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Throughout much of the Middle Ages parts of, when not all, of Spain was ruled by the Moors, Muslims from North Africa who brought with them a culture that has been preserved in Spain, notably through architecture.
- 1 Cordoba. Cordoba became the capital of the Caliphate of Córdoba, which saw construction of grand Islamic architecture in the city. Many of the mosques were converted to churches after the Reconquista.
- 2 Granada. The Emirate of Granada was the last Islamic kingdom to fall in 1492, when Muhammad XII surrendered to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. Granada is home to the Alhambra and Generalife, arguably the most well known and beautiful examples of Spanish Islamic architecture.