Urban rail is passenger transportation on rail within urban areas (typically less than 50 kilometres), including rapid transit as well as light rail, funiculars, monorail and other modes of transport. They differ from railways, which typically carry freight and passenger traffic across long distances.
Most urban rail systems are part of a government-subsidized public transport network and many carry large numbers of passengers, especially in larger cities; the Tokyo system averages over 8 million a day and Shanghai almost 7 million. These systems therefore almost always cost less than taxicabs and are often both faster than driving and cheaper than paying for parking. However, there are fairly often problems with overcrowding, especially at rush hours.
With gas prices generally on the rise, despite very recent trends to the contrary, and political concern for environmental protection and CO2 emissions becoming more and more important, almost all countries and cities that have rapid transit systems are in the process of upgrading, modernizing and expanding their networks sometimes very rapidly. Unfortunately, this can also mean construction sites that slow down traffic, and information about a public transit system can be outdated despite being only a few years or even months old.
The urban rail system is usually extended by buses, in some cases within the same ticket system.
Types of urban transit
There are many different kinds of urban transit:
- Rapid transit or metro is urban transit with grade separation from other traffic. The terms subway and underground bear witness that many rapid transit lines go below ground, and the tube refers to them running through tunnels. However, by no means all transit lines are underground; elevated rail is widely used as well.
- Light rail typically moves at ground level, often with small vehicles of shorter range that are known as trams or streetcars. Many cities worldwide developed systems of this nature towards the end of the 19th Century, but with the rise of the automobile many fell from favor and were either removed or left to disintegrate. Now, however, with the increased popularity of public transport in much of the world, many cities are re-instating and re-invigorating their tram systems for the 21st Century. Some notable examples of cities with light rail networks are Barcelona, Cologne, Denver, Manchester, Melbourne, Hong Kong, San Francisco, and Toronto. Streetcars experienced a renaissance starting in France in the 1970s and many cities in Europe now have comprehensive systems that are often not only the cheapest and most environmentally friendly but also the fastest way around town. Central and Eastern Europe also tend to have dense networks as they were slower in dismantling their streetcar systems and are almost universally reinvigorating and modernizing their systems, sometimes even building new lines that run on dedicated tracks.
- Commuter trains are local passenger trains, either on the national rail network or on dedicated regional networks. Commuter trains are usually less comfortable than national railroad trains, but part of the local transit ticket system. The German term S-Bahn has spread to many neighboring countries as well and many commuter trains in Europe are named a similar term. In North America commuter train systems are often known by the acronym of the governing authority, e.g. BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) in the San Francisco Bay Area and GO (Government of Ontario) Trains in the Toronto region.
- Unusual forms of rail are sometimes used, for single lines if not whole systems. For example, Seattle built an elevated monorail line for the 1962 World's Fair that is still in service, and Chongqing has several monorail lines. Shanghai has a magnetic levitation line to Pudong Airport with speeds over 400 km/h (250 mph). The German city of Wuppertal has had a suspension railway since 1901.
- Most rapid transit systems use rails, but there are exceptions. Much of Ottawa's system uses buses on dedicated roads called the Transitway while cities such as Xiamen have Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) using elevated bus-only roads. A reference site for BRT systems lists about 40 cities worldwide, roughly half of them in China. Not all such traffic runs on bus-only roads; often some lanes on normal roads are restricted to buses, at least during rush hours, and in some systems the core has special roads but out at the periphery the buses continue via normal roads.
- Some very hilly cities and a number of cities in developing countries also use funicular railways or aerial passenger tramways. While they often offer spectacular views and may be the only way to get up steep slopes, their maintenance may prove challenging. Cities with such systems include Dresden and Bogotá.
- Trolley-buses don't run on rails either but as their motive power is provided through overhead wires, their mobility is tied to a pre-built network much like that of systems running on rails. They were an important part in public transport in the former eastern bloc and remain important in those countries as well as in Canada and Switzerland.
Each of these methods is used in some cities, and it is fairly common for a single city to combine several. For example, Shanghai's system mainly uses underground rail lines downtown and elevated lines in the suburbs, and it also includes an extensive bus network, a fast magnetic levitation rail line to Pudong Airport and a tram system in one suburban neighborhood.
Nearly all such systems offer convenient connections to other transport. For local travel, most metro stations have bus or tram stops nearby, some have a major terminus for buses or trams, and many have a taxi stand. For long distance travel, nearly all rapid transit systems offer convenient connections to railway stations and airports. In London, for example, all the railway stations and Heathrow Airport are on the underground, and the other airports can be reached by trains which depart from underground stations.
There are various methods needed to get into urban rail systems in different cities. In many cases, some form of plastic card or paper ticket must be tapped, swiped, or inserted into a machine for riders to be able to physically — or at least legally — enter the platform. In other cases, it can be perfectly legal to access the platform without having first purchased a ticket, but riding the train without buying a ticket from a ticket machine on the platform and validating it by inserting it into another machine that stamps or perforates it could incur a heavy fine.
There are also different ways to leave the system. Some systems require riders to tap or insert a card or ticket into a machine before leaving the system, too, while others put no impediment whatsoever in the path of departing commuters or simply require them to walk through a door or turnstile.
What riders may carry
There are all sorts of different regulations as to what you may or may not carry into a train and whether it does or does not incur an additional charge. Many subway systems allow riders to carry bicycles with them onto the train, at least outside of rush hours, but it is not always free for your bicycle to ride with you. In Berlin, for example, bicycles are welcome anytime but require a separate bicycle ticket, on penalty of a large fine.
Singapore's MRT is one of several South-East Asian transit systems that includes a sign showing a durian with a line through it, the quasi-international sign for "No durians allowed!" The fruit is quite tasty and is popular throughout the region, but it smells awful.
Public transport systems often have harsher rules of order than other public areas, usually banning alcoholic beverages, but this varies between different systems. Travelling with pets may be restricted: For example, some systems such as New York's require all pets to be brought in carriers, rather than merely leashed or hand-held, though small dogs that can fit in a handbag are OK as long as they stay there. In German cities such as Berlin, however, a single ticket is specifically noted to be good for one person and one dog (extra reduced-fare tickets are needed for additional dogs), and dogs need only be leashed. Regulations for service animals are quite often more liberal than regulations for pets, and form part of the national and/or local policy on the rights of disabled people.
Some systems also display short poems or excerpts from longer poems and descriptive prose in train cars, under a programme called "Poetry in Motion" which was started by the London Tube and adopted by other mass transit systems around the world including the Metropolitan Transit Authority that runs the New York City subways and buses.
Some rapid transit systems are well known for buskers or more formally organized performances. Among the systems where you can hear some high-quality performances by buskers in corridors are the London Tube and the Paris Metro. New York City is one of the places where there is a formal system for selecting approved performers. Every year, there are auditions at Grand Central Terminal for Music Under New York, which gives artists a chance to perform on a regular schedule without hassles by the police, while they display the official logo of the program. The London Underground also has designated sites in prominent areas where licensed buskers can perform.
Pickpocketing is common in urban rail systems. Follow the usual principles: Try to avoid displaying yourself as an out-of-town traveller, don't carry more baggage than you can keep track of, keep valuables near your body, and never put anything you don't want to lose in your back pants pockets or jacket pockets, only your front pants pockets or a money belt.
Another hazard of some rapid transit systems, especially during rush hour when trains are crowded, is molestation. It's to be expected that in very crowded systems during rush hour, people will be mashed against each other, but that is no excuse for someone to deliberately touch a stranger's private parts. Some rapid-transit systems, such as in Tokyo and Dubai, have women-only areas. Others, like New York's, post and play announcements against molestation and advise victims not to remain silent. If you are being molested in a crowded metro car, speak up, and the rest of the passengers will generally support you.
An obvious danger is falling onto the tracks. These are often electrified, so touching them can be fatal. Additionally, being struck by a train is also likely considering the high frequency of services. If you accidentally drop anything onto the tracks, inform the station staff and make no attempt to retrieve the item yourself, no matter how valuable it is.
Many rapid transport systems have installed automatic doors between the platform and the tracks, such as in Seoul, Tokyo, Hong Kong and London. This is done for general safety and also to prevent suicides. However, do not be surprised if some stations on a network lack such doors.
Generally speaking, if you get stuck in a train door owing to a crowded compartment, the train will not move and will open the door again. However, there have been cases, such as in Shanghai, when people have died after the train started to move whilst they were caught in the door.
Cities with rapid transit
Also, Alexandria has a tram system that opened in 1860.
Xiamen has a system called BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) using buses on elevated bus-only roads.
China has made impressive strides in its transportation infrastructure. That is just as true in regard to rapid transit systems as any other sector. The Metro systems in Changsha, Chengdu, Foshan, Harbin, Hangzhou, Kunming, Ningbo, Shenyang, Suzhou, Xian, and Zhengzhou — over half the cities currently served — all opened since 2010, with more to come.
India's rapid transit systems are all rather new. Kolkata's opened in 1984, but the rest have all opened since 2002, including the Metro in the new metropolis of Gurgaon, which opened in 2013, and Mumbai's system, which is new as of 2014.
Jerusalem's system opened in 2011. Haifa's single-line Carmelit is considerably older, having originally opened in 1956. Sadly, the Jerusalem Light Rail system, which Jerusalem's government meant to symbolize the unity of the city, has been a focus of terrorism and violence between the city's Arab and Jewish communities recently, with several deadly incidents taking place at or near the stations.
Almaty - Almaty's rapid transit system opened in 2012.
The Seoul Metropolitan Railway system had the highest daily ridership in the world in 2012. If all the local train and metro lines are included, the total track length is almost 1,000 km, which would make it the largest system in the world.
United Arab Emirates
Helsinki - Helsinki boasts the world's northernmost underground urban rail system and metro station.
German cities have many types of urban rail, comprising full trains (S-Bahn), underground (U-Bahn) and trams. Rapid transit coverage is impressive, and in general, very efficient.
The procedure at all types of railway systems in Germany is to purchase a ticket and then validate it before boarding. Metro systems typically have ticket machines on platforms. In Berlin's S-Bahn and U-Bahn systems, each ticket is good for one person and one dog; additional dogs require more tickets. Bicycles can be brought on board but require an additional, cheaper bicycle ticket.
In addition to Metro systems, Italy also has funicular railways, most famously in Naples but also in some smaller cities like Bergamo in the north.
The Moscow Metro, opened in 1935, and the Saint Petersburg Metro, opened in 1955, are famous for the beauty and artistry of their stations. Due to the facts that the city sits on swampland and that the metro stations were explicitly designed as bomb shelters in time of war, the stations in the St. Petersburg system are often extremely deep with long escalators.
London's venerable and still well-functioning mass transit system is officially known as the London Underground, but everyone calls it the Tube. There are numerous lines, but the maps are clear. Make sure to tap your card at the card reader machines on the way in and out of the system, in order to validate it.
Ottawa has some light rail (the O Train) but most rapid transit uses buses on bus-only roads (the Transitway).
Santo Domingo - The Santo Domingo Metro opened in 2009.
Panama City - The Panama City Metro opened in 2014.
Different names are used for the mass transit systems in different U.S. cities. For example, in New York, Philadelphia, and Los Angeles, they are called the subway; in Boston, the T; the system in Chicago, where a larger percentage of the tracks is elevated than in New York, is called the El (for Elevated). Washington, D.C. calls its system the Metro. San Francisco has the BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit, which is primarily a commuter rail, with only one trunk traversed by several lines within the city) and also MUNI.
New York's subway system is the only one in the world that functions 24 hours of every day, except when disasters force a shutdown, which is very rare. Unlike many other subway systems, while New York's system requires riders to swipe a plastic card — called a MetroCard — through a turnstile to enter, no action needs to be taken to leave the system other than walking through a turnstile or other form of egress.
Buenos Aires - Opened in 1913, the oldest metro system in Latin America, Southern Hemisphere and the Hispanosphere still operated wooden wagons on some lines until recently.
Salvador's system opened just in time for the 2014 World Cup.
Melbourne has an effective and comprehensive inner city tram system. Sydney and Adelaide both have a basic tram system, although plans are to extend through the inner city. Melbourne, Sydney, Perth and Brisbane have rail services to the outer suburbs. In Sydney there is a small central underground system, in practice a continuation of suburban local trains past the Central station. As they are operated by the same large double-decker cars while the stations are not larger than regular "underground" stations, it can be a slightly surreal feeling to see the train arrive.
Articles on rapid transit systems
Museums covering urban rail
- Cable Car Museum. San Francisco (in Nob Hill)
- Glasgow Riverside Museum, 100 Pointhouse Place, Glasgow, Scotland UK (subway: Kelvinhall), ☎ . M-Th and Sa 10AM-5PM, F and Su 11AM-5PM. The museum includes a recreated subway station. Free.
- Hanover Tramway Museum, Hohenfelser Straße 16, 31319 Sehnde, Germany (near Hanover). The museum presents the only nationwide collection of trams in Germany.
- London Transport Museum. London (in Covent Garden)
- Melbourne Tram Museum (Hawthorn Tram Depot). Melbourne, Australia (in the Eastern suburbs)
- National Tramway Museum, Derbyshire, UK. Also known as Crich Tramway Village
- New York Transit Museum. Brooklyn, New York City (in Downtown Brooklyn)
- Stockholm Transport Museum. Södermalm, Stockholm
- Swedish Urban Transport Museum (Malmköping, north of Flen). Though Malmköping is barely a town, it hosts streetcars from most Swedish cities.
- Sydney Tramway Museum, Rawson Pde, Loftus, Greater Sydney, Australia (Adjacent to Loftus Railway Station, no entry from Metroad 1 heading south). Su,W 10AM-5PM. Additional days school holidays. They have an old Bondi tram, overseas trams, and tram rides, including rides to the Royal National Park. They also have a large display area.
- Shanghai Maglev Museum, Longyang Road Station, Pudong, Shanghai, China (Directly above Longyang Road metro station (Lines 2 & 7)). The Maglev is the fastest train in the world, going at up to 430 kph and taking 8 minutes to travel the 40 km to the airport. A museum dedicated to this technology is built inside the Maglev station.