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Gyeongju (경주시, 慶州市; formally romanized as Kyongju) is in North Gyeongsang province, South Korea. The capital of the Silla Kingdom for approximately the whole first millenium CE, Gyeongju is definitely worth visiting if you are at all interested in Korean history.
Gyeongju was once the capital of the Silla Korean kingdom, and is possibly the foremost location in Korea where many ancient buildings, burial grounds and artefacts can be found. Driving through this city you will notice that the typical modern Korean buildings are frequently interspersed with large burial mounds. It's one of the country's most popular destinations. Most of the visitors are domestic or from elsewhere in East Asia — seemingly westerners haven't discovered Gyeongju yet.
Forested hills dominate the region; between them there are rice fields as well as houses and roads. Downtown Gyeongju is a small city without high-rises. These, on the other hand, can be found some 5km to the east, namely "Bomunhu Resorts", a collection of several expensive hotels next to an eponymous lake. According to a 2012 census, there are some 264,000 inhabitants in the city. The region is famous for the traditional roofs on the houses; even some gas stations have them.
- See also: Pre-modern Korea
There has been human settlement at and around the site of the present-day town of Gyeongju from the prehistoric period. The Silla clan became the rulers of the south-eastern part of the peninsula in 57 BCE. They chose Gyeongju as their capital. There followed a long period of internal struggles between rival kingdoms. With the help of the Tang Dynasty in China, the Silla Kingdom defeated its rivals in the 7th century and established its rule over most of the peninsula; this remained unchallenged until the beginning of the 10th century.
The legend of King Munmu
King Munmu was the first ruler to unite the Korean peninsular in 668. In order to protect Korea from Japaneses invaders after his death, he decided to take on the form of a sea dragon by having his ashes interred in the ocean. Today his grave can be seen among several rocks off the coast near Gyeongju. His son, King Shinmu, also built the temple Gameunsa nearby in order that the dragon may have a place to rest.
The Silla rulers embellished their city with many public buildings, palaces, temples, and fortresses. Their tombs are to be found in the surroundings of the ancient city.
Mahayana Buddhism spread from China into Korea during the course of the 7th century and was adopted by the Silla Kingdom. Mount Namsan, which had been venerated by the existing cults of Korea, became a Buddhist sacred mountain and attracted its adherents, who employed the most outstanding architects and craftsmen of the day to create temples, shrines, and monasteries.
With the end of the Silla Kingdom, Korea underwent a further period of internal strife. It was unified again under Korean rule by the Yi (Chosun) Dynasty, which reigned until 1910. However, the country was invaded and devastated by the Japanese in the late 16th century and the Manchu in the 18th century, before being annexed by Japan in 1910. Throughout this long period, Gyeongju has maintained its urban identity, though many of its major buildings have suffered degradation and demolition.
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In the summer heavy rainfall is common and the day temperatures hover around +30°C. Late fall is the best time to visit, when the temperatures are lower and the sky usually clear.
The tourist offices are located at the bus station (Phone: 772 3842), at the railway station and at the Bulguksa temple. The staff speaks good English and are helpful. At the tourist office you can get English-language brochures about the region's sights and ideas for which of them to visit if you just have little time to spend. You can also inquire about hiking paths and bus connections there.
The nearest airports are Busan Gimhae International Airport and Ulsan, each about an hour away by express bus. From the airport in Ulsan there are four daily buses and tickets cost ₩4500, from the larger Gimhae airport there are twelve daily buses and tickets cost ₩9000.
Seoul's Incheon International Airport allow you to come to Gyeongju directly via the high speed KTX train, though trains stop at the new Singyeongju station a bit outside town. Bus service between the airports and Gyeongju's main terminal runs hourly. There are also 5 direct return coach journeys per day between Incheon International Airport and Gyeongju Intercity Bus Terminal. These services take around 4 hours and cost around ₩40,000 each way.
Gyeongju is well serviced by intercity buses from the 1 Intercity Bus Terminal. Service from Daegu, Pohang, and Busan (depending on terminal) leaves at least every twenty minutes, and every 40 minutes between Gyeongju and Seoul. Travel time from Seoul is approximately four hours, and Daegu, Pohang, and Busan are usually 40 minutes to an hour. There is limited daily service to other parts of Korea, and travelers going between Gyeongju and other cities will usually be routed through either Daegu or Busan, depending on direction of travel. An inter-city bus leaves directly from the Incheon International Airport near Seoul.
2 Gyeongju station is located in the city center, and is served by 7 direct (but slow) Seamaeul trains per day from Seoul. These trains take up to five hours and stop at a large number of stations along the route.
The KTX (Korea's high speed train) also serves Gyeongju directly, although the train goes to the brand new out-of-town station called 3 Singyeongju station where the journey time from Seoul is two hours. From the new station, many buses will take you to the city in about 15 minutes. Use buses 50, 60, 61, 70, 203 and 700. Ask the driver to let you off at the Express Bus Terminal (Gosok Teominal) which is a pretty convenient location. One way economy class Seoul-Singyeongju by KTX costs a little over ₩40,000, and tickets can be purchased from the automated machines (in English or Korean) at the station. Check Korail's website for schedules and fares.
Owing to its location off the central train lines (Gyeongbu Line) to Daegu and Busan, train service to other parts of the country is limited or indirect. There is, however, train service to Busan, Daegu, and Pohang. In addition, there is extensive commuter train service to surrounding communities.
If coming from Busan/Haeundae in particular, consider the train as the route is rather scenic varying from being sandwiched between pine forest and blue ocean during the 15 minutes after Haeundae Beach to the curious sight of and passing through Ulsan elevated over the city with the endless industrial smokestacks in the distance. Most importantly though, there exists a second stop specifically servicing the Bulguksa World Heritage Site called 5 Bulguksa station. Get off here, take the number 11 bus and it'll typically zip you up to the temple much faster than the intercity bus route.
Be sure to visit the two tourist kiosks to get maps and guides. One is next to the express bus terminal while the other is beside the parking lot in front of Gyeongju Station. Whether walking or biking, if you know your destination's Romanized or Hangul name you will find countless signs along the path at just about every intersection pointing the direction to the nearest attractions with distances provided.
The best way to get around the central city is to walk or bike. A bike can be rented for ₩7,000 per day, return by 7PM from the bike rental shop 3 minutes east of the express bus terminal, motor scooters are available next door but are much pricier for a much shorter duration. Bikes can be used on some of the trails and within a few of the city's parks, so with good planning a bike can save you money compared to buses while providing a more enjoyable experience and allow you to see more attractions in a day. However, riding a bike on a hot summer day can be a sweaty experience. Gyeongju is an extremely difficult place to get lost in when visiting its famous sites.
Sites further afield can be reached using the city's bus system. Note that there are no timetables at the bus stops and sometimes you may have to wait long for the bus. The #10 and #11 buses circle the central city, and many of the most notable tourist destinations, in opposite directions. All buses cost ₩1,500, and don't offer a transfer (transfers using local transportation cards unconfirmed). The buses don't accept Daegu nor Daejeon Hankkumi but they do accept Busan Mybi and Seoul T-money cards. There are stops in front of the train stations and the bus terminal. All the stops for the most popular attractions are voice recorded in Korean followed by English.
There are also guided bus tours to the main sights; the ticket price includes the entrance to the sights and you don't need to wait for those public buses. Mostly they are good value for money, but sometimes the visits to particular sights are shortened if you are lagging behind schedule. The English of the tour guide is acceptable, but you would probably like to read up a bit about the sights yourself before going on the tour.
Gyeongju is home to South Korea's first nominated UNESCO World Heritage Site — Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple — and numerous other national treasures.
Within the city
- 1 Daerungwon Burial Mound (Gyeongju Hwangnam-ri Gobungun Burial Park). This tumuli park is the main attraction of the region and consists of 30 burial mounds in the central part of the city. In the Grave of the Heavenly Horse (Cheonmachong, 천마총, Grave #155) there is an entrance that allows you to take an inside look. In addition to the grave itself, it also consists of replicas of artefacts found in the grave. Among these the most valuable item is a golden crown (national treasure #188). Cheonmachong is 13m high and 47m across and was built in the 5th century. It got it's current name, because a saddle with a picture of a white horse on it w(cheonmado, national treasure #207) as found inside the grave. All of the original relics can be seen in the national museum. The biggest burial mound is the double mound of Hwangnam Daechong, having an area of 80 x 120 and heights of 23m and 22,2m. Yet another remarkable mound is the grave of King Michu, 13th king of Silla. During the reign of the 14th king, king Yurye, the Japanese invaded the kingdom. According to a legend, the invaders were defeated by soldiers that had emerged from King Michu's grave. ₩1500.
- Sonje Museum of Contemporary Art. Tu-Su 10-18. Permanent exhibition consisting of pictures, sculptures and media installations. Also differently themed temporary exhibitions. ₩3,000.
- 2 Cheomseongdae Observatory. The oldest existing observatory in the Far East, built during the reign of Queen Seonduk in 634.
- 3 Korean tapdancing museum. You can try on various tap shoes, some dating back as far as 16th century Silla models.
- 4 Bunhwangsa Temple (분황사) (The pagoda lies to the east of the city center. From the National Museum it is about 20 minutes walk.). Only a pagoda built during from the reign of Queen Seondeok in 634 remains in this temple. It is thus Korea's oldest pagoda and a special feature is that it was built with bricks. Originally it had nine levels, but today only three remain. There are also a few stone figures.
- 5 Nodongri and Noseori grave parks (Between the bus station and the Daerungwon burial mound). Here are two small parks next to each other with many burial mounds. The western park, Noseori, has 14 graves of different sizes where Geumwanchong, Geumnyeongchong, Seobongchong, Houchong, Ssangsangchong and Machong are buried. The eastern park, Nodongri, has graves from the 4th to 6th centuries.
- 6 Anapji Pond (안압지) (In the southeast of the city, located on the main road). The artificial Anapji pond was originally created by King Munmu in 674. The pavilions on its banks were destroyed by fire and fell into the pond in 935. Archeological finds from the pond can be seen in the National Museum today. The pond is covered from late July to early August with blooming lotus flowers. In the middle stands a pavilion, which can be reached via steps. This place is popular with wedding couples who want to be photographed in the middle of the flower spectacle.
- 7 National Museum of Gyeongju, 186 Iljeong-ro. Weekdays: 09:00 - 18:00, Weekends and holidays: 09:00-19:00. A museum with four exhibition buildings, it contains treasures such as the golden crown of Geumgwanchong, the pottery piece Gimainmulhyeongtogi (a mounted soldier from the kingdom of Gaya), King Michu's golden sword.
Around the city
- 8 Bulguksa Temple (Take bus 10 and 11 from the Gyeongju Express Terminal or the Gyeongju Train Station every 30 minutes). A wonderful temple well outside the main city and possibly the most impressive temple in Korea. It is regarded as a masterpiece of Buddhist art, and was built in the 8th century during the Silla Kingdom period. In front of the main prayer hall, there stand two famous stone pagodas. Dabotap means the pagoda of many treasures. Standing on the right of the courtyard facing the main hall, it shows the artistic beauty of Silla culture. In comparison to the simple Seokgatap, it is highly decorative. It was so delicately carved that they say ‘Silla masons managed stones like clay.’ Seokgatap means the pagoda of Buddha. It stands on the left of the courtyard facing the main hall. This three story pagoda is admired for its simple and dignified design. It is considered Korea’s most typical stone pagoda. Note that Seokgatap is under repair with the expected date of completion to be in December 2014. A copy of the Seokgatap can be seen at the Gyeongju National Museum.
- 9 Seokguram Grotto (A few kilometers hike up from the Bulguksa Temple, or a 20 minute bus ride that leaves every hour at 40 minutes past the hour and then goes back to the temple every hour on the hour). This is a classic example of high Silla art and architecture, a spectacular Buddhist site. You will encounter a seated Buddha protected by two sets of 12 royal guards. On the solstice the third-eye of the Buddha is hit by a ray of the sun coming through the dome above his head. The light from the third eye is said to shine South-south-East, in the direction of an ancient temple in the valley below, destroyed by Mongols in the 13th century. The line continues and points exactly to the tomb of King Mum-Mu in the East Sea, 3km father South-south-East. This was said to protect Korea from Japan. Although the grotto is behind a panel of glass, this is to protect it from the breath of thousands of daily tourists. Photography is not permitted inside the grotto due to the sacred nature of the site. The site may best be left for a clear day otherwise you will miss out on some great views.
- 10 Golgulsa Temple. Located 20 km east of the ancient Silla Dynasty capital city of Gyeongju in Southeastern Korea. In the Golgulsa temple area can be found the oldest historical Buddhist ruins on Mt. Hamwol and the only cave temple in Korea. The original temple was built out of solid rock during the 6th century by Saint Kwang Yoo and his companions, Buddhist monks from India. This temple contains a sculptured Maya Tathagata Buddha (Buddha was known as the “Tathagata”; his mother was “Maya Devi”) and twelve rock caves. You can enjoy Temple Stay in Golgulsa.
- 11 Gameunsa Temple, Yongdang-ri, Yangbuk-myeon Gyeongju-si,. This temple which isclose to the sea in the east has only the foundations and two 13 meter high stone pagodas remaining. The building was begun by King Munmu and completed by his son, Shinmun, in 682. The temple hall was to serve as a resting place of King Munmu's reincarnation as a sea dragon, and therefore Shinmun built a water path from the sea to this temple. This should not be confused with 12 King Munmu's sea grave that is also close by and also references the sea dragon reincarnation.
- 13 Girimsa Temple (기림사) (About 10 km east from the center. Take the bus from the city center to Andongsamgeo-ri, and then walk or take a taxi for the remaining 4km). At the foot of Hamwolsan mountain, this temple was founded in 643 in the twelfth year of the rule of King Seondeok. The relativally large compund comprises of 16 buildings. The main highlights are the three floor pagoda (Samcheung Seoktap), the Daejeokgwangjeon hall and the golden sitting Buddha statue of Geonchilbosal Jwasang. This temple is much quiter than the one in nearby Bulguksa.
- Myeonghwalsanseong. This fortress used to extend for 6 kilometers to protect the country from Japanese attacks. Today only a few stone foundations and a temple remain.
- 14 Banwolseong (경주 월성 or the Half Moon Fortress)) (Just south of Cheomseongdae). This was a former palace of the Silla kingdom, and is today a lovely park with some ruins. It contains the 'Seokbinggo' or 'Stone Ice House' built in 1738 for the preservation of food. It looks something like a grave mound (of which there are many in the area).
- 15 Hwangnyongsaji (Yellow Dragon Temple). Located east of downtown, these temple ruins of 66,0002 are among the largest in Asia. In 553 King Jinheung planned to build a palace here, however as he heard rumors that a yellow dragon had been seen there, he decided to make a temple here. It was completed in 645. The most important things here were a nine-level wooden pagoda and a golden five meter high statue of Jangnyuksang. The temple was destroyed by Mongol invaders in 1238 and now only the ruins of it remains, including two pillars which are named Dangganjiju — "the flag poles".
There are many royal tombs including: The Gwoereung Tomb, Oreung Tombs Park, Baeri Samneung Tombs, Gyeongju Hwangnam-ri Gobungun Tomb Park, Nodong/Noseo-ri Tombs Park, Seoakri Gobungun Tombs Park, Kim Yushin's Tomb, King Munmu's Underwater Tomb.
- 16 The Gwoereung Tomb of King Wonseong (경주 원성왕릉). The burial mound of King Wonseong, 38th king of Silla, lies close to Bulguksa. In 780, Wonseong and his friend Kim Yangsang fought the rebel Kim Ji-jeong. As King Hyegong died in the rebellion, Kim Yangsang took over the throne as the King Seondeok. His successor was Wonseong in the year 785. In 787 he let his title be known to the Chinese emperor, through the sending of tributes. A tradition that would be followed by Korean kings for the next centuries. From 788 King Wonseong introduced the civil service examinations from the Chinese Tang dynasty. King Wonseong died in 798, and his grave is surrounded by a stone wall, with the edges comprising of 12 stones showing the complete Chinese zodiac. By the grave are stone columns, statues of academics (Muninseok), warriors (Muinseok) and lions (Dolsaja). The statues of the warriors appear to have the facial features of European or Arabian origin and wearing turbans. The four guarding lions are all facing the grave with large grins.
- 17 King Muyeol's tomb. King Muyeol is considered as a great unifier of Korea, having conquered the Kingdom of Baekje in the seventh century. His power is symbolized by a turtle, a statue of which can be seen near the tomb's entrance.
- 18 King Munmu's Underwater Tomb (Daewangam). The ashes of King Munmu, 30th ruler (661-681) of Silla, are supposed to be placed in an underwater tomb, next to some rocks 200m from the coast. Archaeologists have found no signs of a royal grave there, so visitors can just look at the rocks and wonder if the legend is true or not. You may not explore the area yourself - access to the rocks is prohibited. There is a beach close to the rocks, with its rough sand and stones it's not very comfortable. A bit north along the beach there is the Yigyeondae pavilion from where you can also see the rocks. The pavilion is built on a place where the Munmu's son, King Shinmu according to a legend received a magical flute called manpasikjeok from a sea dragon. The flute would have been able to scare enemies away, heal illnesses, and bring forth rain and sun.
- 19 The grave of Kim Yushon. Not just kings were buried in the mounds, but prominent persons like general Kim Yushin (595-673) as well. He was a son of Kimsuo, the last king of the Geumgwangaya Kingdom. At the age of 15 he started serving the kingdom of Silla and played a decisive role in the conquest of Goguryeo and Baekje, wherefore he was elevated to the highest rank under King Munmu. According to a legend, the general turned into a god after his death. Kim's mound 5,3m high, 50m across and is located west of downtown. It is surrounded by a wall with 12 stone tables with the signs in the Chinese zodiac guarding the grave.
The resort is located about 5km east of downtown next to the man-made lake Bomun. Here you can find splurge-level hotels and services including stores, activity parks, a golf course and a swimming pool. You can walk or bike along the banks of the lake. The lake boasts the highest fountain in Korea, named Gosa. With its six jets, water is shot more than 100m into the air and in the night it is illuminated.
- 20 Gyeongju World. An amusement park with a Ferris wheel, a roller coaster and other rides. It also incorporates several smaller theme parks such as the water park California Beach, the Kiddy Land and the Children's Animal Ranch.
- Bomun Mulebanga Water Wheel. A large water wheel with 108 channels (a holy number in Buddhism).
- Gyeongju World Culture Expo. Since 1998 the resort hosts culture festivals, centered around the 82m high Gyeongju Tower and the Expo Culture Center. The event includes exhibitions, concerts, video shows and other performances.
Gyeongju National Park
- 21 Gyeongju National Park (경주국립공원/慶州國立公園). Either take a bus or taxi to get to the park. Once there, hiking trails lead up into the mountains. At first the signs are in both Korean and English but soon they become Korean only. Make sure you take a map or even better a Korean!
- 22 Oreung Tomb's Park. The site of five burial mounds, but there are different theories about how many persons in reality have been buried here. According to one story only the founder of the Silla Kingdom, Park Hyeokgeose and his wife Aryeong. As they were buried, a giant snake appeared and interrupted the ceremony. The snake divided the corpses into five parts and buried them at five different locations, wherefore the site is sometimes known as sareung, the Snake Grave. According to another story there are five persons buried here, King Namhae, Yuri and Pasa in addition to the above mentioned.
- 23 Poseokjeong. There are not much left of the site where the Silla kings held their ceremonies. The most visible part is a narrow passage called yusanggoksuyeon, 22m in length and originally made for a game called goksugeo where the player had to recite a poem while a glass ball was rolling down the passage. Not far away there is a site called Najeong of which there are just the foundations left. This is the site where Park Hyeokgeose the first king of Silla (again, according to a legend) was born out of an egg. Next to it is Aryeongjeong, the place where his wife Aryeong, the first queen was born out of a dragon.
- 24 Sungdeokjeon. A shrine south of Oreung, built in the 11th century under King Sejong. Later destroyed by the Japanese, it was rebuilt by King Sunjo. In the shrine there is a monument telling the stories of the kings Park Hyeokgeose and Sundeokjeong.
- 25 Nangsan. The holy hill Nangsan looks more like a burial mount than a hill, being just 108m in high. In the year 413 king Silseong saw a cloud reminiscent of a pavilion above the hill. He believed that it was the house of the gods and declared the hill holy. The Sillas performed shamanic rites on the hill. Nowadays you can find the remains of the Buddhist temple Sacheonwangsaji there. It was built in 679 to protect the Chinese Tang Kingdom from invaders. Above the temple sits the burial mound of Queen Seondeok and the remains of Neungjitapji, the site where King Munmu was cremated after his death. 12 statues symbolizing the Chinese zodiac surround the site.
- Samneunggol. Also known as Naenggol, Cold Valley due to its cold weather around the year. Into the valley's walls several Buddha figures have been sculpted. The first one you will encounter is Seokjoseokga yeoraejwasang, a Buddha sitting with crossed legs with a missing hand. After this Maaegwaneum Bodhisattva, a standing Buddha with a Lamp of Pureness (jeongbyeong) in the hand. It is especially beautiful at sunset in the fall when the leaves are red. After that follows Seongakyukjonbul, Seongakyeoraejwasang, Maaseokga yeoraejwasang and many other Buddha figures.
- 26 Baeri Samneung Tombs. These three burial mounds are located at the entrance to the Samneunggol valley. The kings Gyeongmyeong, Sindeok and Adala are buried here. In the temple there are three standing Buddha statues — the Baeri Seokbul Statues.
- Gyeongju Folk Village. A few replicas of the surrounding sights, some performances by artisans and several stores selling every imaginable type of souvenirs. In short: a tourist trap, that however is part of almost all tours and widely advertised.
- 27 Gyerim Forest. Located between the Cheomseongdae observatory and the National Museum, some of the trees here are over 2000 years old. According to a legend King Talhae heard a rooster in the forest in the middle of the night. The next morning a baby was found in the forest. The king adopted him, named him Kim Alji and he would eventually become the founder of Gyeongju. The forest was named Gyerim which translates to rooster.
- 28 Lake Bomun (보문관광단지/普門觀光團地) (buses 10 and 11). A getaway for the locals both in the spring for the cherry blossom and in the summer for canoeing and seeing open air concerts and theater performances. Several restaurants, stores and activities. Very busy in the summer, remarkably less so outside the season.
As a major tourist destination in Korea, Gyeongju is host to many festivals and events.
- Korean Traditional Liquor and Cake Festival. An annual festival held during March and April. Events include traditional music and dance performances, as well as opportunities to learn traditional Korean arts and crafts. However, the highlight of the festival is the rice cakes, traditional tea, and rice wines.
- 1 Namsan mountain. This historically and spiritually significant mountain only 5min south of the central city is littered with historical Buddha reliefs carved into its rocks and boulders as well as dotted with ancient pagodas and temples. A hike up the mountain (466m) through its western valley from the Samneung tomb site is recommended.
- 2 Tumuli Park. Take a relaxed stroll through the Tumuli Park with 23 old grave hills ('Tumuli') from the Silla period scattered through a well-developed park with beautiful paths.
- 3 Wolseong Park. Take a walk through Wolseong Park where the locals take their well-deserved Sunday break with kites, horse-coach riding or just walking through the beautiful park setting.
- 4 California Beach. A relatively new water park built in 2008. As at summer 2012, entrance fees are ₩53,000 for adults, so it is quite pricey, but it does include a free pass to the next-door Gyeongju World amusement park. The water park is relatively small, and the rides are definitely not as exciting as one would expect from the hype they have built up. Expect huge line-ups on weekends and summer vacation.
- 5 Silla Millenium Park (in the Bomun Lake Resort). 10 am to 9 pm during weekdays and 10 to 2 during weekends. The park lets you experience how it must have been like to be in Korea over 1000 years ago. You can sleep at a traditional Korean palace from the Silla period. The entrance fee is ₩20,000.
- Outdoor activities. The region is ideal for hiking. There are hiking paths along the forested hills and between the sights. The tourist office can provide you with information about hiking itineraries. On Lake Bomun you can rent small or big boats, with or without a motor. Bomunho Resort and Hotel Kolon have golf courses. If you would like to swim, most larger hotels have pools that are also open to non-guests, in addition there is the water park California Beach in Gyeongju World.
- 6 Gyeongju Bosun Shooting Range. 10-22. Try out recreational shooting with real guns. ₩20,000 for 10 bullets.
The best items to buy in Gyeongju are mostly reproductions of Silla craftworks, such as ceramics, metalworks, and artwork. There will be numerous vendor stalls on your hikes to Bulguksa and a few more if you continue onto Seokguram Grotto in addition to the souvenir shops that sell mostly the same goods plus some higher ticket items in addition to small trinkets and nicknacks. You are more likely to get a good deal from the street vendors who you might reward buying multiple items with a discount off the ticketed price.
- 1 Seongdong Covered Market (Close to the Gyeongju train station). A classic example of the modern Korean market with lots of fresh seafood, food stands and some textiles.
- Bomun Shopping Center. The shopping mall at Bomunho Resort caters to tourists - it has stores with souvenirs and local specialties as well as traditional restaurants.
Unlike many cities in Korea, there is no particular dish the area is known for besides a general association with seafood. However, there are some famous edible items found in Gyeongju that have become renowned throughout Korea: Hwangnam ppang (ppang being the Korean word for "bread"; derived from the Portuguese word "pão") which is a small ball of silky-smooth sweet red bean paste surrounded by a thin pastry shell, and Gyeongju ppang which is the same sweet red bean paste enclosed between two thin barley bread pancakes. Both can be purchased many places in town (including from a booth at the train station) but the best way to taste them is fresh and warm from the bakery, just across the street to the east from the Flying Horse Tomb (Cheonmacheong) Park.
For seafood, many locals head to Gampo, a village directly on the coast. Most of Gyeongju's fishing catch is brought here and served locally, rather than being exported to other markets. The local hoe (sashimi) is excellent and very fresh.
If you happen to drink too much Gyeodong Beopju you might want to check the famous Haejangguk — a pork spine and coagulated blood stew — at the "Hangover Soup Street".
The area around Bulguksa's bus stop and carpark hosts a veritable village of restaurants. The owners will, unusually for Korea, tend to aggressively tout their shops over others but there are enough around that if you can ignore their advances, you can pick and choose. Prices are surprisingly standard, given the location.
- 1 Dosol Maeul, 71-2 Hwangnam-dong Gyeongju-si (Near Cheonmachong, Daeleung-won), ☎ . 12-22. You can experience a Korean traditional meal of Gyeongbuk area here. Located right next to the Sarangchae accommodation. The building is a one hundred-year-old traditional Korean house. ₩8,000.
- 2 Sukyeong Sikdang, Gyerim-ro, 60, ☎ . We-Mo 11-21. Korean cuisine in a traditional Korean building. Famous for its barley rice, you can also find items and dishes like Hwangnam ppang, bibimbap and pajeon on the menu. dishes around ₩10,000.
- 3 Kisoya, 244 Nodong-dong, ☎ . A range of Japanese dishes, including bento boxes, sashimi and noodle soups, with a Korean twist. ₩10,000-30,000.
- 4 Hwangnam Ppang, 347-1 Hwango-dong, ☎ . The bakery where the namesake bread, or rather pastry, was invented in 1939. They are sold in packages of 20 or 30. ₩16,000-24,000.
- 5 Metdol Sundubu, 229-1, Bukgun-dong, ☎ . Korean cuisine, specializing in different soups including sundubu jjigae (tofu soup/stew).
- 6 Pyeongyang Naengmyeon (평양냉면), 109-2, Wonhyo-ro (about 500m from the railway station), ☎ . 9:30-22:00. Traditional Korean food, for instance bulgogi (Korean barbeque) and naengmyeon (noodles). The restaurant is in a backyard, accessed through a small gate from the Wonhyoro street opposite to a movie theater. ₩6,000-18,000.
- 7 Toobbul Korean BBQ, 16, Hwarang-ro, ☎ . 11:30-22:00. Korean BBQ house, specializing in beef from the Korean hanu cattle. During lunch hour, they reportedly have 35% discounts. meats around ₩16,000-21,000, sets with small dishes ₩10,000.
- 8 With Gusto, 103-3, Dongseong-ro, ☎ . Italian restaurant with a Korean twist, serving pastas and omelettes among other things.
- 9 Gyeongju Cheonnyeon Hanu Bomun, 545-9, Bomun-ro (in the Lake Bomun resort area), ☎ . A BBQ restaurant, also specializing in hanu beef. You get to choose your meat at the butcher shop, and as usually with Korean barbecue, it's barbecued on your table. The price includes all-you-can-eat side dishes. ₩25,000 and up.
- 10 Yosokkoong. 11:30-15:30, 17-21. Located in the house of a local aristocratic family, the Choi family. The dishes are from the Korean royal cuisine and are works of art just like the building itself. Dining there is a memorable experience, justifying the high price. Reservation is mandatory. ￦70,000-140,000.
Gyeongju is known for Gyeodong Beopju, a mild rice wine. Although it is principally made from glutenous rice and spring water, locals believe that a boxthorn or Chinese matrimony vine growing near the wellsource of the water has imbued the wine with special medicinal properties and flavor.
Gyeongju is not particularly known for its nightlife, and in the major tourist areas around downtown and Lake Bomun you can drink at restaurants and hotel bars, but proper nightlife is hard to come by. Bars and clubs are mostly concentrated around Dongguk University, in the 1 Seonggeon-dong district. Some of them serve snacks (anju) at a price of ₩10,000-20,000.
- 2 Schuman and Clara, 36-1, Hanbit-gil 36beon-gil (the main street leading from downtown to Dongguk University, basement level on the right hand side when heading north). A coffee house, reportedly with one of the best baristas in Korea.
- 3 Nahbi Brunch Cafe & Books, 69, Dongmun-ro. Cosy cafe and brunch restaurant, also featuring a bookstore. They have different sandwiches and coffees and it's one of the few Western-style cafés in the city.
Near the train station there are some yeoinsuk (guesthouses) where you can stay for as little as $10 USD/night. However, none of these places have hot water, making it difficult to use the very dirty facilities. There are also roaches in many of the rooms. Far better are the few "motels" near the train station that charge around $20/night.
- 1 Hanjin Hostel, 173-1 Rose-Dong, ☎ . Check-in: 12PM, check-out: 10:30AM. The owner has 30 years of experience and hosts around 2-3000 guests each year. He has a proprietary tourist map with destinations and bus numbers which he will mark up in your presence to give a sort of personal-itinerary with some verbal tips while answering your questions. He highly encourages congregations on the rooftop at night where stories can be shared and tomorrow's journey can be made, either of which he may join. He speaks excellent Korean, English and Japanese. ₩20,000 for shared bathroom; ₩25,000 for private bathroom.
- 2 Sa Rang Chae Guesthouse, 238-1 Hwangnam-dong, ☎ . Located down an alley next to Tumuli Park and within easy walking distance of several of Gyeongju's other spectacular historical sights. You can sleep in their cozy traditional style Korean room (there are only a few so call ahead) which surround a common courtyard where guests can meet around the small firepit or in the large modern kitchen/lounge at nighttime and exchange stories. The lounge offers free internet and coffee while a rudimentary make-it-yourself egg and toast breakfast is also included. Difficult to find, and the Lonely Planet guide is incorrect, so check the website to be sure on directions. Single: ₩30,000-35,000, Double: ₩40,000-45,000.
- 3 Gyeongju Guesthouse, Gyeongbuk, Hwango-dong, 138-2 (300m from Gyeongju Station, turn left out of the station and the guesthouse is down a small signposted side street on your left.), ☎ . Check-in: from 2pm-10pm, check-out: 11am. This is where all the young Koreans who come to visit Gyeongju stay. You may not find it in tour guides as yet as it was opened in 2010. A clean and welcoming guesthouse which offers 4 bed dorms for ₩17000 per person per night and double rooms from ₩40000 per night. The guesthouse has free wireless and internet facilities in the bright and modern lounge/lobby and a self-service breakfast is provided. Dorm rooms have individual lockers and most importantly the beds are extremely comfortable. from ₩17,000.
- 4 Modorine Hostel, 5-4, bungmun-ro 55beon-gil , Sunggundong, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. Check-in: 15:00, check-out: 10:30. A cozy two-storied house with small garden and outside deck. Breakfast included(fresh baked bread and homemade jam, coffee, juice etc.). When you use KTX from Seoul, you can take bus No. 51. and get off at Sunggundong Office station. Then turn around and go straight down to the first big intersection (Sunggun Intersection). Turn left and go straight to the blue sign of Bungmun-ro 55beon-gil. Turn left again to the Gaenari Apt. NA-dong. Look for the small alley on the left. You can find vertical wooden decoration house, which is the motel. When you take an express bus, you can take bus No. 51 from the bus stop opposite of the express bus terminal. same way as above. If you want to walk, go out of the express terminal. Go straight up along the river to the sign of the tax-office. This will take 10-15min. After this turn right and go straight to the blue sign of Bungmun-ro 55beon-gil (past away several intersections) and continue as above.When you take an intercity bus, go to the express bus terminal, not far from the intercity bus terminal and follow the above directions. If you have to start in front of Gyeongju train station, you can take bus 40 in front of the Gyeongju post office and get off at same station as above. Alternatively you can take a taxi, the ride takes 5-7 minutes. ₩20000(dorm). ₩50000(doubleroom).
- 5 Motel Icarus (just behind the express bus terminal). One of the better motels around, they have clean and modern rooms and the room rate includes free Wi-Fi, jacuzzi and breakfast. The manager is friendly and speaks some English. ￦50,000.
- 6 Baramgot Guesthouse/Backpackers, 287 Hwango-dong, 137 Wonhyo-ro (3 min by foot from the railway station, near Motel Segeomjeong), ☎ . Check-in: 15, check-out: 11. The main building is mixed, the side building is dorms is reserved for ladies. The owner speaks some English. You can rent bikes, but they have just three and they cannot be reserved beforehand. There is a big common room with dining tables, a small library, three computers and a fresh water fountain. The room rate includes a light breakfast. There is a few bars and noraebangs (karaoke) nearby. dorms: ￦15.000 in the side building, ￦20.000 in the main building.
- 7 Hansol Motel (Bomunho Reort), ☎ , fax: . A bit further away from the lake, this hotel has both Western-style rooms and ondols. All rooms have small balconies and guests can "rent" movies for free. ₩40,000.
- 8 Swiss Rosen Hotel (Bomunho Resort), ☎ . room ₩48,000, package with breakfast, coffee, beer and bbq ₩20,000.
- 9 Gyeongju Park Tourist Hotel, 170-1 Noseo-dong (Daejongno, near the bus terminal), ☎ . Renovated in 2006 and even has some non-smoking rooms. Some rooms are above a night club, but those have a PC with Internet connection. ₩78,000, in the off-season 30% off.
Bomun Lake Resort Area is home to several luxury hotels aimed at Korean tour groups, including the Hyundai and Hilton Hotels, as well as the Concord, Chosun Spa Hotel, and other more moderately priced hotels. There are also many accommodation facilities near Bulguksa.
- 10 Gyeongju Hilton Hotel, 484-7 Bomun-ro, Sinpyeong-dong (By Bomunho lake), ☎ . The only international chain hotel in this area, provides western style comfort next to the Bomunho lake. Nice enough for evening walks although somewhat far from Gyeongju itself.
- 11 Gyeongju Suite Hotel, 280-12 Bomun-ro (in the Lake Bomun tourist complex), ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Spacious and beautiful rooms. They have both western rooms and ondols. The hotel has a nice park too. €100-120, including breakfast.
- 12 Kolon Hotel, 111-1 Ma-dong, ☎ . A brown concrete block, 5-10 minutes by foot from Bulguksa. They have a golf course and a swimming pool. On the downside it is far from many sights, the staff does not speak English well and everything in the hotel is from the 1970's.
- 13 Commodore Hotel Gyeongju Chosun, 410-2, Sinpyeong-dong, ☎ . Renovated in 2002 and has one of the best wellness areas in the city. ₩206,000.
- 14 Hotel Hyundai, 477-2 Sinpyeong-dong, ☎ . Fitness club, a park next to the lake and marble everywhere. They also offer special service for disabled persons. ₩242,000.
South Korea used to have a different mobile phone standard from the rest of the world, though foreign 3G and 4G mobile phones should nowadays work in the country. See South Korea#Connect for details and check with your own operator.
If looking for an Internet cafe, just like elsewhere in the country, look for signs saying PC방 ("PC bang", literally "PC room"). In addition, there are some Wi-Fi hotspots around downtown Gyeongju and your place of stay will likely offer Wi-Fi.
You can call 1330 for all kinds of tourist information in different languages including English.
- Yangdong Folk Village (양동마을/良洞마을) (bus 203 from the intercity bus terminal.). Yangdong should in no case be confused with the tourist trap "Gyeongju Folk Village". The village consists of estates and houses from the 15th and 16th century. The about 150 buildings are to a large part still inhabited. The main sights include the estates of Yi Hui-Tae (1733), Simsujeong (1560) and Hyangdam (1543). From Gyeongju there are many bus lines to Yangdong (more precise information available at the tourist office). After a 30 minutes ride one has to get off and follow the railroad tracks for about a kilometer and a half. After the underpass one will arrive at the folk village in about 15 minutes. ₩1,500.
- Oksan Seowon. Established in 1572, Oksan Seowon was one of Korea's most important Confucian schools. Contrary to many other Confucian schools it was spared the destruction of the 1860s, but not a fire in the early 19th century that left just 14 buildings standing. In the summer people are camping at the nearby river bank and bathing at the waterfall.
- The tomb of King Heungdok. One of the last tombs built by the Silla dynasty and the one furthest away from Gyeongju. It is located 4km north of Angangri, about halfway between Oksan Seowon and Yangdong Folk Village.
Buses and trains regularly leave to Busan and other cities, the intercity and express bus terminal are very close to each other at the river in the southwest of the city. Take the #100 (local) bus, across the street from the express bus terminal, to get to Gampo.
The travel time to Daegu by train or bus is almost the same but there are far more frequent buses and they're also cheaper. Express buses to Daegu and Busan run about every 10 minutes during the day, and to either destination it's just under an hour.
|Routes through Gyeongju|
|Dong-daegu ←||NW SE||→ Ulsan → Busan|