Diyarbakır (Kurdish and Zaza: Amed; the Turkified form of Diyarbekir is also common in colloquial Kurdish) is the largest city in Southeastern Anatolia. It is on the Tigris, one of the greatest rivers of the Middle East, and is considered by many to be the capital of the Kurdish people.
Earliest references to the place come from Assyrian records, which mention it as the capital of the Aramean kingdom of Bit-Zamani (ca. 1300 BC). The Romans conquered the city and named it Amida, after the earlier Assyrian name Amid. During the Roman rule, the city walls were built, per the command of the Roman emperor Constantius II. After the Romans, came the Persians, and after them the Muslim Arabs. It was the leader of the Arab Bekr tribe, Bekr Bin Vail, who named the city Diyar Bakr, meaning "the country of Bakr", i.e. Arabs.
After a few centuries, Diyarbakır came under the Ottoman Empire and earned the status of the capital of a large province.
The 1 Airportis about 15 km (9.3 mi) from the old quarter.
There is one overnight train from the capital Ankara, the Guney Kurtalan Express, running five days per week. The train continues eastwards to Batman and the terminus Kurtalan, near Siirt. Journey time from Ankara is just over 20 hours and the train arrives early morning. Main stops along the route are Kayseri, Sivas, and Malatya. The train carries both couchettes, sleeping cars and a dining car. Additionally, there is a twice-daily regional train from Batman. National operator TCDD[dead link] sells tickets online.
With the construction of high-speed lines over the coming years, journey times are expected to decrease somewhat.
- 2 Diyarbakır railway station (Diyarbakır garı), İstasyon Cd.
Many local bus companies offer services from cities all over Turkey, including, among others, Erzurum (6 hours, bargainable down to 35 TL from the standard fare of 50 TL), and Mardin (dolmuş-type service, 2 hours, 9 TL—make sure you have your change back if you have no exact amount). The main bus station (3 otogar) is about 10 km (6.2 mi) away from the city centre, along the highway to Urfa. A taxi to the old quarter should cost around 100 TL (Sep 2022).
When traveling westwards by bus or car be prepared for several ID check ups at military checkpoints.
You first stop should be the 4 tourism information where you can get a free booklet in English about the history and sights of the city. All main attractions are concentric around this location so it makes for a perfect starting point.
The old city containing many mosques and churches, is a little run down but enclosed in magnificent walls. The city walls are very old and certainly worth a walk around. Some of towers are restored by the municipality and are easy to reach from the center of the old city. One such is 1 Kechi Burcu, which offers a nice view of Tigris river below the city, and a great look over the city walls—a teahouse offering traditional tea is nearby as well. However, be careful while walking on the walls and do not enter into all of the towers which looks fancy enough, as some of them are home to junkies.
The old city is like a village in the middle of the city with village mentality; goose running around, women having cay in front of their houses and kids shouting to foreigners the few English words they know.
However, walking around in the city center is unique and totally different from other Turkish cities. You'll see people as they live their everyday Kurdish life. If you are lucky, you may even get invited for a tea by a friendly shop owner.
To avoid problems, dress modestly. There is extensive development outside including a pleasant park. It's called 2 Gazi Kösk and it contains many teahouses and traditional bed-like constructions, where you sink into cushions and drink tea while overlooking the Tigris river below. A little further south on the main road, there is the 3 Ten-Arched Bridge that crosses the Tigris. It's a popular spot for families and young people to hang out and especially beautiful at night, to drink tea or smoke Nargileh.
The Diyarbakir fortress has been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
- 4 Great Mosque of Diyarbakır (Diyarbakır Ulu Camii), Gazi Cd (In centre of the Old Town, near main crossroad). The oldest mosque in Anatolia, built in the 11th century by Malikh Shah, the Emir of the Seljuk Turks. Considered to be the 5th holiest mosque. Free.
- 5 Kervanseray (Sülüklü Han), Gazi Cd (Opposite to the Great Mosque). Old caravanserai, now used as a place for cafes, bookstores, and souvenir shops. Free.
- 6 Virgin Mary Church (Meryem Ana Kilisesi), Ana Sokak 26, Suriçi (in the Old Town, close to Melik Ahmet Cd, signposts indicate where the church is). Closed on Mondays. Schedule is usually not respected.. A Syrian Orthodox church founded in 3rd century. If you are lucky, the priest will sing you a fragment of the Bible in Aramaic. 5 TL.
- 7 Surp Giragos Armenian church (Ermeni Kilisesi) (next to the Virgin Mary Church, signposts indicate where the church is). The largest Armenian church in the Middle East. It stood derelict for decades before the restoration that allowed the first inauguration for a long time, held in October 2011. It then started serving the local Armenian community. However, an armed clash took place nearby in 2016, heavily damaging the building, and it had to be reconstructed. free.
- 8 Diyarbakır Fortress (Diyarbakir Castle). Consisting of inner and outer fortress, it was originally built by the Romans. The inner fortress has several sights and museums. 10 TL inner fortress. Outer fortress is Free.
- 9 Diyarbakır Archaeological Museum, Cevat Paşa Mahallesi, Hz. Süleyman Caddesi, No:43 İçkale (inside the inner fortress), ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org. Small museum that depicts the history of the city. Well worth spending and hour. 10 TL.
- 10 Saint George Church (Saint George Kilisesi) (inside the fortress). Closed for renovation as of Dec 2020 that should have been completed on Sep 2020.
- 11 Ataturk Museum. A couple of rooms depicting the time Ataturk lived in the city as a military commander as well as a visit he made much later. Free.
You can go for a walk on the old city wall. Get onto it at the northern gate and walk anticlockwise to Mardin Gate. Great views of the surrounding area and the city and it's free. Single tourists might be conspicuous, however, and should beware of pickpockets. The walls serve as home to drug addicts, criminals and poor children - don't wander alone.
Many tourists only visit the old part of Diyarbakir, but don't miss the new and modern New City. Around Ofis district you find a lot of nice bars and cafès filled with lots of students and young couples. Some bars have live music; ask some locals on the street for suggestions. Don't worry about security issues as this part of the city is filled with policemen.
In the old city you will find many people manufacturing metal tools by hand - sickles, hammers, and other, mostly agricultural implements.
You can also find cheap (around 25 TL) traditional Kurdish trousers, the kind that older men wear every day. Enjoy tea and bargaining sessions with some friendly Bazaar shopkeepers.
Grilled lamb liver, ciğer kebabı, is a famous part of Diyarbakır cuisine.
Ekşili etli dolma, meftune, içli köfte are some other "must taste"s.
- 1 Hasan Pasha Hani. Best place to get breakfast in Diyarbakir, located in an old caravanserai. Breakfast consists of your entire table being covered in many small dishes of tasty foods. Expensive by local standards but still very affordable, and delicious.
- Buket Lahmacun. One of the most popular and tastiest places in Diyarbakir to try lahmacun (lahmajun), thin crispy dough covered in meat and spices. It is very tasty and comes with many salads. cheap.
- Dağ Kapı Ciğercisi. A restaurant popular with locals for its grilled liver on a skewer. The restaurant is in an old house and is very big.
A mixture of wheat grain, chick-peas, and yoghurt called mehir is purported to be very good for the stomach and is said to help healing stomach problems.
Diyarbakır is very famous for its desserts. Kadayıf, künefe are the two main types of desserts. They are acquired tastes, though, as they are very sweet and contain huge amounts of sugar. Saim Usta is perhaps the best place to have kadayıf in town, while for künefe, you should check out Levent Usta.
There are many tea gardens in Ofis and along the basalt city walls, where you can meet locals. People in Diyarbakir are very open towards foreigners and you'll have a hard time paying for your own tea.
- Mahya Kahve Evi (Mahya Coffee House), Dicle sokak 2a (in Ofis, just off the main street where buses run from bus station to city center), email@example.com. Open till late at night. This coffeehouse (a mahya is a message spelled out by lights strung between minarets) has over 70 varieties of coffee and a nice interior. The owners and customers are very friendly and easygoing.
- Tigris Cafe Nargile Salonu, Camii Sk. (now apparently called Sanat Sokak) Cüneyt Bey Apt Altı 16/B (in Ofis, near Yeşil Camii), ☏ . Apart from nargilas, you can drink there delicious menengiç kahvesi, which is a very sweet milk based drink, a local speciality. The Tigris also has European style toilets available if you should be desperate.
- Hasan Paşa Hanı, Kıbrıs Cd, firstname.lastname@example.org. Besides coffee and tea, you can have an extremely rich breakfast and/or brunch here in the 500-year-old inn's nice atmosphere.
- Ninova Cafe, Sanat Sokağı (at Ofis, ask for the Sanat Sokağı; it's in the middle). 11:00-23:00. Coffee, tea, menengiç coffee, hot wine. cheap.
In summer check that your hotel has aircon since Diyarbakir can become very hot! There are quite some budget-midrange hotels on Suleyman Caddesi, close to the wall or at Inönü Caddesi. Check around for good prices.
- Hotel Kent, Hz. Suleyman Cd (opposite the Surkent). Check-out: 11:00. Looks a bit more rundown than the Surkent, but has Aircon as well. 150 TL for a single.
- Hotel Sürmeli, Hz. Suleyman 19 (close to the Surkent). Check-out: 11:00. Two stars, lobby was clean and bright, reception spoke some English. 160 TL for single.
- Aslan Hotel, Kıbrıs Cd. Budget-friendly hotel. 150 TL/night/single.
- Hotel Ekin (not 'Hotel Evin' as one popular guide book calls it). The hotel is very clean, good views from the breakfast lounge at the top. The windows are good and have to be due to the traffic noise and frequent honking of municipal buses in front of the hotel. It's easy to get into the newer part of the city. The best locations for nighttime cafes etc is called Ofis. This area is about 20 minutes walking distance from the hotel and safe at night. Go to the big junction to the right of the hotel and cross over to the other side of the city walls. A single room sets you back about 50 TL which is pretty good value. (Official price is 60 TL but the hotel usually offers the reduction itself. You might also negotiate an appropriate rate.).
- GAP Otel (in the northern part of the city). TV, fridge, and 24-hr hot water is provided. The place looks nice, but it's down a narrow and dirty dead-end street. Limited amounts of tea offered by the friendly owner. Double rooms with A/C for 30 TL if you bargain; rooms with en-suite bathrooms for 40 TL.
- 1 Hotel Birkent, İnönü Caddesi Nr. 26, ☏ . Nice, clean and central hotel with a very helpful staff. 60 TL for a single room (May 2017).
Due to heavy police presence and several checkpoints enforced by armored police cars throughout the old quarter, it's strongly suggested that you carry your passport at all times and be ready to present it when asked. Carrying a copy might help but given the circumstances you should probably carry the original. Multiple sections might be off limits for reasons that range from heavy construction or remodeling to security problems.
Diyarbakır is rough. At first glance, it seems not to be a very welcoming city, but the opposite is true. However, life in this city is hard for many people. It is not advisable at all to walk alone during the night time, especially in the old quarter. Taking some precautions during the visit is advisable, just common sense. Don't hang around in dark areas; try not to look like the typical tourist, etc.
While walking around the old city, you will see many children playing with toy guns, and, this could sound a little extreme, but they might try shooting you with plastic guns—be careful. Children can also be very annoying here, shouting "Money! Money!" at you and following you around. Not advised to give them money since that reveals the location of your purse and will probably not stop them. Just try to ignore them or try saying "Ayyip!" (shame).
The main shopping road, Gazi Caddesi, in the old quarter also houses two pricey hotels (one of them being the "Green Park"), which might lead you to expect that the area is safe. Be warned! The lower end of the street toward the Mardin Kapı, the Mardin Gate, is pretty dark and can be dangerous at night. Do not become prey to pickpockets who seem to hang around there.
The modern part of Diyarbakir is very much safer.
However, Diyarbakir seems to have recovered from the old times and the police are trying their best to provide a high level of security. So don't let the issues mentioned above scare you off, as the city itself is still a jewel among others in eastern Turkey, offering an amazing and unforgettable charm. Tourist crowds are still tending more to Mardin (1h away), so enjoy having the city mostly to yourself.
- 1 Zerzevan Castle (Zerzevan Kalesi) (about 50 km southeast, just off the D950 highway towards Mardin past Çınar). Originally the Assyrian fortress of Kinabu, and then the defense outpost of Samachi along the Persian Royal Road, the castle on a lofty setting amidst an expanse of barren mountains provides a rare insight into the Roman period of the region. It was restored by Anastasius I Diocus in the late 5th–early 6th century AD, and again by Justinian I in the 6th century AD to serve as a protection for Amida (present-day Diyarbakır) and Dara southeast of modern-day Mardin against attacks by the Sasanian Empire. It was abandoned after the Arabic takeover of the region in the 7th century; there were a few civilian attempts to settle into the castle afterwards but none survived for long.
One of the best preserved structures is the Mithraeum, or a temple of Mithraism, a Roman mystery religion with Mithras as its supreme god, and with heavy influence from Zoroastrianism. Zerzevan was the main centre of the Mithras cult, which later expanded into several Roman areas, including as far as the Maghreb. Early Christians saw Mithraism as a rival to their nascent religion, so once Christianity was established as the official religion in the empire, Mithraism was suppressed, and eventually lost its believer base by the end of the 4th century. There are also ruins of several residences, including a palace, cisterns, baths, an 800-m long water channel feeding them, a cereal storage, and an arsenal, showing a complex self-sustaining system within the castle – in its heyday, a community of up to 1,000 people grew inside it, consisted of military men and their families.
Archaeological works started in just 2014 and continue, so come back in a year or two, and you will certainly find much more ruins unearthed to explore. The castle got inscribed in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2020.
Çınar is nominally the nearest town, but it has no tourist services.
- Hasankeyf — a village to the east, downriver on the Tigris, with lots of medieval Islamic architecture and pleasant vistas.
- Mardin (10 TL by dolmuş from the otogar) and Şanlıurfa are both a day's trip from Diyarbakır.
- Karacadağ — the forerunner of domesticated wheat originated in the mountains of Karacadağ. Cultivation of wheat in the area dates back to approximately 8,800 BCE. Present-day Karacadağ is home to seasonal nomads. Explore the ancient villages populated by Turkmen and Kurdish tribes.
- Ergani — In the largest district after the city center of Diyarbakir, you can get to see where the animals were first domesticated as mankind started settled farming at Çayönü, around 40 km north-west of Diyarbakır. The site is hugely important for neolithic research and dates from 7200 to 6600 BC. Also, you can visit Adam's grandson Enos's tomb.
- Egil — Being home to the Castle of Egil and Egil Peygamber Kabirleri, Egil is renown for its natural beauties and historical heritages.
|Routes through Diyarbakır|
|Doğubayazıt ← Tatvan ←||N S||→ Hilvan → Şanlıurfa|
|Ends at ← Kahta ←||W E||→ Merges with (N)|
|Erzurum ← Bingöl ( W / E) ←||N S||→ Mardin → Kızıltepe ( W / E)|
|END ←||W E||→ Batman → Siirt|