Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is a United States National Park located on the Big Island of the island state of Hawaii in the United States of America. The national park is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park is open 24 hours a day, year-round.
Kilauea Visitor Center is open daily 7:45AM-5PM and Jaggar Museum is open daily from 8:30AM to 5PM. (24-25 Dec, 1 Jan hours vary).
Above all, be respectful. The people of Hawaii are very spiritually inclined, and consider the volcano to be a sacred place, the home of the Goddess Pele. Also, it is a volcano, so it may pay to be cautious.
Radiocarbon dating suggests that ancient Hawaiians settled this area of Puna and Ka`u some time between A.D. 1200 and 1450. The coastal area was likely settled first. Evidence of living areas can be found in the remnants of house platforms and habitation caves still scattered throughout the lowland and upland areas. Trail systems later connected the villages along the coast to house sites in the upper regions as well as provided access to the upland resources.
Major historic events also took place in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park including the death of a large portion of a warrior party by an explosive volcanic eruption of Kilauea in 1790. Evidence of their last march can be found in footprints preserved in the hardened ash. The Ka`u Desert has also revealed evidence of intensive use of temporary shelter sites along a major trail system connecting the lower Ka`u District and Kilauea. Living on an active lava landscape can be found literally everywhere in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. Over 14,000 prehistoric archaeological features have been recorded.
The first European to travel through here was the Reverend William Ellis in 1823. Numerous eruptions and lava flows drew adventurers and scientists to the crater rim. Remnants of these early visits can be found in the trails and historic roads that cross the park. The historic 1877 Volcano House, which overlooks the Kilauea Caldera, was one of the early guesthouses in the park. Today, it is used by the Kilauea Art Center. The 1941 Volcano House, perched on the caldera rim, continues to provide lodging for park visitors. The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), founded in 1912, preceded the establishment of the park by four years. The Whitney Seismograph Vault, part of the 1912 HVO facility, still remains. Remnants of a former pulu factory remain hidden in the forest. World War II impacted the park as well. Several areas of the park were used for bombing practice and the historic Kilauea Military Camp which preceded the park establishment by only a few months, was developed as a rest and relaxation camp for military personnel and this use continues today. During World War II, it served various roles including housing of POW's.
The park was established in 1916. Work was initiated to provide basic infrastructure for the fledgling park in the 1920s, with more infrastructure development occurring in the 1930s as part of the Emergency Conservation Work program and later the Civilian Conservation Corps.
The landscape is varied from the expected volcanic lavas (there is more than one kind), to dry forest to rainforest to rocky beach. Calderas, pit craters, lava tubes, crevices, geothermal vents and flowing lava are some of the volcanic manifestations. A caldera is a large, basin-shaped volcanic depression, more or less circular, the diameter of which is many times greater than that of the included vents. A pit crater is a crater formed by sinking in of the surface. It is not primarily a vent for lava.
Five volcanoes make up the island of Hawai`i: Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, and Kilauea. Volcanoes that will never erupt again are considered extinct. Dormant volcanoes have not erupted in historic time (the last 200 years in Hawai`i) but probably will erupt again. Active volcanoes have erupted in historical time (the last 200 years in Hawai`i).
- Kohala, the oldest volcano on this island, last erupted about 60,000 years ago and is considered extinct.
- Mauna Kea last erupted 3,600 years ago and is dormant.
- Hualalai, Mauna Loa, and Kilauea are active.
- Hualalai erupted seven times in the last 2,100 years. The only historic eruptions were in 1800 and 1801. Mauna Loa last erupted in 1984 and sent flows towards Hilo. Kilauea has been erupting since 1983.
- Loihi, a submarine volcano, is 15 miles (24 km) southeast of the island and 3,178 feet (969 m) below sea level. Loihi will probably not reach sea level for another 250,000 years or more. Seismicity, geothermal vents, and fresh lava indicate Loihi is active.
Flora and fauna
The Hawaiian Archipelago is the most geographically isolated group of islands on Earth. The Park sits on the southeastern edge of the youngest and largest island at a latitude of 19°N. Stretching from the summit of Mauna Loa at 13,677 feet to sea level, the Park protects a wide diversity of ecosystems and habitats in seven different ecological life zones. Native Hawaiian species include carnivorous caterpillars, happy face spiders, colorful Hawaiian honeycreepers, the largest dragonfly in the United States, crickets partial to new lava flows, endangered sea turtles, and just one native terrestrial mammal - a bat.
Hawaiian plants and animals began to evolve over 70 million years ago in nearly complete isolation and over 90% of the native terrestrial flora and fauna in Hawai'i are found only in the Hawaiian islands. This level of endemism surpasses all other places on Earth - even the Galapagos Islands. Consequently, the Park is a fantastic laboratory for the study of biogeography and evolution within the Pacific Islands. Today, the Park harbors the descendants of those first colonizers - numerous evolutionary marvels such as mintless mints and nettleless nettles - plants adapted to life without plant-eating mammals.
Despite their protected status, the Park's treasure trove of species faces decimating threats from declining habitat outside Park boundaries, invasive plants, bird malaria, wildfires, feral cats and pigs, and introduced goats, sheep, rats, mongoose, ants, and wasps are all taking a toll. Three endangered species, the nene, Hawaiian petrel and the hawksbill turtle are targeted for full recovery by the National Park Service and its partners who are actively engaged in restoring habitat, guarding nest sites, monitoring threats and population impacts and removing alien wildlife.
Weather at Kilauea's summit (4000' elevation) varies daily and may be rainy and chilly any time of the year. Temperature varies by elevation. At the summit of the volcano, temperatures may be 12 to 15 degrees cooler than at sea level. The coastal plain at the end of Chain of Craters Road, where lava is entering the ocean, is often hot, dry, and windy with the possibility of passing showers.
Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park is located on the Big Island of Hawai`i.
- From Hilo: 30 miles southwest on Highway 11 (a 45 minute drive).
- From Kailua-Kona: 96 miles southeast on Highway 11 (2 to 2 1/2 hour drive), or 125 miles through Waimea and Hilo via highways 19 and 11 (2 1/2 to 3 hours).
- Hele On Bus system. Bus service is very limited, operating M-F, no holidays. There is only one county bus that comes to the Park. Passengers are picked up in Hilo in the afternoon, passengers are picked up at the Park to return to Hilo at 8AM in the morning. The Volcano stop is on the Kau/Hilo or Kona/Hilo routes.
- Vehicle $10 (good for 7 days) Admits one single, private, non-commercial vehicle and all of its passengers. Organized non-profit groups, (service organizations, scouts, church groups, college/school clubs) are not eligible for the $10 vehicle permit.
- Individual $5 (good for 7 days) Admits one individual when entering by foot, bicycle, or motorcycle. Ages 15 years old and younger are admitted free.
- Hawai`i Tri-park Annual Pass $25 Allows access for 1 full year from date of first use at Hawai`i Volcanoes, Haleakala, and Pu`uhonua o Honaunau National Parks.
There are several passes that allow free entry for groups traveling together in a private vehicle or individuals on foot or on bike. These passes are valid at all national parks including Hawaii Volcanoes National Park:
- The $80 interagency pass (valid for twelve months from date of issue) provides free entry at national parks and national wildlife refuges. This pass also covers standard amenity fees at national forests and grasslands, and at lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management and Bureau of Reclamation. Military personnel can obtain a free annual pass in person at a federal recreation site by showing a Common Access Card (CAC) or Military ID.
- U.S. citizens or permanent residents age 62 or over can obtain a senior pass (valid for the life of the holder) in person at a federal recreation site for $10, or through the mail for $20; applicants must provide documentation of citizenship and age. This pass also provides a fifty percent discount on some park amenities.
- U.S. citizens or permanent residents with permanent disabilities can obtain an access pass (valid for the life of the holder) in person at a federal recreation site at no charge, or through the mail for $10; applicants must provide documentation of citizenship and permanent disability. This pass also provides a fifty percent discount on some park amenities.
In 2015 the National Park Service will offer nine days on which entry is free for all national parks: January 19 (Martin Luther King Jr. Day), February 14-16 (Presidents Day weekend), April 18-19 (National Park Week's opening weekend), August 25 (National Park Service's 99th birthday), September 26 (National Public Lands Day), and November 11 (Veterans Day).
There is no public transportation within the park. Maps and brochures showing all roads, trails and attractions are available at the Visitor Center.
Many people can spend several days exploring all that the park has to offer. There are a number of excellent hikes, showcasing most of the flavors of Hawaiian geological activity.
- Kilauea Visitor Center (Near park entrance). Daily 7:45AM-5PM. Staff have maps and latest information on conditions and lava flows. Exhibits on island formation; the arrival of life by wing, wind, and wave; ecosystems from sea to summit; the sights and sounds of the rain forest; invasive species; and those who make a difference in resource protection. Interwoven throughout are the mana`o (wisdom) and mo`olelo (stories) of Hawai`i’s indigenous people. A film, "Born of Fire, Born of the Sea", is shown on-the-hour in the auditorium 9AM-4PM. Be sure to inquire about the excellent ranger-led programs available.
- Volcano Art Center Gallery (adjacent to the Kilauea Visitor Center). 9AM-5PM daily.
- Crater Rim Drive. An 11-mile road that encircles the summit caldera, passes through desert, lush tropical rain forest, traverses the caldera floor, and provides access to well-marked scenic overlooks and short walks. (see map) This is the basic tour and should be driven by all visitors.
- Jaggar Museum, Crater Rim Dr. A museum on volcanology with seismographs and other equipment used by scientists to monitor volcanoes. Spectacular views into the summit caldera from here.
- Thurston Lava Tube (Hawaiian name: Nahuku), Crater Rim Dr. A tube formed when lava drained from it some 350–500 years ago. A 25 minute walk down into a small pit crater and then through the 400 ft (120 m) long (lighted) tube and back through a rainforest is well worthwhile. The tube extends into darkness beyond the lighted trail area, but permission to enter that portion must be obtained first at park Headquarters.
- Chain of Craters Road. This road descends 3,700 feet in 20 miles and ends where a 2003 lava flow crossed the road. Depending on changing volcanic activity, there may be opportunities for viewing active lava flows from the end of the road. Food, water, or fuel is not available along the Chain of Craters Road.
- Lava flows. Of course, the thing that many people are most interested in seeing is the active flow zone of Kilauea. Here you can witness new earth being created, and the stunning beauty of the active lava flows. Kilauea Volcano has erupted lava continuously from its east rift zone since 1983. These lava flows have created over 568 acres (230 hectares) of new land and covered 8.7 mi (14 km) of highway with lava as deep as 115 ft (35 m). When planning a visit to the volcano, it pays to check the Hawaii Volcano Observatory to get an idea of the amount of current activity, as well as the distance to the viewing area from the road. Nature is dynamic, and fickle; sometimes there are gorgeous rivers of lava, and at other times nothing. You can also hear a recording of the latest lava viewing opportunities by calling +1 808 985-6000, then pressing "1" and "1". NOTE: 808 is Hawaii's area code, This is not a toll-free number. After nightfall visitors may see spots of red incandescence or glow, in the steam/fume cloud as lava enters the ocean, from the "steam plume" viewing area, a 1/2 mile walk on the roadway from the ranger station at end of Chain of Craters Road and an additional 5 minute (200 yard) walk on a trail.
- If you choose to hike out beyond the end of the road, do not hike during the heat of the day (10AM-2PM). This is a difficult hike and visitors should prepare well for the trek over the rugged, steep, and sharp terrain. The hike to the lava delta is over a rough, uneven, fractured lava landscape. Lava is no longer entering the ocean at this point, although there are two lava flows entering the ocean quite a distance (perhaps a couple of miles further) from this point. This hike is not for everyone. Hikers need to be sure-footed, physically fit, and well prepared.
- Pu`uloa Petroglyph Fields. Chain of Craters Road at milepost 16.5. "Pu`uloa" translated as the "long hill" or "hill of long life" from Hawaiian, is a place considered sacred to the people of Hawai`i, and those of Kalapana in particular. Located in the ahupua`a (an ancient Hawaiian land division) of Panau Nui on the southern flank of Kilauea volcano, Pu`uloa is the name of the site which contains a vast area covered with incredible numbers of pecked images in the hardened lava, images known as petroglyphs. The archaeological site of Pu`uloa contains over 23,000 petroglyph images; motifs containing cupules or holes (84% of the total), motifs of circles, other geometric as well as cryptic designs, human representations, canoe sails, and even feathered cape motifs. The area is accessed from a parking area pullout and an emergency call box along Chain of Craters Road at Milepost 16.5. From the pullout parking area it is a 0.7-mile walk over a gently undulating pahoehoe lava bedrock trail to reach the boardwalk at Pu`uloa.
- The Footprints. Via the Kau Desert Trailhead adjacent to Highway 11 or via the Kau Desert Trail from Crater Rim Drive. Footprints of warriors from 1792 preserved in volcanic ash. Once in the area visitors are asked to remain on the established trail. Ash deposits in this area are fragile and can be easily broken. Respect the cultural and natural resources of the area. Do not move rocks or remove plants.
- Hiking Park trails range in difficulty from easy walks (Bird Park/Kipuka Puaulu or Thurston Lava Tube/Nahuku) to longer hikes such as Kilauea Iki or Mauna Iki. Other trails provide access through wilderness areas and are suitable only for those who are in top physical condition and properly outfitted with winter gear. Most trails are well maintained and easy to follow. Wilderness trails are roughly marked by ahu (cairns - piles of rock). Devastation and Waldron Ledge trails are paved and accessible to wheelchairs and strollers.
- Hawai`i Pacific Parks Association bookstore (Adjoining the visitor center). Offers an extensive array of books and other educational materials related to Hawai`i's natural and cultural history. The non-profit cooperating association supports the park’s mission and programs. They also maintain a sales location in the park's Jaggar Museum.
- Volcano House Hotel and Restaurant (across the street from the Kilauea Visitor Center), ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. On the rim of Kilauea Caldera in the historic hotel.
- There are a few other tasty restaurants nearby in the town of Volcano Village 1–2 minutes north of the park.
From local bars or a machine at the information center.
- There are more options nearby in the quaint town of Volcano Village 1–2 minutes north of the park.
- For active or retired Military or DoD civilians (GS), the Kilauea Military Camp (KMC) offers 90 one, two or three bedroom cabins or apartments for nightly rental.
- Namakanipaio and Kulanaokuaiki are two drive-in campgrounds and there are many backcountry hiking/camping areas located within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. These campgrounds are FREE - however, proof of payment of park entrance fee is required.
Drive-In camping is available on a first-come basis. NO reservations or permits, and no check-in are necessary. Stays are limited to 7 days in a month and cannot exceed 30 days per year.
- Namakanipaio Campground. Located 31 1/2 miles south of Hilo on Highway-11 at 4,000' elevation. It is a large, open grassy area with tall eucalyptus and ohi'a trees. This campground has restrooms, water, picnic tables, and barbecue pits. These are shared facilities with just a few individual sites.
- Kulanaokuaiki Campground. Located about 5 miles down the Hilina Pali Road at 2,700' elevation. There is no water at this location. This new campground has 8 campsites, 2 of which are wheelchair accessible. There is a vault-type toilet (no running water), and picnic tables.
- The Volcano House Hotel operates rustic camper cabins at the Namakanipaio Campground. The cabins sleep 4 (1 double bed and 2 bunk-style twin beds). Each cabin has a picnic table and an outdoor barbecue grill. Showers are available. Reservations are required; contact info is the same as the Volcano House above.
- All day hikers and overnight backcountry users must register and obtain a free permit at the Kilauea Visitor Center (7:45AM–4:45PM daily). Permits are issued on a first-come basis no earlier than the day before your hike. Overnight stays at campgrounds are limited. Check with rangers at the Kilauea Visitor Center for specific campground locations and allowable numbers.
- Minimum Impact Camping All hikers are required to pack out everything they pack in. Do not bury your trash or discard it in pit toilets - pack it out. Practice leave-no-trace camping.
- Water There are no streams in the park so backpackers may have to bring in all their own water. Some campgrounds have water collection systems. Updates on their current water levels are available at the Kilauea Visitor Center, check before you go, while obtaining your permit!
- Trail Conditions Hiking over rocky terrain is strenuous. Hiking boots provide the best traction and protection when hiking on lava. Long pants afford some protection if one should fall on the sharp, glassy lava. Allow 1/2 hour per mile when hiking on mid-elevation trails and more time as you gain elevation. Add additional time for scenic stops, and water breaks.
- The ahu (stone cairn) trail markers can be difficult on first sight to distinguish from the surrounding lava. However, the trails are well marked and hikers soon become accustomed to spotting the cairns in the black lava fields. Sunlight may be intense. Hats, sunglasses, and sunscreen are preventive measures against sunburn. Start your trek early to avoid being on park trails during the hottest times of the day.
- Health Hazards Many hikes are through exposed lava fields and lush rain forests. Pace yourself, drink plenty of water. Pack extra clothing and your sleeping bag in plastic for waterproofness. Raingear is essential. Stay warm and dry; hypothermia (low body temperature) is a killer. Be prepared for treating injuries caused by falls on sharp, glassy lava.
- Volcanic Hazards Volcanic eruptions are possible at any time. In the unlikely event of a lava outbreak along the trail, move uphill and upwind of eruptive activity. Earth cracks, thin crusts, and lava tubes are numerous.
- Fire Hazards Trails in the park traverse areas which contain very flammable grasses and brush. Open fires and smoking is prohibited.
- Cultural and Natural Resources Please respect all archaeological sites and artifacts left by ancient Hawaiians. Do not move any rocks, climb on or alter any rock structures, such as lava trees, walls, heiau (ancient temples), or petroglyphs (rock engravings). Entry into caves is prohibited. All plants, animals, rocks and other natural and archaeological or cultural features are protected by law against removal, injury, or destruction.
- Dogs and firearms are prohibited in the wilderness.
- Before you go, leave a trip plan with another person. Make sure they understand that should you be lost or injured on the trail, they are your only link to help and should report you overdue if you fail to contact them by a predesignated time. If lost, stay where you are. Use bright colors and reflective materials to attract attention. Rangers will not start a wilderness search until 24 hours after they are notified that a hiker is missing. To report a lost or overdue hiker, call Hawaii County 911.
- Check Out of the Backcountry At the completion of your hike, report out by stopping at the Kilauea Visitor Center and informing the ranger that you have completed your hike. Permits are issued because of the dynamic nature of this volcano. In the event of an eruption, it is important for rangers to know who may be in danger.
- Wear sturdy shoes and long pants. Carry plenty of water and drink frequently. Avoid hiking after dark.
- Stay on marked Trails! Vegetation or cinders may hide deep cracks in the ground. Use caution near cliffs, cracks, and steam vents where edges can be slippery and/or unstable. Watch small children at all times.
- Hiking over cracks and holes, loose rock, and thin lava crust greatly increases your risk of getting hurt. Falling on lava may result in severe wounds.
- Volcanic Fumes (volcanic gasses) are hazardous to your health. Those with heart or breathing problems and infants, young children, and pregnant women are especially at risk and should avoid Halema`uma`u Crater, Sulphur Banks, and other areas where volcanic fumes are present.
- Volcanic eruptions can occur at any time and can be extremely hazardous. Even from a distance, gasses and fallout (Pele's hair, pumice, and cinder) can cause lung and eye irritation.
Heed the instruction of park rangers and obey signs on roads and trails.
- Never enter closed areas. Areas of the park have been closed due to the potential for large land collapses. Please see the closed area map for more details on areas that have been closed due to very hazardous conditions.
- The park has no safe beaches or swimming areas. Expect strong winds, steep and unstable sea cliffs, and high waves.