Throughout the history the region has been much contested for as it forms the shortest land connection between Europe and the Levant (the Holy Land), and therefore is very rich in historical (in particular Crusader) sites. It also played a significant role in early Christianity.
Wikivoyage covers Cilicia in three regions:
- Cilician Plains (ancient Cilicia Pedias, "flat Cilicia", Turkish: Çukurova, "hollow plains") — while nowadays better known for its agricultural production, industrial output and urban sprawl, you won't go short of ancient sites and great local food here.
- Cilician Mountains (ancient Cilicia Trachea, "rugged Cilicia", Turkish: Taşeli, "stony land") — the most isolated stretch of the Turkish Mediterranean is endowed with beaches, Roman sites, and above all, a wealth of mountain scenery.
- Hatay — the northern third of the province is part of the lowlands that constitute Çukurova. Hellenistic sites, Ottoman caravanserais, and the major harbour of İskenderun are found here.