being conveniently located near railway or bus stations. Most usually require some form of identification even if, in some cases, it consists of your expired Blockbuster video card! The average price you may expect is NT$400 for 24 hours, this includes one or two helmets.
Another option is to rent a motorcycle. Many foreigners swear by their 125cc Wild Wolf (野狼) motorcycles, and a trip around the island on a motorcycle can be a great way to see the island up close.
It is to be mentioned that since 2007, scooters and motorcycle over 550cc are allowed to go on expressway providing that they have a red license plate. They are however to be considered as cars, and as such cannot be parked in scooter parking spaces.
An international driving license is required for driving in Taiwan and may be used for up to 30 days, after which you'll need to apply for a local permit. Some municipalities may impose additional restrictions, so check ahead with the rental shop. VIP Rentals in Taipei is quite happy to rent cars to foreigners, and will even deliver the car to a given destination. A deposit is often required, and the last day of rental is not pro-rated, but calculated on a per-hour basis at a separate (higher) rate.
The numbered highway system is very good in Taiwan. Most traffic signs are in international symbols, but many signs show names of places and streets in Chinese only. Nevertheless, almost all official directional signs will be written in both Chinese and English. However, the non-standardized Romanization means that English names can vary between road signs, making it rather confusing. The highways are in excellent shape with toll stations around every 30 km (19 mi). A car driver pays NT$40 when passing each toll station on a highway. Prepaid tickets may be purchased at most convenience stores and at the "cash" toll-boths themselves, allowing faster passage and eliminating the need to count out exact change while driving. Traffic moves on the right in Taiwan.
While driving may be the best way to get around the countryside, in larger cities like Taipei and Kaohsiung, traffic jams are a problem as is the difficulty of finding a good parking space, especially during the rush hour and traffic tends to get chaotic so you might be better off relying on public transport instead.
While Taiwanese themselves don't generally hitchhike, foreigners who have done so say that it was very easy. However, in rural areas people may not recognize the thumb in the air symbol, and you may have to try other ways - flagging down a car might work on a country lane with little or no public transportation, but doing so on a major road might lead to confusion, with the driver assuming that you are in trouble. A sign, especially one in Chinese, would therefore be of great help. The East coast around Hualien and Taitung enjoys a reputation for being especially good for getting rides. Taiwanese people are very friendly and helpful, so striking up a conversation with someone at a transport cafe or freeway service station may well see you on your way.
While known for being a major player in the bicycle industry (through companies such as Giant and Merida), until fairly recently, bicycles in Taiwan were considered an unwanted reminder of less prosperous times. Thankfully, this has changed in recent years. Bicycling is again on the rise, both as a tool for commuting and recreation, and support infrastructure is slowly being put into place. Several bike paths have been built, and recreational cycling has become quite popular amongst locals, especially on weekends. However, you should also be aware that local drivers have a well deserved reputation for recklessness. As such, you should exercise extreme caution when cycling outside of designated bicycle lanes and trails.
In recent years, the government has been promoting bicycling as a method of clean recreation. Several designated bicycle paths have been built throughout Taiwan (especially along riverside parks). Additionally, long distance rides, including through the Central Mountain Range, and along the coastline around the main island have become popular. For long distance trips, bicycles can be shipped as is using standard freight service from the Taiwan Railway Administration between larger stations. A price table is available here (Chinese language only). Non-folding bicycles may also be transported aboard the Taipei and Kaohsiung rapid transit systems if loaded at specific stations, during off peak hours (usually 10:00-16:00 on weekdays, check with your local station personnel to confirm).
- Taipei MRT Bicycle Information [dead link]
- Taipei MRT Route Map [dead link], bicycles may be loaded at designated stations:
- Kaohsiung MRT Bicycle Information (passengers traveling with non-folding bicycles are assessed a flat rate NT$60 fare irrespective of distance)
Giant Bicycles Corporation operates a large network of bicycle retail stores that offer rentals for as little as NT$100 per day, if requested one week in advance . Public shared bicycles are also available for rent at automated kiosks in Taipei's Hsinyi District, and in Kaohsiung. Rental fees in Taipei may be paid using the rapid transit EasyCard system, but require a deposit paid via credit card.
Additionally, many local police stations provide basic support services for cyclists, such as air pumps, and as a rest stop.
Further cycling references:
- can be found here
You say Zhongshan, I say Chungshan...
The romanization of Chinese used in Taiwan is not standardized. Most older place names and personal names are derived from a simplified version of Wade-Giles. The government established Hanyu Pinyin (the same system used in the mainland and the international standard) as the official system in 2009, but most local governments that did not already use the system have not switched over, and highway signs are only being gradually changed from the Tongyong Pinyin system, leading to much inconsistency. Some local governments, such as that of Taipei and Taichung, have already converted their street signs to Hanyu Pinyin and New Taipei is implementing the switch to Hanyu Pinyin. However, there are still street signs posted by city governments next to signs installed by the national government having different romanization conventions, as is the case for Kaohsiung, where Tongyong Pinyin, not Hanyu Pinyin, is the local standard. For example, Zhongshan, Chungshan, Jungshan and Jhongshan can easily refer to the same Chinese name.
This article attempts to use the romanizations most commonly used in Taiwan (on street signs, buses, tourist maps, etc.) People know romanisation as 'Roma-Pinyin' (Luoma-Pinyin).
While Mandarin Chinese is the official language and is spoken fluently by nearly all younger Taiwanese, English-speakers can usually be found when assistance is needed, although frequently the level of English means that conversations may be difficult and time-consuming.
A mix of Taiwanese (Minnan), Mandarin, Hakka and other Asian languages are spoken on the island, as are several aboriginal Austronesian languages. Mandarin is the lingua franca, but Taiwanese is spoken as the primary language by some 70% of the population. In the North where there is a large concentration of so-called "mainlanders" (those whose families came to Taiwan from mainland China in the 1940s as refugees of the Chinese Civil War), most people speak Mandarin as their primary language (although Taiwanese is spoken in abundance), but in the South of the island, Taiwanese is far more common. Mandarin, Taiwanese and Hakka are all tonal languages, which make them difficult for most foreigners to master. On the Matsu islands, the dominant Chinese dialect is Mindong or Eastern Min (also known as Hokchiu or Foochowese), which is also spoken in the area around Fuzhou and the coastal areas of northern Fujian.
Although standard Mandarin in Taiwan is nearly identical to standard Mandarin in mainland China (with differences mostly in technical and translated terms invented post-1949), most people in practice speak a distinctly accented version known as Taiwanese Mandarin. For example, Taiwanese Mandarin tends to not differentiate between the "S" and "Sh" sounds in Mandarin. All people schooled after 1945 are generally fluent in Mandarin, although it is sometimes not the first language of choice. Mandarin is fairly popular with young people. Some in the older generation are not fluent in Mandarin as they were schooled in Japanese or not at all. Universally the Taiwanese are very accepting of foreigners and react with curiosity and admiration for trying the local tongue. Generally, most people in Taiwan converse using a combination of Mandarin and Taiwanese by code-switching. Mandarin is spoken more commonly than Taiwanese within Taipei City, and less commonly outside of it. Taiwan continues to use traditional Chinese characters, the script also used in Hong Kong and Macau, and not the simplified versions used on the mainland.
The Taiwanese dialect is a variant of Minnan which is similar to the dialect spoken across the Taiwan Strait in Xiamen. Unlike Xiamen Minnan, Taiwanese Minnan has some loan words from Japanese as a result of 50 years of Japanese colonization. Taiwanese Minnan and Xiamen Minnan are both mixtures of the Zhangzhou and Quanzhou accents so as a result, Taiwanese Minnan sounds highly identical to Xiamen Minnan.
All public announcements in the transportation system will be made in Mandarin, Taiwanese and Hakka, with the exception of the Matsu islands, where announcements are made in Mandarin and the Mindong dialect.
Especially in Taipei, younger people generally speak a basic conversational level of English. The children often understand more English than their parents, especially with the emphasis on English language education today, and English being a compulsory subject in Taiwanese schools. However, attempts to speak Mandarin or Taiwanese will be met with beaming smiles and encouragement, by and large.
Quite a few people, especially in Taipei, are proficient in Japanese due to the high number of Japanese visitors. Staff for tourist attractions such as the Taipei 101, museums, hotels, popular restaurants and airport shops speak Japanese in addition to English, Mandarin and other local languages. In fact, if you are a visitor of East Asian descent who cannot understand Chinese, when a worker realizes this he or she may try speaking to you in Japanese before trying English. In addition to this, some older people still understand and speak Japanese having lived through the fifty year period of Japanese rule.
Perhaps due to its political ambiguity and lack of global presence, Taiwan has never been a significant destination for Westerners. Nevertheless tourists from Japan and Hong Kong have been visiting Taiwan in droves for a long time, and they are being joined by and increasing number of mainland Chinese. The island is home to many cultural attractions, with an excellent selection right in the capital. Taipei is a bustling and modern metropolis, with ancient yet lively streets, and world-famous landmarks like Taipei 101. However, it's also home to the National Palace Museum, Zhongshan Hall, Chiang Kai-Shek Memorial Hall and the beautifully restored Bao'an Temple. Bao'an is just one of many striking temple complexes worth a visit. For more, try the Zushi Temple in Sanxia or the Mazu temple in Makung. The large Longshan Temple in Lukang and the Confucian Temples of Changhua and Tainan are fine choices too. Tainan is also the place to go for Ten Drum Cultural Village and treehouses. If you're looking for some deeper insights in Taiwan's history and culture, there's a wide range of museums to be explored, pretty much where-ever your go.
Taiwan retains its place as a major center of Chinese pop culture. In addition, this state is home to bustling cities with modern, high-tech infrastructure, and good transportation infrastructure means that getting around is easy. For those who have grown weary of the hustle and bustle of cities, Taiwan also offers some very impressive scenery and charming historical villages in its rural areas.
Some people think of Taiwan as a grimy, densely populated industrial island full of hard disk factories, and you may well maintain this perception if you only stick to the densely populated West Coast. However, for those who take time to venture to the more sparsely populated East Coast will quickly find that Taiwan is actually home to some stunning landscapes. The Taroko Gorge (太魯閣) near Hualien in particular is very impressive, and should not be missed, with a side trip to the rugged shores at Shihtiping (石梯坪) as a worthwhile detour. Hehuan Mountain and Sun Moon Lake are beautiful natural attractions near Nantou, while the huge and ancient trees in Lalashan make for great hikes near Taoyuan. In fact, most of Taiwan is covered with mountains which offer breathtaking views, so hiking opportunities are very diverse.
- Spring Scream (春天吶喊) - A three day outdoor rock concert in Kenting, held every year. In 2011, it will take place on 1-4 April. Tickets are NT$1400 for all days, all venues; NT$650 for one day, one venue. Kenting's entire area gets swarmed by young people coming to party for 3 days, and Taiwanese TV heavily reports on the latest bikini fashions seen on the spot. Be aware, though, that police presence will be strong, as the festival has a reputation for being rife with illegal drugs. 
- Buddha's Birthday (佛祖誕辰) - Colorful but simple ceremonies are held at Buddhist monasteries that generally consist of washing a statue of the Buddha and a vegetarian feast. It is appropriate to make offerings to the monks and nuns at this time, though it is not mandatory. Lunar Calendar 8th day of 4th month.
- Dragon Boat Festival (龍舟賽) - A festival to commemorate the death of the Chinese patriotic poet Qu Yuan (born 340 BC), who drowned himself in a river out of despair that his beloved country, Chu, was being plundered by a neighboring country as a result of betrayal by his own people. The festival falls on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month (19 June 2008), and is marked by races of colorful dragon boats at various locations throughout the island.
- Cherry Blossom Season (櫻花季) - Every spring, in Yangmingshan (陽明山).
- Hot Springs (溫泉) - Taiwan's geographical location between an oceanic trench and volcanic system makes it an ideal hot springs vacation spot. There are several hot springs destinations throughout the country, including Beitou (北投), Wulai (烏來) and Yangmingshan (陽明山). The culture of bathing in hot springs was introduced by the Japanese during the colonial period, and remains firmly entrenched in the local culture to this day. At traditional establishments segregated by sex you may be expected to bathe nude, however many other places are unisex and require a bathing suit.
While gambling is illegal in Taiwan, mahjong (Mandarin: 麻将 má jiàng; Taiwanese: 麻雀 moâ-chhiok) remains popular. The Taiwanese version of the game differs significantly from the better known Cantonese and Japanese versions, most notably because a hand consists of 16 tiles instead of the 13 used in other version. However, it remains mostly a family and friends affair and there are no publicly advertised mahjong parlors.
Exchange rates for New Taiwan dollars (NT$)
As of October 2017:
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
The currency of Taiwan is the New Taiwan dollar, denoted by the symbol "NT$" (新臺幣 or 臺幣, ISO code: NTD, but also referred to as TWD). The NT dollar is known locally as NT, yuan (元 or more formally 圓) when written in Chinese or colloquially in Mandarin as the kuai (塊). One unit is known colloquially as the kho͘ (箍) in the Taiwanese dialect. All $ prices in this guide are in New Taiwan dollars unless otherwise noted.
Taiwanese currency is fully convertible and there are no restrictions on taking currency into or out of the island. Currency exchange is possible internationally, although you will get a much better rate if you wait until you arrive at the airport to exchange currency at the 24-hour window. Most banks in Taipei and Kaohsiung will also exchange money or offer cash advances on credit or debit cards. Should you bring American currency, bring newer bills as the banks and exchange-centers (such as in department stores) will only accept the newer bills (bills from 1996 and 2003 are not accepted at most places, due to a high proportion of forgeries bearing these years). Bills which are torn or damaged will probably not be changed, and old-style small-bust bills are not accepted, including the $2 USD bill no matter when it was printed. Taiwan National Bank will take older bank notes and bank notes that are wrinkled or torn for exchange. Department stores will not exchange bills older than 1997. Don't forget to show your passport!
Taiwan's banking system has abundant 24-hour ATMs to withdraw cash from anywhere in the world using the Plus or Cirrus systems. Certain banks' ATMs will even tell you your available balance in your own currency or in NT$. There is a per transaction limit of NT$20,000 for ATM cash withdrawals (HSBC Global Access customers may withdraw NT$30,000 from HSBC ATMs). Post office ATMs will not accept cards without an EMV chip.
If you are planning on staying in Taiwan for a longer time, you should consider opening a Taiwanese bank account. While many of the large foreign banks such as Citibank and HSBC have branches in Taiwan, they often require huge deposits in order for you to open an account, so you might wish to consider one of the major local banks such as the Bank of Taiwan instead. You will need to bring your passport and Alien Residence Card to the bank in order to open an account. This means that those on long-term visas such as student and work visas are allowed to open an account, but this option is not always available to tourists on short visits. Visitors desiring a Taiwanese bank account can obtain a sheet of paper with an ID number from the local Immigration Agency office as a substitute for the ARC, but this is not accepted by all banks. The larger banks will often have English-speaking staff available to assist foreigners.
Most hotels and department stores accept credit cards, generally Visa, MasterCard, and JCB. Diners Club, Discover and American Express cards are seldom accepted. Most restaurants and small stores do not accept cards, and cash is the main form of payment. Because street crime is rare, it is common for people in Taiwan to carry large amounts of cash with them.
Costs in Taiwan are generally lower than in Japan, South Korea, and Hong Kong, but higher than in Southeast Asia and mainland China. For a budget traveler on a bare bones budget, NT$1000 will get you by for a day, but you'll probably want to double that for comfort. A meal at a street stall may cost NT$50 or less, a meal at a Western fast food restaurant will run you about NT$150 and at the fanciest restaurants, you can expect a bill in excess NT$1000. On the high end of the spectrum, hotel rooms at a swanky hotel might cost NT$5000 or more. Costs diminish significantly the further you go out of the big cities. Taxis are quite reasonable and often have a set fare for common destinations, so ask in advance and haggle if you disagree.
Tipping is generally not practiced in Taiwan. Bellhops in high end hotels and porters at airports are an exception and should be given NT$50 per bag. Also, tipping to show appreciation for exceptional service is not uncommon. Tipping is also not expected in taxis and drivers would usually return your change to the last dollar.
In place of tips is a 10% service charge when dining at most full-service restaurants which is automatically added to the bill.
As in many Asian countries, night markets are a staple of Taiwanese entertainment, shopping and eating. Night markets are open-air markets, usually on a street or alleyway, with vendors selling all sorts of wares on every side. Many bargains can be had, and wherever prices are not displayed, haggling is expected. In the larger cities you will have a night market every night and in the same place. In smaller cities, they are only open certain nights of the week, and may move to different streets depending on the day of the week.
Every city has at least one night market; larger cities like Taipei may have a dozen or more. Night markets are crowded, so remember to watch out for your wallet! Shops selling the same items tend to congregate in the same part of the city. If you want to buy something, ask someone to take you to one shop and there will probably be shops selling similar things nearby.
For those who do not like the concept of haggling and fake goods, there are many shopping centres in Taipei where prices are usually fixed and goods are genuine. Otherwise, shopping streets in larger cities like Kaohsiung and Taichung can also easily get you what you want. And of course, there is the trendy Ximending (西門町) in Taipei, where you can pretty much find anything associated with the youths, also at fixed prices.
Bargaining is OK and expected in night markets and small stores. Computer chain shops and department stores normally have fixed prices, but at least in department stores you may get a "registered member discount" if you're shopping a lot. Anyway it's always worth a try!
When bargaining at small stores, the agreed prices are normally cash prices. If you like to use a credit card, the seller normally wants to add anything up to 8% to the price as a "card fee" etc. The fee consists actually of the credit company's commission and also the local sales tax/VAT. Even if you pay cash, you normally don't get an official receipt, as then the seller would have to report and pay their taxes in full. If you ask for a receipt or "fa piao" (發票), you will get it but you may need to pay 3-5% more.
What to buy
Popular things to buy include:
- Jade. Although it can be hard to know for sure if the item you're buying is real jade or not, some beautiful objects are sold. Most cities have a specific jade market dealing in jade and other precious stones.
- Computers. Taiwan designs and produces a lot of desktops, laptops, and PC peripherals. Travelers might be interested in visiting the large Information Technology Market at Taiwan for the best prices. Desktop computers and components tend to be the same price in Taiwan as in other areas of the world, though peripherals such as cables and adapters tend to be noticeably cheaper. If you're buying domestic, it's best to go to tourist hangouts to buy your stuff as you might be saddled with Chinese documentation otherwise. Also, notebooks are typically only available with a Chinese Bopomofo and English keyboard.
- Lingzhi (靈芝). A type of bracket fungus that is often used as a Chinese herb. It supposedly has many health benefits with an apparent absence of side effects, earning it a high reputation in East Asian countries and making it rather expensive. Taiwanese lingzhi is particularly famous for being of the highest quality.
- Tea. Taiwan is particularly famous for its oolong tea(烏龍茶) and this is available in at many tea shops. Tea tasting in Chinese culture is akin to wine tasting in Western culture and you will find many grades of this same type of tea, with different methods of treating the tea leaves.
- Iron eggs (鐵蛋) irresistible delicacy
In order to protect the environment, a government policy rules that plastic bags cannot be given freely at stores in Taiwan, but have to be bought (at a flat rate of NT$1) - bakeries being an exception as the items need to be hygienically wrapped. Re-useable canvas and nylon bags are sold at most supermarkets.
Undoubtedly the most infamous Taiwanese delicacy, stinky tofu (臭豆腐 chòudòufu) is fermented tofu with a strong odor often likened to rotting garbage. It's usually sold only by outdoor stalls, as the smell would overwhelm most restaurants, but if you can hold your nose long enough to eat it, the taste is quite mild — but with distinct earthy overtones that many visitors find off-putting. It's most commonly eaten fried, but for extra Fear Factor points, find some mala hotpot (麻辣鍋) with stinky tofu and gelatinized duck blood.
Taiwan's cuisine is very well regarded by other East Asians and the ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia, and for many of them, the food is the primary (and sometimes only) reason to visit Taiwan.
Generally speaking, the foods of Taiwan are derived from mainland Chinese cuisines. Because most Taiwanese trace their ancestry to Fujian, it comes as no surprise that much of Taiwanese cuisine was derived from the cuisine of Fujian. It is also possible to find Szechuan (四川) food, Hunan (湖南) food, Dongbei (東北) food, Cantonese (廣東) food and almost every other Chinese cuisine on the island, because many famous chefs from the mainland fled to Taiwan after the communist victory in 1949. That being said, Taiwanese cuisine has absorbed substantial local influences, and significant Japanese influences because of 50 years of Japanese colonial rule, giving it a unique character that distinguishes it from its mainland Chinese counterparts. The Taiwanese are also passionately in love with eggs and seafood. Fruits are another famous part of Taiwanese food. A wide range of fruits can be found at local fruit shops and stations. The subtropical climate allows different fruits to grow nicely.
Taiwan also has many of its own local specialties. A few found island wide include:
- Beef noodles (牛肉麵 niúròu miàn), noodle soup with chunks of meltingly soft stewed beef and a dash of pickles
- Oyster omelet (蚵仔煎 ó āh jiān - this is the Taiwanese name, as its Chinese name only exists in characters, but not in oral Mandarin), made from eggs, oysters and the leaves of a local chrysanthemum, topped with sweet red sauce.
- Aiyu jelly (愛玉 àiyù), made from the seeds of a local fig and usually served on ice — sweet, cool and refreshing on a hot day
- Taiwan Sausage (香腸 xiāngcháng), usually made from pork, it is a modified version of the Cantonese laap cheong (臘腸) which has been emulsified and is much sweeter in taste. Unlike laap cheong, which is almost always eaten with rice, Taiwanese xiangchang is usually eaten on its own with some garlic.
- Taiwanese Orange (柳丁 liŭdīng) is a type of citrus fruit which is similar to usual oranges, except that the skin and flesh tend to look more yellowish like lemon. Unlike lemon, it is usually quite sweet.
- Taiwanese Porridge (粥 zhōu in Mandarin, 糜 beh in Taiwanese) is rice porridge cooked with sweet potato. It is usually eaten with several different dishes.
Most cities and towns in Taiwan are famous for special foods because of the Taiwanese passion for food and influences from many different countries. For example, Ilan (宜蘭) is famous for its mochi (麻吉), a sticky rice snack often flavored with sesame, peanuts or other flavorings. Yonghe (永和), a suburb of Taipei, is famous for its freshly made soy milk (豆漿) and breakfast foods. Taichung is famous for its sun cakes (太陽餅 tàiyáng bǐng), a kind of sweet stuffed pastry and the best place to buy some is arguably Taiyang Tang (太陽堂) along Freedom Road (自由路), where the pastry was supposedly invented. In Chiayi, it's square cookies, also called cubic pastry (方塊酥), crispy layered cookies cut into squares and sprinkled liberally with sesame seeds. Tainan is particularly famous among the Taiwanese for its abundance of good food and should be a stop for all gourmands. The most famous dish is arguably the coffin bread (棺材板). Virtually every city has its own famous specialties; many Taiwanese tourists will visit other cities on the island simply to try the local foods and then return home.
Taiwan also has remarkably good bakery items. Most specialize in sweet Chinese pastries or Western pastries adjusted to local tastes, but look out for We Care bakeries which also offer Western options such as whole wheat loaves, sour breads and ciabatta.
Vegetarians are better catered for in restaurants and variety than in most other countries.
Places to eat
If you're on a budget, the cheapest food can be found in back-alley noodle shops and night market stalls, where you can get a filling bowl of noodles for around NT$35-70.
The Taiwanese love to snack and even many restaurants advertise xiaochi (小吃), literally "small eats", the Taiwanese equivalent of Cantonese dim sum. There are also the standard fast food places such as McDonalds (a standard Big Mac Meal costs NT$115), KFC and MOS Burger. In addition there are large numbers of convenience stores (such as 7-Eleven and Family Mart) that sell things like tea eggs, sandwiches, bento boxes (便當盒) and drinks.
Night markets are also a good place to try some delicious local Taiwanese fare at attractive prices. Examples would be the Shilin Night Market (士林夜市) in Taipei and the Ruifeng Night Market (瑞豐夜市) in Kaohsiung, each of which has its own special dishes not to be missed.
As with Chinese cuisine elsewhere, food in Taiwan is generally eaten with chopsticks and served on large plates placed at the center of the table. Oftentimes, a serving spoon or pair of chopsticks (公筷 gongkuai) is usually accompanied with the dishes and guests do not use their own chopsticks to transfer food to their plates.
The usual traditional Chinese taboos when eating with chopsticks apply in Taiwan as well. For instance, do not stick your chopsticks straight up or into your bowl of rice. This is reminiscent of incense sticks at a temple, and has connotations of wishing death upon those around you. When putting down chopsticks, either place them on the provided porcelain chopstick rest (at fancier restaurants) or rest the chopsticks across the top of your bowl. Also, do not use your chopsticks to spear your food or move bowls and plates.
See Chinese table etiquette for more details. Although there are minor differences between Taiwanese and mainland Chinese etiquette, much of traditional Chinese table manners applies to Taiwan too.
All Mahayana Buddhists, which account for the majority of adherents in Taiwan, aspire to be pure vegetarian in deference to the Buddha's teaching of non-violence and compassion. So, vegetarian restaurants (called su-shi 素食 tsan-ting 餐廳 in Mandarin, and often identified with the 卍 symbol) can be found in abundance all over the island, and they run from cheap buffet style to gourmet and organic. Buffet styled restaurants (called 自助餐, which means "Serve Yourself Restaurant") are common in almost every neighborhood in large cities, and unlike the 'all-you-can-eat' buffets (which charge a set price, usually ranging from NT$250-350 including dessert and coffee/tea), the cost is estimated by the weight of the food on your plate. Rice (there is usually a choice of brown or white) is charged separately, but soup or cold tea is free and you can refill as many times as you like. NT$90-120 will buy you a good sized, nutritious meal.
However, if you cannot find a veggie restaurant, don't fret. Taiwanese people are very flexible and most restaurants will be happy to cook you up something to suit your requirements. The following sentences in Mandarin might be helpful: 我吃素 (Wo chi su) - I'm vegetarian, 我不吃肉 (Wo bu chi rou) - I don't eat meat. However, as Mandarin is a tonal language, you might need to say both, plus practice your acting skills to get yourself understood. Good luck! NB: If a restaurant refuses your order, don't push the issue. The reason will not be an unwillingness to accommodate your request, but because the basic ingredients of their dishes may include chicken broth or pork fat.
Taiwanese vegetarianism (素食) isn't simply vegetarianism, for there is a notion of "plainness" to it. In most cases it excludes items such onion, ginger, and garlic. Buddhists and Taoists consider these items "un-plain" because they potentially cause physical excitement, which could hinder the meditative process. Thus, when offering food to a strict vegetarian, be aware that they may not eat food containing onion, ginger, and garlic.
Although vegetarian restaurants in Taiwan do not aspire to vegan principles,almost all non-dessert dishes at Chinese style veggie restaurants will actually be vegan because Taiwanese do not have a tradition of eating dairy products. Ensure that your dish does not contain eggs, however.
As Taiwan is a subtropical island with the south part in the tropics, it cannot hurt to drink a lot, especially during summertime. Drink vending machines can be found virtually everywhere and are filled with all kinds of juices, tea and coffee drinks, soy milk and mineral water.
Taiwan's legal age to consume alcohol is 18 years of age. Minors caught drinking can face fines ranging from NT$10,000 to NT$50,000. Traditional alcoholic drinks in Taiwan are very strong. Kaoliang (高粱酒) is the most famous alcoholic drink. A distilled grain liquor, it is extremely strong, usually 140 proof or more, and often drunk straight.
Taiwan also produces many types of Shaoxing (紹興酒), rice wine, which are considered by many as being some of the best in the world.
Taiwanese people enjoy beer on ice. A wide variety of imported beers are available, but the standard is Taiwan Beer (台灣啤酒), produced by a former government monopoly. It is brewed with fragrant penglai rice in addition to barley giving it a distinctive flavor. The beer is served cold and recognized as an especially suitable complement to Taiwanese and Japanese cuisine, especially seafood dishes such as sushi and sashimi.
Taiwan Beer has won international awards, including the International Monde Selection in 1977 and the Brewing Industry International Awards in 2002.
Beer on tap is uncommon in Taiwan, and most places serve beer in bottles. For a special and rare treat, ask for the Taiwan Draft Beer (台灣生啤酒), which comes in a plain green bottle. This has a 2-week expiration, so it can only be found at the breweries (there are a few scattered around Taiwan) or at select stores and restaurants in the vicinity.
Tea and coffee
Taiwan's specialty teas are High Mountain Oolong (高山烏龍, Gao-shan wulong) - a fragrant, light tea, and Tie Guan-yin (鐵觀音) - a dark, rich brew. Enjoying this tea, served in the traditional way using a very small teapot and tiny cups, is an experience you should not miss. This way of taking tea is called lao ren cha (老人茶) - 'old people's tea', and the name is derived from the fact that only the elderly traditionally had the luxury of time to relax and enjoy tea in this way. Check the small print when visiting a traditional tea house though: in addition to the tea itself, you may be charged a cover (茶水費, literally "tea-water fee") for the elaborate process of preparing it and for any nibbles served on the side.
One should also try Lei cha (擂茶; léi chá) a tasty and nourishing Hakka Chinese tea-based beverage consisting of a mix ground tea leaves and grain. Some stores specialize in this product and allows one to grind their own lei cha.
As with Chinese teas elsewhere, Chinese teas in Taiwan are always drunk neat, with the use of milk or sugar unknown. However, Taiwan is also the birthplace of pearl milk tea, which uses sugar and milk.
Pearl milk tea (珍珠奶茶 zhēnzhū nǎichá), aka "bubble tea" or "boba tea", is milky tea with chewy balls of tapioca added, drunk through an over-sized straw. Invented in Taiwan in the early 1980s and a huge Asia-wide craze in the 1990s, it's not quite as popular as it once was but can still be found at nearly every coffee/tea shop. Look for a shop where it is freshly made.
The cafe culture has hit Taiwan in a big way, and in addition to an abundance of privately owned cafes, all the major chains, such as Starbucks, have a multitude of branches throughout major towns and cities.
Taiwan is a great place for fruit drinks. Small fruit-juice bars make them fresh on the spot and are experts at creating fruit-juice cocktails (non-alcoholic, of course). zong-he (mixed) is usually a sweet and sour combination and mu-gwa niou-nai (木瓜牛奶) is iced papaya milk. If you don't want ice (though it is safe in Taiwan, even at road side vendors) say, chu bing (去冰) and no sugar - wu tang (無糖).
Soy milk, or doujiang (豆漿), is a great treat. Try it hot or cold. Savory soy milk is a traditional Taiwanese breakfast dish. It is somewhat of an acquired taste as vinegar is added to curdle the milk. Both sweet and savory soy milk are often ordered with you-tiao (油條), or deep fried dough crullers.
There are a lot of pseudo health drinks in Taiwanese supermarkets and convenience stores. Look out for asparagus juice and lavender milk tea for example.
Taiwan doesn't sleep - just look at the number of 24-hour stores out there. But since you have to....
For the budget-minded, there are hostels in Taipei and most other sizable cities. Some hostels are under table which mean they don't have valid license. Camping is also available in many areas.
Motels (汽車旅館) can be easily found in suburbs of major cities. Despite the name, these have little if anything to do with the cheap functional hotels that use the name elsewhere; in Taiwan, motels are intended for romantic trysts and can be quite extravagant in decor and facilities. Many feature enormous baths with massage jets, separate massage showers, marble tiles, and so forth. Suites come with flat screen TVs and centrally controlled sound systems. During the daytime, most offer "rests" (休息) of a few hours, and indeed check-in times for overnight stays (住宿) can be as late at 22:00. Taichung is considered the motel-capital of Taiwan.
Taiwanese hotels range in quality from seedy to very luxurious. Despite the complexities of doing business with both mainland China and Taiwan, most Western hotel chains operate in Taiwan such as Sheraton, Westin and Hyatt. Also, there are plenty of five-star hotels around. Keep in mind, however, that many of the international hotels tend to be outrageously expensive, while comparable and much cheaper accommodation is usually available in the same vicinity. For example, the airport hotel at CKS International charges about three or four times as much as a hotel in Taoyuan which is a half hour cab ride away. Taxi drivers and tourist offices are invaluable resources for finding cheaper hotels.
Many hotels in Taiwan have both Chinese and Western names, which can differ radically. Find out and bring along the Chinese name (in Chinese characters), as locals will usually not be able to identify the English ones.
Especially when you visit the regions less traveled by westerners (mostly because there is no business there), don't be shy to walk in on the more pricey hotels, especially off-season. The Caesar (凱撒大飯店), the Chateau (夏都沙灘酒店) and the Howard Beach Resort (福華大飯店) at Kenting, for example, located at one of the nicest beaches of tropical Taiwan, can be of exceptional value if you stay there during wintertime, as the rooms not yet let for the night are offered far below their normal price at last minute.
Hotel beds in Taiwan are generally much harder than in the West because of the old Asian tradition to sleep on a wood board. Modern mattresses can be found in most hotels, but only in the most upscale Western style hotels will you find beds in a real western style.
A uniquely Taiwanese form of accommodation is known as the minsu (民宿), which is similar to Bed and Breakfast accommodation that you usually find in the UK. Although typically cheaper than hotels, the facilities can often be as good as those of some higher end hotels, and many are designed around a specific theme (like fairy tale castle, nature lodge, etc.) Accommodation at a minsu typically includes breakfast the next morning, and higher end ones sometimes also give you the option of having a home-cooked style dinner. The downside is that most minsu are either located in residential suburbs or in the countryside, meaning that transportation is typically less convenient that at centrally located hotels, and the availability of wi-fi can be a hit or miss. In addition, most minsu advertise in Chinese only.
Taiwan is home to several good universities, many of which have exchange agreements with various foreign universities, and these are a good way to experience life in Taiwan. The most prestigious university in Taiwan is the National Taiwan University.
Some universities in Taiwan have Chinese Promoting Programs (華語文推廣中心) that offers Chinese lessons to foreigners who wish to live in Taiwan or to learn Mandarin Chinese as their second or foreign language. The romanisation system taught here nowadays is Hanyu Pinyin (漢語拼音), whereas in the past they taught Zhuyin (注音), or BoPoMoFo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ). The writing system taught is Traditional Chinese.
There are many styles of kung fu (功夫) taught in Taiwan, largely by masters who came here with the Kuomintang in the late 1940s.
Styles include Ba Gua (八卦), Tai Chi (太極), Wing Chun (詠春), Praying Mantis (螳螂), Shway (水) Shiao and various weapons systems. Many of the students are westerners in these classes, which has led to the rise of several NHB Allegra schools, and Ju Jitsu and Aikido from Japan.
Some of the more famous teachers will provide you with the paperwork needed to extend a student visa twice.
Taekwondo is also extremely popular and is often a mandatory part of school children's physical education.
The majority of travelers who work in Taiwan pick up temporary jobs teaching English. Jobs teaching other languages (mainly European or Japanese) do exist but have a much smaller proportion of the market.
Job requirements - in finding employment with a language school, experience, teaching qualifications and references are not required but obviously help. On paper, a big issue is also made about accents, with the North American English accent being heavily favored over British, Australian and South African accents in many language schools' sales marketing. However, in practice, many schools that advertise 'American English' and claim that their teachers are all from Canada or the USA, actually employ teachers from anywhere. Age is a factor, with applicants in their 20s seemingly being preferred. More than anything, appearance is probably the major factor in finding employment with most schools - Do you 'look Western'? - and reliability and turning up on time for work is then the major factor for keeping your job. Therefore, if you look the part, it is very easy to find a school willing to take you on for at least a few days.
This 'look Western' point has quite a bearing. Unfortunately, Taiwan is hardly a great promoter of equal opportunities. In many schools there is a prejudice against teachers applying for jobs who are not of white Caucasian appearance, seen as the typical Western appearance in Asian countries. This is independent of whether or not the teacher has relevant teaching ability and citizenship of one of the permitted ARC countries. Many parents who send their children to schools to be taught English expect the teacher to look like they are from the U.S., Canada, the UK, Australia, and so on, and so the decision on the part of the school managers is mainly about economics. For those affected by this, it's a sad fact of Taiwan that is unlikely to change in the near future. Good employers without such prejudiced requirements do exist, but greater perseverance is needed when looking for them.
It is illegal to work without a work permit and an ARC (or Alien Residency Permit), and legal work officially requires a university degree and usually a long (two month+) application process. Alternatively, if you have a lot of money, you can obtain an investor visa by investing a large sum of money in a local business, which allows you to work for that company in a management capacity. However, illegal employment is easy to find with many school managers being willing to pay under the table for short durations. Be aware that if caught or reported, you risk criminal charges and could be deported. The government tends to waver from being very lax on this issue under one administration to suddenly taking action under the next; but remember that it only takes one disgruntled student to report you and have you fined and deported. Consider your options carefully!
The rules for getting an ARC do change often and each administrative part of Taiwan has its own ways of handling them, so it is best to check the pages of the website Forumosa and find out what the experiences of others are in your area. Keep in mind, that you can only get an ARC for English teaching if you are a 'citizen of a native English speaking country'. Taiwan's government defines these countries to be only the U.S., Canada, the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and South Africa. Almost all teachers apply for an ARC through their employers only after starting work and it is tied to their ongoing employment with that school. Therefore, if the teacher wishes to leave their employment, they will have to quickly find an alternative employer or lose their ARC and hence be required to leave Taiwan. Also, very few schools will arrange an ARC without at least a year-long contract being signed. Frankly, with all this inflexibility, it's no wonder so many teachers opt for the non-legal route. That and tax evasion.
Citizens of Germany, Australia, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Ireland and Canada aged 18-30 can apply for a working holiday visa. For more information, visit the Bureau of Consular Affairs website.
After living in Taiwan continuously for 5 years, you may apply for permanent residency, which if granted, allows you to live and work in Taiwan indefinitely without restrictions.
A lot of the illegal teaching work that the majority of English teachers partake in is simply through private student tuition with payment being cash-in-hand. You can find a lot of private students around universities that have a Chinese-teaching department - look for the areas where all the foreign students will be and check the noticeboards. Because the majority of adult private students want to practice English conversation, you won't need to have any Chinese ability. However, it is definitely a selling point and, if you do have Chinese-speaking ability, it's worthwhile mentioning that in any advertising of your services. Also, once you have some regular students, remember that in Taiwan, as in most Asian countries, 'connections' or 'guanxi' are very important - if your students like you, they will in all likelihood recommend you to their family and friends.
Teaching English in Taiwan can be lucrative, as the salaries are very high compared to the cost of living, typically ranging NT$500-650 per hour before deductions in most language schools, with anything between NT$500-1000 per hour being negotiable for private students. In the past few years, the flow of would-be teachers into Taiwan has increased dramatically, resulting in stiffer competition for jobs and a general drop in wages and this trend may continue. Employers of English teachers are notorious for racial discrimination. White people are much more likely to get better offers than other races regardless of ability.
Aside from English-teaching, other common kinds of employment available for mainly native English-speaking travelers include such tid-bits as small acting parts for TV and film, voice talent (video games, dubbing tracks, etc.), editing and even writing educational materials. Many of these will be advertised on billboards in Chinese language-teaching institutes and universities, where there are likely to be many foreign students.
If after travelling and living there, you find you are serious about working in Taiwan, the most lucrative employment to be had is if you are employed by a multinational company, perhaps in a high-paying country like the UK, U.S. or Australia, and you are sent across to their office in Taiwan. Many foreigners end up doing the same job as their colleagues who were employed in the Taiwan office, but for perhaps 3 or 4 times their pay.
Taiwan is very safe for tourists, even for women at night. This is not to say, however, that there is no crime, and you should always exercise caution. In crowded areas such as night markets or festivals, for example, pickpockets are a known problem. However, it is fair to say that the streets of Taiwan are generally very safe and that violent crime and muggings are very rare.
In addition, it is also very unusual to see drunks on the street, day or night.
Like anywhere else in the world, women should be cautious when taking taxis alone late at night. Although they are generally safe, it's a good idea to arrange to have a friend call you when you get home and to be seen making the arrangements for this by the cab driver. It also helps if a friend sees you being picked up as taxis have visible license numbers. As an additional safety precaution, tell taxi drivers just the street name and section instead of your exact address.
Police departments in most jurisdictions have a Foreign Affairs Police unit staffed by English speaking officers. When reporting a major crime, it is advisable to contact the Foreign Affairs unit in addition to officers at the local precinct. Police stations are marked with a red light above the door and display a sign with the word "Police" clearly printed in English. For more information see the National Police Agency website .
Foreign victims of a major crime in Taiwan are also advised to report the matter to their government's representative office in Taipei.
Also, remember that you call 110 for police in Taiwan, and 119 for fire department or medical help. Most of the public telephone booths will allow you to call 110 or 119 for free. See "Emergency Phone Numbers" section below.
Emergency phone numbers
- Police: 110
- Fire/Ambulance: 119
The police and fire/ambulance offer service in English.
For those who need Taiwanese governmental assistance in English, this website has a 24-hour toll-free foreigner service hotline at 0800-024-111, which you may call for assistance.
Taiwan often experiences typhoons (颱風) during the summer months and early fall, especially on the East Coast. Heavy monsoon rainfall also occurs during the summer. Hikers and mountaineers should be sure to consult weather reports before heading into the mountains. A major hazard following heavy rainfall in the mountains is falling rocks (土石流) caused by the softening of the earth and there are occasional reports of people being killed or injured by these.
Taiwan is also located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, which means that earthquakes are a common occurrence. Most earthquakes are barely noticeable, though the effect may be slightly amplified for those in higher buildings. While the local building codes are extremely strict, general precautions should still be observed during an earthquake, including opening the door for preventing it being jammed, taking cover and checking for gas leaks afterwards.
Taiwan's wild areas are home to a variety of poisonous snakes, including the bamboo viper, Russel's viper, banded krait, coral snake, Chinese cobra, Taiwan habu, and the so-called "hundred pacer" (百步蛇). Precautions against snake bites include making plenty of noise as you hike, wearing long trousers and avoiding overgrown trails. Most snakes are scared of humans, so if you make noise you will give them time to get away. Walking quietly means that you may suddenly startle them around a corner when you appear, and trigger an attack. The Russel's viper, one of the most dangerous snakes in Taiwan, is an exception...it generally prefers to take a stand against threats.
Local drivers have a well-deserved reputation for seeming reckless and downright immoral. It is possible (even normal) to obtain a driving license in Taiwan without ever having driven on the roads, and this may be a reason (along with the overcrowded roads) why courteous or defensive driving is definitely not the norm. The guiding principles seem to be that the right of way belongs to the larger vehicle, i.e. trucks have the right-of-way over cars, cars over motorcycles, motorcycles over people, etc. Despite traffic's chaotic appearance, it is viscerally intuitive to yield the right-of-way to a much larger vehicle barreling towards you. It is advisable to use slow and smooth movements over quick or sudden ones. Local drivers regularly cut in front of moving traffic into spaces that seem too small, try to change lanes regardless of the fact their destination is already full, etc. Be aware that during busy traffic (i.e. nearly always) two-lane roads will spontaneously become three-lane, an orange light will be interpreted as 'speed up', and the smallest moment's pause in oncoming traffic will result in everybody that's waiting trying to turn across it. Drivers routinely enter a junction when their exit is blocked, and are therefore frequently still there long after the lights change, blocking traffic traveling in other directions. Many motorcycle riders also have a tendency to zip through any space, no matter how tiny. Also be aware that motorcycles often travel through areas typically considered as pedestrian-only spaces, like the night-markets.
If you happen to drive a car or a motorcycle, the obvious rule is that if someone turns in front of you, you should be the one to adapt. To avoid collisions, drivers need to be extremely vigilant for other vehicles creating hazards and always be willing to adjust speed or direction to accommodate. Do not expect drivers to yield way, or respect traffic lights in many areas, especially in central and southern Taiwan. Sounding the horn is the usual way a Taiwanese driver indicates that they do not intend to accommodate a driver trying to encroach on their lane, etc., and does not necessarily imply the anger or criticism, as it does in other countries. One bright side of Taiwan's chaotic traffic is that drivers tend to have an exceptional awareness of the spatial extents of their vehicle and maneuver well, so that even though it continuously looks like somebody is about to drive straight into you, it's relatively rare that they actually do so.
Be extra careful when crossing the road, even to the extent of looking both ways on a one-way street. When crossing at a pedestrian-crossing at a T-junction or crossroads, be aware that when the little green man lights up and you start crossing, motorists will still try to turn right, with or without a green feeder light. Even on roads where traffic is infrequent and the green light is in your favor, bike-riders are still strongly advised to check the opposite lane.
Air pollution can be significant with the highest ratio of scooters per person in the world and a high west coast urban density. You can check air quality real time monitoring on this page. For reference the USA standard for fine particles (PM2.5) over 24 hours should be below 35µg/m3. It is a good idea to use a mask that can filter fine particles (how to choose a mask), especially when traveling with the elderly or children.
Water quality in Taiwan varies depending on location and time. According to the sole water company of Taiwan, tap water is in general safe to drink. However, it is advised that drinking water be boiled in order to eliminate residual chlorine and bacteria.
Taiwan is prone to typhoons and earthquakes, which adversely affects water quality. Some buildings, particularly older ones, may have poorly maintained water towers and/or pipes, resulting in poor quality that is beyond the control of the water company. Depending on the severity, one might either filter the water in addition to boiling or avoid the taps altogether. Alternative options include buying bottled water or going to a "water station" where water is sold through a metered tap. Water from these sources is licensed to be safe for drinking. Bottled water can be bought in 24 hour convenience stores.
Historically, water quality in Kaohsiung was very poor. As a result, most people today use alternative sources. However, there is little evidence that this is necessary today as the quality has improved drastically. In addition, the mentioned alternative sources today are mostly filtered tap water and do not circumvent the historical source of contamination.
Medicines are available for minor ailments at drug stores. You may also find common drugs requiring a prescription in the west (like asthma inhalers and birth control pills) cheaply available from drug stores without a prescription.
Taiwan has both Chinese physicians and Western doctors, both of which are taken equally seriously. However, as a foreigner, the assumption would generally be to direct you to a Western doctor. The quality of the hospitals in Taiwan is excellent and on par with, if not better than those found in the West. Taiwan's healthcare system is considered to be one of the best in the world. Legal residents with a National Health Card can avail themselves of the very convenient and efficient national health service, which covers treatment and medication using both Western and traditional Chinese medicine. However, this service is not available to short term visitors on tourist visas; nor does it cover major hospitalization expenses. Still, hospital visits and medicine in Taiwan tends to be far less expensive than in Western countries. Most Taiwanese doctors are able to communicate in at least basic English, and in fact, many of the top ones have obtained their medical qualifications in the US and are able to speak English fluently. However, you may find the nurses to be more of a challenge.
Watch out for mosquito bites when hiking in the mountains. Especially in the summer, the humid and hot weather makes mosquitos very active. Most mosquito bites only cause skin irritation and itching, but in some areas of Taiwan it's possible to contract dengue fever or Japanese Encephalitis (though they are both rare in Taiwan). Mosquito/insect repellent spray can be found at convenience stores (such as 7-Eleven and FamilyMart) and local pharmacies. If you are bitten by mosquitos, apply a small amount of ointment for irritation relief.
Taiwan shares several cultural taboos/guidelines with other East Asian nations:
- When giving and receiving business cards, always do it using two hands and with a slight bow of the head. Receiving a business card with only one hand is very disrespectful.
- Some Taiwanese are superstitious about anything connected with dying – unlucky things should never be mentioned. The number 4 (four, pronounced 'si') sounds like the word for death in Mandarin.
- Do not write people's names in red. This again has connotations of death. When writing someone's English name, this is not a problem, but avoid writing Chinese names in red.
- Do not whistle or ring a bell at night. This is an "invitation to ghosts".
- Do not point at cemeteries or graves. This means disrespect to the deaths.
- There are numerous taboos dictating that certain objects shouldn't be given to others, often because the word for that object sounds like another unfortunate word:
- Umbrellas, which in Mandarin sound the same as the word for "break up". Friends should therefore never give friends umbrellas. Instead, friends will euphemistically "rent" each other umbrellas for a tiny amount (NT$1, for example).
- Clocks. The phrase "to give a clock" ("song zhong"), in Mandarin, has the same sound as the word "to perform last rites." If you do give someone a clock, the recipient may give you a coin in return to dispel the curse.
- Shoes. Never ever offer shoes as a gift to old people, as it signifies sending them on their way to heaven. This is acceptable only if by mutual arrangement it is nominally sold, where the receiving party gives a small payment of about NT$10.
- Knives or sharp objects, as they are made for or could be used to hurt the person.
- The Taiwanese are certainly not puritanical and enjoy a drink, especially the locally brewed Taiwan Beer and Kaoliang. However, Taiwan does not have a culture of heavy drinking and is rare to see anyone drunk on the streets. While over indulging in alcohol is not a social taboo as such (and some people do so at weddings), it is considered a sign of lack of self-confidence and immaturity, and doing so certainly won't gain you any respect among Taiwanese friends.
- You are expected to remove your shoes before entering a house. You will find some slippers to be worn by visitors next to the entrance door. It is likely to be the same ritual for bathrooms and balconies where you will be expected to remove your slippers to wear a pair of plastic sandals (though it is less shocking not to use the sandals by then).
- As you will get along with Taiwanese people, you are very likely to receive small presents of any sorts. This will be drinks, food, little objects... These are a very convenient way to lubricate social relations for Taiwanese people, and are especially common between friends in their 20s. You should reply to any such presents with something similar, but it does not need to be immediate, or specific to the person (i.e. keep it simple). As a teacher you are not expected to offer anything in return (i.e. in a classroom environment) as long as the relationship stays formal. However beware of the sometimes overly generous parents who can go as far as offering presents running in the thousands of NT$ and who will then expect you to take special care of their child (understand that their expectations will be considered as fair in Taiwanese culture).
- You are not expected to tip in hotels, restaurants and taxis, though bellhops may still expect NT$50 or so for carrying your luggage.
- Much like the mainland Chinese, "saving face" is also a major value in Taiwanese culture. In general, you should avoid pointing out other people's mistakes in order to avoid causing major embarrassment and if you really have to, call the person to one side and do it in private, and try to do it in a polished manner.
- If you should need to use a temple's washroom, bow to any statues of deities you see on the way whether or not you believe in them. While most people will not mind you using the temple's washroom, they expect you to treat their place of worship with respect. If you plan to offer gifts (such as simple fruits) to the statues of deities in the temple, it is expected that you wash the fruits and your hands prior to offering. In addition, upon entering and leaving a temple, do take and avoid stepping directly on the raised threshold: always try to step over it.
Similar to other Asian countries, swastikas are commonly seen in Buddhist temples as a religious symbol. It emphatically does not represent Nazism or anti-Semitism.
Taiwanese society is rather polarized by allegiance between supporters of the two major political blocs informally known as "Pan-Blue Coalition" and "Pan-Green Coalition", although there are large numbers of people who are either centrist or who don't care. To simplify a very complex situation, pan-blue supporters tend to be more favorable toward the idea of (re)unification or maintaining a status-quo with China and pan-green supporters tend to be more favorable toward the idea of establishing a formally independent Taiwan state, among other differences.
Although there are some correlations, it is highly unwise to assume anything about a particular person's political beliefs based on what you think you know about their background. Also, this very brief sketch of Taiwanese politics obscures a large amount of complexity.
Unless you know your listener well, it is unwise to say anything (either positive or negative) about the current government, about historical figures in Taiwanese history, about Taiwan's international relations, or about relations with mainland China. Some political figures such as Sun Yat-sen (who is also popular in the PRC and with the Chinese government) and Chiang Ching-kuo are generally seen positively, but others (Chiang Kai-shek, Lee Teng-hui and Chen Shui-bian in particular) arouse very polarized feelings.
Some Taiwanese will get very offended if you imply that Taiwan is part of China. Others will get very offended if you imply that Taiwan is not part of China. Referring to the PRC as "mainland China" (中國大陸 zhōngguó dàlù) rather than simply China will tend not to offend anyone as the term is generally used to exclude Hong Kong and Macau as well, making it less subjective. Referring to the Republic of China as a whole as "Taiwan Province" will draw a negative reaction from most Taiwanese. "Greater China" may be used in certain business contexts. Keep in mind, however, that there are so many subtleties and complexities here that if you are talking about these things, you've already wandered into a minefield.
However, simply referring to the island as "Taiwan" is fine, as that is the name used by the locals, regardless of their political persuasion. Titles such as "Republic of China" are reserved for official matters only.
Taiwan is generally a safe destination for gay and lesbian travellers. Although same-sex marriages are not recognised by the Taiwanese government yet, in May 2017 the Constitutional Court ordered legislation that allows same-sex marriageto to be passed within two years. There are no laws against homosexuality in Taiwan and unprovoked violence against gays and lesbians is almost unheard of. Taiwan is also the first East Asian country to have enacted anti-discrimination laws on the basis of sexual orientation in the areas of education and employment. There is an annual gay pride event called Taiwan Pride.
Acceptance among the Taiwanese public tends to be measured, and homosexuality is still considered to be somewhat of a social taboo, particularly by the older generation. Openly displaying your sexual orientation in public is likely to draw stares and whispers from some people. Nevertheless, attitudes are changing and homosexuality tends to be more accepted by the younger people.
Taiwanese feelings towards the Japanese occupation (1895-1945) are for the most part more positive than in most other Asian countries. Some of the older people who lived through the period of Japanese rule often bear a certain degree of nostalgia for that time, although there was strong resistance and massacres of both Chinese and Aboriginal people were carried out throughout the occupation. Nevertheless, many Taiwanese bear a sense of gratitude towards the Japanese for modernizing Taiwan, and most native Taiwanese regard Japanese rule more favorably than the subsequent Kuomintang rule under Chiang Kai-shek.
Younger Taiwanese continue to aspire to modern Japanese pop culture, and the Taiwanese entertainment industry continues to be heavily influenced by Japan.
Internet cafes are plentiful, although you may have to wander around before finding one. Rather, Internet cafes in Taiwan should be called gaming cafes. These are often found on the first or second floor of a building, and equipped with very comfortable chairs and large screens. Although people do surf the Internet, most people primarily go there for a smooth experience of online gaming. Each hour of Internet access/game play is cheap, coming in at around NT$20. Some machines in the internet cafes are coin operated. For free internet access in big cities, try out the local libraries. In addition, a wireless internet accessing net covering all of Taipei City is available (payable at convenient stores in Taipei City) and Kaohsiung City is currently under construction; it already works in some huge MRT stations and on some special points. You will need some sort of login. There is also a common wifi network available at every McDonald's. The login is partly in English.
If you want an internet connection to your smartphone, you can purchase a prepaid 4G unlimited data sim card from Chunghwa Telecom at a cost of NT$300 for 3 days, or NT$500 for 7 days (other periods are available as well). Just walk into any official Chunghwa Telecom shop to apply (also at Taoyuan International Airport both before and after the baggage area). They need your passport and identification documents of your country of origin. (Driving license or identification card)
The standard prefix for international calls from Taiwan is 002, though some other companies may use alternative prefixes at lower rates. Check with your telecom operator for more details. Calls to mainland China, Hong Kong or Macau require international dialling. The country code for calls to Taiwan is +886. Most payphones work with telephone cards (電話卡) which are available at all convenience stores.
Numbers Starting With 0800 are commercial toll-free numbers, just like the 1-800 numbers in North America.
Mobile phone coverage is generally excellent in Taiwan, with the exception of some remote mountainous areas. Among the major providers are Chunghwa Telecom (中華電信), Taiwan Mobile (台灣大哥大), Far EasTone (遠傳電信) and Vibo (威寶電信). Taiwan has both 3G (UMTS/W-CDMA 2100) and 4G (LTE) networks and roaming might be possible for users of such mobile phones, subject to agreements between operators. The last 2G networks were shut down in July 2017.
Taiwan has a very free and liberal press. There are two daily newspapers available in English:
A third English-language newspaper, Taiwan News (formerly China News), is no longer available on paper but continues to exist online.
Other news sources:
- Central News Agency
- RTI (Radio Taiwan International)
- the Taiwan Economic News
- Taiwan Headlines [dead link]
- Taiwan Today
- Taiwan Sun
- Highway 11 Magazine [dead link] - A free east coast travel and lifestyle magazine in Hualien County - bilingual
- Xpat - a magazine dedicated to promoting arts and culture in Taiwan - English.
- Lifestyle - info on Taiwan relating to what's on and current trends - bilingual.
- Taiphoon - a magazine dedicated to promoting peace and environmental awareness in Taiwan - bilingual.
- Journey East - a travel and lifestyle magazine for northern Taiwan - bilingual.
- ICRT (short for "International Community Radio Taipei") is an English-language radio station available island-wide on FM 100. The programming consists mostly of currently popular music with hourly news bulletins throughout the morning, afternoon and early evening.