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Dogri phrasebook

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Dogri (डोगरी / ڈوگری‬) is a language spoken primarily in the Jammu region of northern India, and is also one of the 22 official languages of India. It is a western Pahari language. All the western Pahari languages form a dialect chain from Himachal Pradesh to Azad Kashmir. The dialects spoken in POK and Rajouri, India are not classified as Western Pahari; they are classified under Western Punjabi. Sindhi, Lahnda, Punjabi, and Western Pahari form a dialect continuum with no clear-cut boundaries.

However, most people understand Hindustani in North India and Pakistan. Thus, majority of Dogri speakers speak Hindi or Urdu as a second language.

Pronunciation and alphabet guide[edit]

Dogri is written using either Devanagari script or Persian variant of the Arabic script. It was historically written in Dogra variant of the Takri script.

Devanagari[edit]

Devanagari writing is often likened to a washing line: a line is drawn above the words, and the letters are hung out to dry below the line. A break in the line indicates a break between words.

Devanagari is classified as an abugida, which means that each character represents a syllable, not a single letter as in English. If the character is a consonant, the implicit vowel following it is assumed to be a, unless modified by special vowel signs added above, below, after or even before the character.

Vowels[edit]

Each vowel has two forms: an "isolated" form when beginning a word or following another vowel; and another used within a word by use of diacritics called मात्रा mātra. As an example, the forms used with consonants are placed with the letter त्. Note that if there is no vowel sign, the vowel is assumed to be a.

Devanagari Transliteration Equivalent Within Word
a as in about त (implicit)
ā as in father ता
i as in sit ति
ī as in elite ती
u as in put तु
ū as in flute तू
as in Scottish heard, trip. तृ
e long e as in German "zehn". It is not a diphthong; the tone does not fall. ते
ai as in Mail, sometimes a longer ए. In Eastern dialects as in bright (IPA ıj). तै
o as in German Kohle, not a diphthong; tone does not fall. तो
au as in oxford. In Eastern dialects as in German lauft, or English town. तौ

Arranged with the vowels are two consonantal diacritics, the final nasal anusvāra ं ṃ and the final fricative visarga ः ḥ (called अं aṃ and अः aḥ). ं is written above a syllable to denote that the vowel has to be pronounced using both nose and mouth.

Consonants[edit]

Devanagari Transliteration Equivalent/Comments
k as in skip.
kh as in sinkhole.
g as in go.
gh as in doghouse.
as in sing. Used only in Sanskrit loan words, does not occur independently.
c as in church.
ch as in pinchhit.
j as in jump.
jh as in dodge her.
ñ or y It is pronounced similar to the Spanish 'ñ'in case of words of Sanskrit origin; also used to represent 'y' sound.
as in tick. Retroflex, but still a "hard" t sound similar to English.
as in lighthouse. Retroflex
as in doom. Retroflex
as in mudhut. Retroflex
retroflex n. Used only in Sanskrit loan words.
t does not exist in English. more dental t, with a bit of a th sound. Softer than an English t.
th aspirated version of the previous letter, not as in thanks or the, but like pathetic
d dental d.
dh aspirated version of the above.
n as in none.
p as in spin.
ph as in uphill.
b as in be.
bh as in abhor.
m as in mere.
y as in yet.
r as in Spanish pero, a tongue trip. Don't roll as in Spanish rr, German or Scottish English.
l as in lean.
v as in Spanish vaca, between English v and w, but without the lip rounding of an English w. (IPA: ʋ).
ś as in shoot.
almost indistinguishable retroflex of the above. slightly more aspirated. Used only in Sanskrit loan words.
s as in see.
h mostly silent. sometimes pronounced as 'ai'.
क्ष ksh as in worksheet.

Ligatures[edit]

One of the things which appears daunting to most beginners are the over 100 conjunct characters. These happen when two or more consonants are joined together (with no vowel between). Upon seeing all these, the new learner might gasp, thinking that they will have to memorize each one as if they were Chinese ideograms. The good news is that most of these are quite simple and merely involve dropping the inherent 'a' stem. e.g.:

  • त् + म = त्म
  • न् + द = न्द
  • स् + क = स्क

However there are a few special constructions. For many of these, you may also use the previous method though. e.g.

  • त् + त = त्त
  • ष् + ट = ष्ट
  • क् + ल = क्ल

Most often odd forms arise, in consonants without a stem. e.g.

  • द् + भ = द्भ
  • ह् + ल = ह्ल
  • ट् + ठ = ट्ठ

Do not worry too much about conjuncts though, you may always suppress the inherent 'a' with a halant.

Another thing which causes problems for new learners is the use of र, which is treated as a vowel as in Hindi it is a "semi-vowel." There are three forms for conjuncting र, and one for ऋ:


1. After a consonant with a stem add a slash from the lower half of the stem (top-down, right-left). e.g.:

  • प् + र = प्र
  • क् + र = क्र
  • ग् + र = ग्र

note:

  • श+ र = श्र
  • त् + र = त्र.


2. After a vowel and before a consonant र is written as a small hook (a good mnemonic trick is to picture a stylized lower case r). This conjunct cannot occur alone, nor begin a word. Therefore, an example shall be given within the context of words:

  • गर्म hot
  • सिर्फ़ only
  • कर्म karma (In Sanskrit, the last inherent vowel is not written long as it is in Hindi)

If followed by ā, ī, e, o, or ai the "hook" is moved one letter to the right, e.g. the name Marco would be written: मॉर्को.


3. In most letters without stems, the र is joined to the consonant by placing a circumflex-like diacritic below the letter, e.g.:

  • द् + र = द्र
  • ट् + र + ट्र
  • ड् + र = ड्र


4. ऋ, when preceded by a consonant, is written as a small hook resembling the Polish ogonek attached to the stem. Only occurs in Sanskrit loan words, most notably the word Sanskrit itself: संस्कृत.

Finally, र has two special forms when followed by u, and ū respectively:

  • रु ru
  • रू

Avagraha[edit]

The avagraha ऽ अऽ (usually transliterated with an apostrophe) is a Sanskrit punctuation mark for the elision of a vowel in sandhi: एकोऽयम् eko'yam ( ← ekas + ayam) "this one". It is used to pronounce the vowel a little longer. It is usually found at the end of the words in Dogri : त्राऽ (tra) "shock" .

Nasta'līq[edit]

Urdu consonants
English Name Transliteration English equivalent Urdu example Glyph
alif a, i apple, uncle aap, nahi ا
be b bee, bomb, brother bhai, behan, baap ب
pe p pipe, pen, pencil, party Pakistan, paani, pahaar پ
te t
(with soft ‘t’)
tum, tareekh ت
te T
(with hard ‘T’)
time, telephone, taxi tamatar, tang ٹ
se s sun, sample saboot, sabit ث
jim j jet, joker, jar, jam jahil, jahaaz, jang ج
che c China, cheese, chat cham-ach, cheez, chaat چ
ba-ri he h hall, hockey, hen haal, nahi ح
kh kh sheikh, khaki khay-aal, khoof, kho-aab, khan, lakh خ
daal d
with soft ‘d’
dust, dentist, dental dhaak, د
daal D
with hard ‘D’
demand, donkey, darbaar, daal ڈ
zaal z zoo, zip, zinger, zone zubaan, zaalim ذ
re r Russia, Romania, rice raja ر
re r butter, cutter mutter ڑ
ze z zoo, zip, zinger, zone zubaan, zaalim ز
zhe zh television television ژ
sin s safe, size, snake, seven sa-mun-dar, say-b, saa-mp, saal, saabun س
shin sh shampoo, share she-har, shoo-har, shayr ش
swad s ص
zwad z zoo zar-roor ض
to-e t talib ط
zo-e z zalim, zulm, za-ay-a ظ
ain a, e Arab arbi ع
ghain gh gorgeous ghareeb غ
fe f fan, free fa-righ, fa-zool ف
qaaf q quran quraan ق
kaaf k kite, cab kaala, kon-sa, kub, kya, kyu ک
gaaf g go gaana گ
laam l london, lemon, liar laazmi ل
meem m my, music, mother maa, mach-ar م
noon n new, november nahi, naya ن
wao w, v van, valid, was, what walid, wajah و
choti he h home, house hum, haa ہ
do-chasmi he h ھ
hamza ء
choti ye y yard, yes, you yaar ی
bari ye e, y ے

Dogri, as mentioned earlier, is also written in a modified Perso-Arabic script called abjad. An abjad does not write short vowels, except at the beginning of a word with alif' serving as a place holder. This can make it frustrating for the learner as the words I and in are both written ميں in Dogri. Dogri is also written in a stylized form of the Arabic script called nast'alīq (نستعليق). Developed in Persia, it is still used for religious and poetic calligraphy in Iran today. The script is mainly used to write Urdu and the Pahari dialects on the west of Standard Dogri. Therefore, if you want to read an Urdu newspaper, street sign, etc. you will have to learn to read nastaliq, which can prove difficult for the beginner. As a result, a simpler style called Naskh (نسخ), as used in other languages using the Arabic abjad will be used for two reasons: 1. to ease the learner into nastaliq, and 2. because Unicode does not support nast'aliq. Vowel diacritics do exist, mostly used to modify the alif vowel holder at the beginning of a word but also used for educational purposes, in the Qur'ān, and for clarifying ambiguous spellings.

The Arabic system of writing is cursive. Most letters have four forms. Others, which do not attach to the letter coming next to them, have only two. These forms are quite self-explanatory: initial, medial, final, and isolated. When written alone letters are written in their isolated form. Example:

  • پ + آ + ك + س + ت + آ + ن


when these isolated letters are joined together they look like this:

  • پاكستان, Pākistān

Vowels[edit]

At the beginning of a word alif serves as a placeholder for the diacritical mark. Due to directional issues with unicode the medial/final occurs before the initial example, when they should appear after, i.e., to the left of the letter. A final ﻪ is sometimes used do represent an inherent 'a' at the end of a word (c.f. Arabic usage). When choṭī ye and baṛī ye occur in the middle, both take the ﻴ form. For further reference, in Urdu transliteration ai is ae and au is ao.

Vowel symbol Pronunciation example
a but, run abhi, asar, undar, sar
aa far, father abaad, aap, aakhir, aadaab, aadmi, aaraam, aazaad, aasaan, aasmaan
ai neighbor, aisle
ay day payse, aytbaar
au cow, how aurat
e bed, wet, net
ee bee, feet faqeer
i bit, fit nahi
o code, go bolay
oo fool, booed dood, moor, choor
u put sunaye

Dogra Akkhar (Takri)[edit]


Vowels[edit]

The initial form is followed by non-initial form.

Dogra Akkhar Devanagri Persian Transliteration
𑠀 , 𑠞 अ,प اَ، بَ a,pa
𑠁 , 𑠞𑠬 आ,पा آ, بَا ā
𑠂 , 𑠞𑠭 इ, पि اِ، بِ i
𑠃 , 𑠞𑠮 ई, पी اِی، بِی ī
𑠄 , 𑠞𑠯 उ, पु اُ، بُ u
𑠅 , 𑠞𑠰 ऊ, पू اُو، بُو ū
𑠆 , 𑠞𑠲 ए, पे اے، بے ē
𑠇 , 𑠞𑠳 ऐ, पै اَے، بَے ai
𑠈 , 𑠞𑠴 ओ, पो او، بو ō
𑠉 , 𑠞𑠵 औ, पौ اَو، بَو au

Consonants[edit]

Ligatures[edit]

Phrase list[edit]

Some phrases in this phrasebook still need to be translated. If you know anything about this language, you can help by plunging forward and translating a phrase.

The transliterations are based on standard.

Basics[edit]

English Dogri (Devanagri) Dogri (Persian) Transliteration Note
Hello (to a Hindu) नमस्ते Namastē The word is often complemented by a gesture involving joining hands
Hello (to a Muslim) सलाम-लेकुम Salam lēkum
Hello (to a Hindu elder) पैरिपे pairipē Lit. I touch your feet
Hello (to a Sikh) सस्रीयाकाल sasrīyākāl
Bye चंगा पी caṁga pī Lit. Okay then
How are you? (informal) के आल ऐ? kē āl ai
How are you? (formal) तुंदा के आल ऐ? tunda kē āl ai
I am fine. आऊँ खरा आँ। āū khara ā Nasal sound in 'ū' in the first syllable and 'ā' in the last syllable
Thank you! शुक्रिया/ धन्नवाद śhukriyā/ tanvād The former is derived from Arabic "shukriyat" and the latter is the formal Sanskrit derived form. The former is more commonly used.
What is your name? तुंदा के नांऽ ऐ? tunda kē nā ai
My name is ____ मेरा नांऽ .... ऐ mēra nā .... ai
Please कृपा kripā
Excuse me (getting attention) एक मिन्ट गाल सुनेओ Example Lit. Can I talk to you for a minute? Note : The tone in "गाल gāl" is rising. If you use an even tone, the word's meaning changes from \"talk\" to \"curse word\".
Excuse me (begging pardon) माफ़ करेओ māf karēō Lit. Forgive me
I am Sorry. मी माफ़ करेओ। mi māf karēō
I can't speak Dogri. मिगी डोगरी नी आन्दी ऐ। migī ḍōgrī nī āndi ai
I can speak some Dogri. मिगी थोड़ी ञई डोगरी आन्दी ऐ migī thōṛī jaī ḍōgrī nī āndi ai The 'j'(ञ) sounds somewhere between ja(ज) and ya(य).
Do you speak English? तुस अंग्रेजी गलानदे हो। tus agarēzī galāndē ō
I don't understand. मिगी सम्झ नि लगी। migī samj ni lagī
Speak more slowly आस्ता गलाओ āstā galāo
Where are you from? तुस कुथे दे हो? tus kuthē dē ō
I'm from ... मै ... थमां हा। mai ... thmā ā Nasal sound complements both ā's
Where is the toilet? शौचालय कुथे ऐ? śocalya kuthē ai
What time is it? टैम के ओआदा ऐ? taim kē oādā ai

Problems[edit]

English Dogri (Devanagri) Dogri (Persian) Transliteration
Leave me alone. मी कल्ला छठ्ठो। mī kallā chaṭhō
Don't touch me. मी हाथ नेई लाओ। mī āth nī lāō
I'm calling the police. अ' ऊं पुलीस गी फ़ॉन करन लगा। aŪṀ pulīs gī fon (phone) karan lagā
Stop! Thief! रोको ! चोर ! rōkō ! cōr !
Stop! Rapist! रोको ! बलात्कारी ! rōkō ! blātkārī !
Someone please help me! कोई मेरी मदद करो। koī mērī madad karō
Fire! आग ! āg (Falling tone)
I am lost.
I have lost my purse. मेरा पर्स ग्वाचिए दा ऐ। mēra pars (purse) gvāciē da ai
I have lost my wallet. मेरा बटुआ ग्वाचिए दा ऐ। mēra baṭuā gvāciē da ai
I have lost my watch. मेरी कड़ी ग्वाचिए दी ऐ। mērī kaṛī gvāciē dī ai
My things have been stolen. मेरी चिजां चोरी होई हे दी ऐ। mērī cijāṁ cōrī oī ē dī ai
I'm sick. अ' ऊं बमार आँ l aŪṀ bamār am̐
I have been injured. मी लगी दी ऐ। mī lagī dī ai
I need a doctor. मी डॉक्टर दी लोड ऐ। mi ḍokṭar (doctor) dī lōḍ ai

Interrogatives[edit]

English Dogri (Devanagri) Dogri (Persian) Transliteration Notes
Why की
When कुस्ले kuslē
What के
Who कौऽन kau'n
Whom किसी kisī
How कियाँ kiyām̐ Used to ask how something happened.

E.g. How did you get hurt?

How (masc./fem.) कनए/कनई kanaē/kanaī Used to ask the likability of something.

E.g. Do you like the mangoes (Lit. How are the mangoes?)


Numbers[edit]

Dogri numerals follow the Hindu-Arabic number system. Both Persian and Devanagari numerals are used in Dogri. Historically, Dogri was written in Dogra Akkhar script which had its own numerals. However, it is acceptable to use Latin numerals are often used when writing the language in any of the scripts.

Latin Numeral (Hindu-Arabic) Devanagri Persian/Arabic
0 ٠
1 ١
2 ٢
3 ٣
4 ٤
5 ٥
6 ٦
7 ٧
8 ٨
9 ٩
10 १० ۱۰

The numbers in words are given below.

Hindu-Arabic Dogri (Devanagri) Dogri (Persian) Transliteration
0 शुन्य śunya
1 झ्क ik
2 दो do
3 त्रै trai
4 चार cār
5 पान्ज pānj
6 द्दे
7 सात sāt
8 आठ āṭ
9 नौ nau
10 दस dās


Time[edit]

English Dogri (Devanagri) Dogri (Persian) Transliteration Note
Time टैम ṭaim Derived from the English word time'
Now आले ālē
That time (past) उस वेले us vēlē Acts as a past version of later
Later बाद च bād ca Literally, "later in"
Before पहले pailē It is not exactly pronounced at it is spelt.
morning/ (in the) morning स्वेर / स्वेरे svēr/svērē
afternoon/ (in the) afternoon दोपहर/ दोपहरी dōpair/dōpairī It is not exactly pronounced at it is spelt.
evening/ (in the) evening शाम/शामी śām/śāmī
night/ (in the) night रात/ राती rāt/rātī

Clock time[edit]

khaddi da taam

Duration[edit]

English Dogri (Devanagri) Dogri (Persian) Transliteration
minute / minutes मिन्ट minṭ
hour / hours कैंटा / कैंटे kainṭā / kainṭē
day / days दिन din
week / weeks हफ़्ता / हफ़्ते aftā / aftē
month / months महीना / महीने minā / minē
year / years साल sāl (falling-rising tone)

Days[edit]

The Dogri days of the week are each named after a planet and correspond to the Western days of the week, i.e. Sunday = Ravivār ( the Sun's day [lit. time or period]). Thursday (Thor's day) = Guruvār (Jupiter's day), Saturday/Saturn's day = Śani's (Saturn's day), etc. The ending "-वार" (-vār), meaning day, time, or period is often dropped colloquially.

English Dogri (Persian) Dogri (Devanagri) Transliteration
Sunday ऐतवार/रवि‍वार aitvār/ravivār
Monday सोमवार somvār
Tuseday मंगलवार mangalvār
Wednesday बुधवार budhvār
Thursday गुरुवार guruvār
Friday शुक्रवार śukravār
Saturday शनि‍वार śanivār

Months[edit]

There are four main calendar systems followed in the Duggar Belt : the Georgian calendar, the Hindu calendar and the Islamic calendar. The Georgian calendar in used for all administrative purposes. The Hindu calendar and the Islamic calendar are used for religious purposes and mark many official holidays.

Name Dogri (Devanagri) Dogri (Persian) Transliteration
January जनवरी janvarī
February फ़रवरी farvarī
March मार्च mārc
April अप्रैल aprail
May मई maī
June जून jūn
July जुलाई julāī
August अगस्त agast
September सितम्बर sitambar
October अक्तूबर aktūbar
November नवम्बर navambar
December दिसम्बर disambar

Writing time and date[edit]

Time te treek likh

Colors[edit]

rang

Transportation[edit]

Transportation in Jammu involves bus, train , rickshaw, matador and taxi. Matador are a kind of local buses that do not necessarily run on a schedule. You can easily stop a matador for you by gesturing using your hand. There are no particular matador stops.

Bus and train[edit]

buss te rail gaddi

Directions[edit]

English Dogri (Devanagri) Dogri (Persian) Transliteration
How do I get to _____ ? _ कियां जाना ? ___ kīyāṁ jānā
... the train station ? ... रेलवे स्टेशन ...rēlvē stēśān (railway station)
... the airport ? ... हवाई अठ्ठा ...havāī aṭhṭhā
... the bus station ? ... बस स्टॉप ...bus stop
... the _____ hotel ? ____ हॉटल .... hotel
... restaurants / ... dhaba ? ...खाने आस्ते हॉटल/ ढाबा ... khānē āstē hotel / ḍhābā
...sites to see? ... दिखने आस्ते जगाएँ? ... dikhnē āstē jagaēṁ
Can you show me on the map? नक़्शाे उप्पर दसो? nakśā uppār dāsō
Street गली gālī
(You) Turn left (imperative) बाएं मुड़ो। bāēṁ muṛō
(You) Turn right (imperative) दाएं मुड़ो। dāēṁ muṛō
(I/We) Turn left (interrogative) ? बाएं मुड़ाँ? bāēṁ muṛām̐
(I/We) Turn right (interrogative) ? दाएं मुड़ाँ? dāēṁ muṛām̐
Left बाएं bāēṁ
Right दाएं dāēṁ
towards the ______ ___ दी तर्फ़ ___ dī tarf
past the ______ __ दे बाद ___ dē bād
intersection चौराहे chaurāhē
North उत्तर uttār
South दक्षिण dakṣiṇ
East पूर्व pūrv
West पश्चिम paṣcim
Uphill चढ़ाई cṛhāī
Downhill टलान tlān

Taxi

taxeee

Lodging[edit]

rehtt teh behat

Money[edit]

Paise

Eating[edit]

khan paann

Bars[edit]

Shopping[edit]

Kharidari

Driving[edit]

Gaddi chala na

Authority[edit]

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