|Government||Republic under multiparty democratic rule|
|Area||total: 11,300 km2
land: 10,000 km2
water: 1,300 km2
|Population||1,641,564 (July 2006 est.)|
|Language||English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars|
|Religion||Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%|
|Electricity||230V/50Hz (UK plug)|
The Gambia is a country in West Africa and is the smallest country on the continent of Africa. It has a short North Atlantic Ocean coastline in the west and is surrounded by Senegal so that it is almost an enclave. The country occupies the navigable length of the Gambia River valley and surrounding hills.
Tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May); Natural hazards : drought (rainfall has dropped by 30% in the last 30 years).
Flood plain of the Gambia river flanked by some low hills — the highest point is just 53m above sea level.
The Gambia gained its independence from the UK on 18th February 1965. A constitution was written on 24th April 1970, before being suspended in July 1994 and subsequently rewritten and approved by national referendum on 8th August 1996. It was reestablished in January 1997.
The Gambia formed a short-lived federation of Senegambia with Senegal between 1982 and 1989. In 1991 the two nations signed a friendship and cooperation treaty. A military coup in 1994 overthrew the president and banned political activity, but a new 1996 constitution and presidential elections, followed by parliamentary balloting in 1997, completed a nominal return to civilian rule. The country undertook another round of presidential and legislative elections in late 2001 and early 2002.
National Holidays 
The Gambia celebrates its independence day on 18th February. This small country gained its independency in 1965. There is also the Muslim festival of EID which is celebrated by virtually all Gambians and is a 2 to 3 day event where up to 250.000 animals are slaughtered to provide food for the feast. It is also a time when Gambians, especially female, dress in their finest regalia and buying new dresses at up to 3000 Dalasi.
The Kombos — The Atlantic coast and areas near the mouth of the river.
The rest of the country, less populated and visited only by the adventurous.
- Banjul — capital
Other destinations 
- Abuko Nature Reserve — tiny reserve near the beaches with shady paths to get close to monkeys, bushbucks, chameleons, & crocodiles.
- Bao Bolon Wetland Reserve — mixed patched of thick forest and swamp most noteworthy for its migratory birds but also home to dugongs, otters, hogs, antelope, & hippos.
- Makasutu Cultural Forest — a large eco-tourism project near the beaches popular as a package day trip with game drive, boat ride, & performances by locals.
Get in 
Gambia is becoming a popular vacation destination for Northern Europeans. Therefore, many charter and holiday operators offer reasonable airfare and accommodation if desired.
US,and South African citizens must obtain a Gambian visa before entering the Gambia. Visa can be obtained at the Gambian High Commission in Dakar. Single entry visas cost $100 USD, 35,000CFA francs (about US$69, so a better deal!) or multi-entry for three month period cost 30,000CFA. New Zealanders, Australians, Singaporeans, Malaysians, Taiwanese, British, Finns, Dutch, and some Europeans may not require visas for stays up to 90 days. Canadians can acquire a 30 day visitor's visa upon arrival. Always check with the High Commission or Embassy before making travel arrangements. A single entry visa could surely also be obtained at the border for 15,000CFA francs, at least for Europeans and US citizens, even when the embassy in Dakar claims and insists the opposite, as they wish you pay more to them instead!
By plane 
There are regular flights from Nigeria by Bellview which come 2 times a week on Wednesdays and Fridays. Also, there are daily flights from Dakar provided by Air Senegal and Slok Air. Spanair operates regular (weekly) flights to/from Barcelona and Madrid (Spain). During the tourist season (October to April), there are regular scheduled flights direct from cities such as Manchester, Amsterdam, and Brussels. Current charter operators include Monarch Airlines, First Choice Airways, Thomas Cook Airlines, Transavia, and Arkefly. However, several of these often book tickets through tour operators. It should be noted that booking one-way or round trip tickets originating in Gambia on these airlines can be difficult or impossible.
By car 
Sept-places or bush taxis run from Dakar to Banjul and Banjul to Ziguinchor.
It is possible use your private car to drive from Senegal to The Gambia via the border town of Amdalli (just north of Barra). The border crossing is pretty straightforward. You will need your V5 logbook. The road approaching the border from Senegal is terrible and its easier to drive next to the road as opposed to on it. Check before you travel if it is ok to bring in a right-hand drive vehicle, as there are conflicting reports on the possibility of this (though it has been done).
By bus 
There are direct GPTC buses running from Barra (a ferry ride away from Banjul) to Dakar , but these are not recommended as they are slower than the bush taxis.
By boat 
It is possible privately charter small fishing vessels from Dakar and neighboring areas; though this can be fairly expensive and slow should one not be proficient at bargaining.
Get around 
By car 
A 4WD is recommended if you plan to rent a car, since the roads often are in bad condition and only a minority is paved.
By taxi 
There are two types of cabs: green ones (tourist cabs) and yellow ones (regular cabs). Green cabs are expensive and the price is regardless of the number of passengers. Although there is no MOT system in Gambia, these taxis must have basics such as seat belts and working indicators. Yellow taxis are much cheaper and the price depends on the number of persons in the cab. They are used mainly by locals, and in many tourist areas they are prohibited from picking up tourists. Often it is worth if to walk a little to get a yellow taxi.
By bike 
You can rent a bike from pretty much anyone that owns one at a negotiated rate. Cycling on major roads can be risky, as motorist safety is unreliable, some roads are not well-maintained, sand and steep shoulders cause road hazards, and pedestrians may walk or veer onto the open road without warning. In high traffic areas, taxis and vans often cut off cyclists to pick up travelers and the car horn may be used excessively to warn of impending passage.
By thumb 
No, don't use your thumb. It is an obscene gesture in Gambia, instead wave if you want a car to stop. As anywhere, hitching is quite risky business, so be careful with what cars you enter and never hitch at night. Also, Gambian motorists will expect you to pay for the ride, so have some cash ready.
By boat 
The Gambia River is navigable the entire length of the country.
Guided tours 
There are many companies that offer guided tours in Gambia.
There are also official tourist guides that will arrange transportation and guide you. They offer a good service and you will get to travel in a small group (usually 1 to 6 persons). Beware that there are false official guides, so always meet them at their offices, around tourist resorts.
Languages spoken in Gambia are English (the official language), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, sarrancule and other indigenous languages.
- Abuko Nature Reserve. open daily 8AM-6.30PM. Nature park situated outside the village of Lamin in the Kombo North District, 25 km from Banjul. At 105 hectares it is one of the smallest (if not the smallest) protected areas in Africa, but it still offers a good introduction to the Gambian wildlife. For instance there's monkeys, crocodiles and some 300 species of birds GMD 35.
- Four Wheel Drive Adventure. Very popular tours visiting schools, country homes, and distilleries.
- James Island (Roots tour). An excursion inspired by Alex Haley's bestseller and movie Roots. You can go there on cruise up the centre of the wide Gambia river, towards the former French trading post of Albreda and the village of Juffureh. Views of the river bank are distant. Visit the setting of Roots, an old slave trade station. Tourists are overwhelmed by locals who appear only when the boat arrives, and disappear when the boat leaves. Locals are persistent in begging for money and thrusting craft items under tourists noses. Locals insist on being paid to appear in photos. Or you go by car, e.g. with th official tourist guides on the small roads on the North Bank and sail in a pirogue from Juffareh.
- Kachikally Crocodile Pool. very popular, many crocodiles (West African Nile Crocs), opportunity to touch/pat West African Nile Crocodiles. GMD 50.
- Senegal — 1-3 day trips. Warning — non-EU citizens such as New Zealanders and Australians must obtain a visa. The application takes 3 days.
- Gambia River National Park. Beautiful national park below Janjanbureh. The camp is pricey, but worth the money. They will organize boat tours to see chimpanzees, baboons, monkeys, crocodiles, etc.
- Sanyang Beach. One of the most beautiful beaches in Gambia. Rainbow Beach Bar is a great place to spend the day, and also has a few affordable rooms for staying the night. Public transport leaves from Serrakunda and Brikama regularly, and private taxis can also be hired for day trips.
The country's currency is the dalasi (GMD), which is divided into 100 bututs. Banknotes come in 5, 10, 25, 50, & 100 dalasi values and you may find 25 & 50 butut and 1 dalasi coins in circulation. The exchange rates as of May 2012 are: US$1=30GMD, €1=39GMD, £1=49GMD, and 1 dalasi=17 CFA francs. Maestro is not accepted at all. Many tourists have problems because of that. It is better you take CFA francs, euro or dollars with you. If you have a Visa credit card and don't use a PIN or you forgot it, then the only Bank that can help you out is (the bigger) GT Bank in Banjul, which only requires your card, your passport, and your signature.
- Kora is the main music instrument of the Mandinka tribe, and could be considered the national instrument of Gambia. It is 21-stringed and built from a large calabash cut in half and covered with cow skin to make a resonator. It sounds like a mixture of harp and flamenco guitar. Real koras can be very expensive but small souvenir versions are also available.
- Tailor made clothes can be bought at cheap prices.
- wood carvings
- wooden masks
- African drums
- hand-woven table runners and place mats.
- Batik and tie-dye fabric.
- Benachin or Jollof rice — a traditional West African rice dish with onions, spices, tomatoes or tomato paste mixed with meat, fish or vegetables.
- Chicken Yassa — chicken boiled with onion, black pepper and lime or lemon.
- Domoda — meat stew with rice and peanut butter sauce.
- Lots and lots of peanuts, the main crop of The Gambia.
- International food. Please don't be put off by what you may hear about Gambian cuisine, everything may come with rice but don't forget rice is a staple in most of the world. But if you're after something your stomach is used to, then there is a plethora of international restaurants to choose from where you can have a Chinese or Indian curry, good old fish & chips or Japanese noodles, and there's also Thai, Lebanese, German, Dutch and Mexican even food places run by the British were you can get a full English breakfast. In fact food in Gambia is truly international and the fish is to die for.
- Gambia's own beer, Julbrew is worth a try. It's made by Banjul Breweries, who also make soft drinks.
- Palm Wine is juice from palmtrees that is collected and fermented. It is used as a kind of wine by the locals, and you may get a chance to try it if you go on a tour to rural Gambia.
- Baobab juice
- Spirits. You can most of the well known spirits and liqueurs in the tourist areas along the coastal strip
- Spitits, Beers & Cigarettes. Julbrew is a lager based beer, it is mainly sold in bottles but you can get in a draught form which is a lot less gassey than the bottled. You can get most of the spirits you would expect to find at home and they are still a lot cheaper than the Costas, Greece or Turkey. Whisky, Rum, Gin, Vodka, Brandy are freely available as well as Curacao and Tia Maria. Cigarettes can be bought very cheaply at around £2.50, Euro 2.80 per 200 pack from all the main supermarkets or in the tourist areas.
There are many luxury 4 and 5 star resorts along the Atlantic coastline. Further in land there are eco camps and lodges which offer basic accommodation usually in natural surroundings.
Stay safe 
Many of Gambia's unemployed young men have discovered that engaging (and sometimes hassling) tourists can be as rewarding as a real job. It's not a coincidence that there's a name for such persons: Bumster. Be prepared for personal questions, sob stories, not-asked-for "favors" and self-proclaimed friendship, all with the purpose of winning your favor or opening your wallet. Those not desiring such attention must use a combination of polite declination, wit, and when necessary firm refusal, if they want to be left alone.
There are a number of very commonly used scams in the Gambia. If someone stops you on the street, they may tell you that they remember you from the hotel you're staying at and that they work there. They may invite you to another hotel, but this could be a scam to attempt to rob you. Also, because people are constantly looking for ways to support themselves, if they offer you assistance or directions, it may be understood that they expect some monetary compensation.
Scams also exist in which marijuana is offered to tourists or they are are invited to come smoke in a home, only to find police waiting for a hefty bribe.
A simple "Sorry, I am in a hurry" could suffice to dismiss them. But don't tell them why you are in a hurry and don't say anything else after that as this may lead to a conversation — and this could lead to unwanted attention and possibly a scam.
Also remember that some Bumsters are not unemployed or young and never fall for hardship stories. One last word of warning: should you feel you want to give a person some money out of sympathy or just to get rid of them it will certainly lead them to ask you for more money at a later date should you meet again. Some recommend a stern and harsh response to such requests, but this should be informed by your values and the relationship formed with the individual in question. Keep in mind, however, that you may see this person again, and they could truly be helpful if you're in a jam or need information. Many people in tourist areas are merely 'friendly facilitators' who may hope for an exchange of favors, but are genuinely harmless. Being overly guarded could deny you an offer to join a local family for a traditional meal, or to personally meet one of the craftspeople who make the local goods for sale.
The Gambia is a great holiday destination but just keep your guard up at all times.
When swimming, be aware that the currents in the Atlantic waters can be strong. Always look out for flags on the tourist beaches indicating the level of danger on a red — yellow — green scale.
Be careful about your political opinions, as such critical opinions against the government are considered a crime.
Gays should note that they could be in extreme danger in Gambia - subject to possible arrest or even killing.
Stay healthy 
Yellow fever vaccination is strongly recommended. Meningitis vaccination is recommended. Anti-malaria pills are also necessary. Most cases of malaria in the Gambia are contracted between June and December. Mefloquine, Doxycycline or Malarone are the medicines of choice for the Gambia, and for most of sub-Saharan Africa, because of the increasing chloroquine resistance.
It is a good idea to bring insect repellent, sunscreen and other health items from your home country since these may be hard to find in some areas.
The festival of Eid ul-Fitr is held after the end of Ramadan and may last several days. Exact dates depend on astronomical observations and may vary from country to country.
Always ask before you take a photo of anyone. Some Gambians have certain beliefs about having their picture taken, in particular by a stranger.
Go next 
- Senegal is both north and south of Gambia. There are excursions to Fathala Reserve just north of the border, for example.