North America > United States of America > Hawaii > Molokai > Kalaupapa National Historical Park
Kalaupapa National Historical Park is on Molokai in Hawaii of the United States of America. Kalaupapa National Historical Park was established on 22 Dec 1980. The park is dedicated to preserving the memories and experiences of the past so valuable lessons may be learned. The park's mission is to provide a well-maintained community ensuring the present patient residents of the Kalaupapa Settlement may live out their lives there. The park also supports the education of present and future generations concerning Hansen's disease or leprosy, a disease shrouded in fear and ignorance for centuries.
The primary story being told at Kalaupapa National Historical Park is the forced isolation from 1866 until 1969 of people from Hawai'i afflicted with Hansen's disease (leprosy) to the remote northern Kalaupapa peninsula on the island of Molokai.
Hawaii's Forgotten County
Not many people realize that the Kalaupapa settlement is its own county (Kalawao County), separate from the rest of the island of Molokai, which is part of Maui County. By land area, Kalawao County is the smallest county in the United States and, with a population of only 90 at the 2010 census, has the second-smallest population. It's the only county in the United States that is under the exclusive jurisdiction of health authorities, who still maintain control over access.
Few places in the world better illustrate the human capacity for endurance or for charity than the remote Kalaupapa Peninsula on the island of Moloka'i. The area achieved notoriety in 1865 when the Kingdom of Hawai`i instituted a century-long policy of forced segregation of persons afflicted with Hansen's disease, also known as leprosy. The Legislative Assembly had passed, and King Kamehameha V approved, An Act to Prevent the Spread of Leprosy to set apart land to seclude people believed capable of spreading the disease.
Once the decision was made, and the law passed, the government purchased lands and moved the Hawaiian residents to other homes. The village of Kalawao on the isolated Kalaupapa Peninsula thus became home to thousands of leprosy victims moved here from throughout the Hawaiian Islands.
Hawai`i's actions brought attention to the mysterious and dreaded disease that reached epidemic proportions in the islands in the late 1800s. With new cases threatening to eradicate the native population and no knowledge of what caused the disease, officials were desperate. At the time, there was no effective treatment and no cure. To government officials, isolation seemed the only answer.
The first group of Hansen's disease patients were sent to Kalawao on the eastern, or windward side of the Kalaupapa peninsula on 6 Jan 1866. The churches of Siloama, established in 1866 and St. Philomena, begun in 1872 and associated with the work of Father Damien (Joseph DeVeuster) are located at Kalawao. Father Damien's life and death among his people focused the attention of the world on the problem of this disease and the plight of its victims. After Damien's death in 1889, the people of England established a fund and a commission for the scientific investigation of the disease.
Eventually, the treatment of Hansen's disease progressed to the point where it could be controlled by antibiotics and rendered non-contagious. However, even after the quarantine was lifted in 1969, many residents chose to remain at the settlement. The state Department of Health provided that no new patients would be admitted, and those remaining can stay for the rest of their lives.
On the leeward side of the peninsula, Kalaupapa Settlement is still home for several surviving Hansen's disease patients whose memories and experiences are cherished values. Once a community in isolation, Kalaupapa now serves as a place for education and contemplation. The site became a national park in 1980 dedicated to preserving the memories and lessons of the past.
Flora and fauna
Kalaupapa is a warm, humid place.
Kalaupapa cannot be reached by automobile. No roads lead to the park because of the surrounding ocean and steep pali cliffs.
The park can be reached by air through commercial and charter flights from Honolulu, O`ahu, and from Hoolehua, Moloka`i. Flights to Kalaupapa Airport LUP IATA can be arranged through Pacific Wings (+1-888-575-4546); Moloka'i Air Shuttle (+1 808 567-6847); Paragon Air (+1-800-4228-1231); and Makani Kai Air Charters (+1-877-255-8532).
Some visitors arrive by private boats and tie to buoys near the dock at Kalaupapa.
Visitors may also reach the Kalaupapa peninsula by hiking or riding mules down the steep Kalaupapa Trail from the topside trailhead located off Highway 470 near Pala'au State Park and the Kalaupapa overlook. The trail links topside Moloka'i to the Kalaupapa Settlement and has a 1700-foot elevation change, is 3 miles long and has 26 switchbacks. At the bottom of the trail, visitors must connect with the commercial tour.
Damien Tours, owned and operated by a Kalaupapa resident, offer commercial tours of Kalaupapa daily, except Sundays and holidays. Call +1 808 567-6171 for tour reservations and information.
Mule rides on the Kalaupapa Trail can be arranged through Moloka'i Mule Rides, Inc, a National Park Service concession. For reservations call +1 808 567-6088 or +1-800-567-7550
Fees and permits
The park is open 365 days each year. There are no opening and closing hours due to the restricted visitation and active Kalaupapa community of people. Commercial tours operate Monday through Saturday, except Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day and New Year's Day.
There is no entrance fee for the park, nor are there fees for any park facilities. There are costs involved with the commercial tours, mule rides and air flights.
All visitors must obtain a permit from the Hawai'i State Department of Health to enter the Kalaupapa Settlement. The commercial tour company arranges the permit for their customers. Guests of residents have their permits arranged by their sponsor. No children under the age of 16 are allowed in the Kalaupapa Settlement. Reservations are required for commercial tours of the settlement, mule rides on the trail and air flights. Visitors are encouraged to make these reservations in advance.
Visitors must take the commercial tour offered by a Kalaupapa resident unless they are guests of a resident. The tour provides stops at all major points of interest at Kalaupapa, including lunch at Kalawao on the windward side of the peninsula with scenic views of the north shore cliffs and off-shore islands.
Look around. Look at the landscape: three sides of ocean and one of high (very high) cliffs effectively imprisoning residents forced there. Look at the cemeteries: only some of the many people who lived and died here are in marked graves. Look at the churches, buildings and remnants of buildings. And think that people afflicted with a then-incurable disease were (usually) forced to live there. A few relatives chose to accompany their ill family members. This is a poignant and important place.
The concession mule ride operator offers box lunches to those who ride the trail to Kalaupapa. All other visitors must bring their own lunches. No other supplies are available in the park. Guests of residents need to bring their own food supplies. Snacks and beverages are available at a local bar.
Overnight stays at Kalaupapa are limited to guests of residents. The nearest lodging outside the park is in Kaunakakai, topside Moloka'i.
No camping is allowed in the park.
The nearest camping facility is located at Pala'au State Park, topside Moloka'i.
Before the trip began, the guides gave us some instructions which included a day pass, issued by the State of Hawai'i, to enter the colony and to leave the colony. You may take pictures of anything except of a resident. The fine for doing so is $500. Also, each mule has a name and you would be required to commit the mule's name to memory. You may start to get apprehensive at this instruction as many of the mules had long Hawaiian names. It is easier for the guide to call out the mule's name than to try to remember your name. If you think mules are just overgrown donkeys, you may be in for a surprise. They're big - really big!
Once you're all mounted and preparing to depart for the trail, you'll be given final instructions: "The mules know exactly where they are going, just sit down and relax. Stay straight saddle and enjoy the views."