Jinzhong (晋中; Jìnzhōng) is a prefecture-level city in Shanxi Province in China. (Shanxi is abbreviated as "Jin"). It is a national-level cultural and ecological protection experimental area, which has formed a number of provincial tourism masterpieces, such as the World Cultural Heritage Pingyao ancient city, the Shanxi merchants folk culture tourism area, and so on, and is the cradle of Shanxi merchants' culture. Jinzhong is one of the birthplaces of Jin culture (Shanxi culture). In 1824, the first financial institution "Rishengchang" in Chinese history was born here.
Jinzhong is in the east-central part of Shanxi Province, about 32 km southeast of Taiyuan, the provincial capital. It borders Grand Taihang Canyon in the east, Fen River in the west, intersects with Changzhi City and Linfen City in the south, connects with Yangquan City in the northeast, and borders Luliang City in the southwest. Jinzhong City has jurisdiction over 2 municipal districts, 8 counties and 1 county-level city, with a total area of 16,400 square kilometers.
The commercial activities of Jin merchants created the commercial culture of Jinzhong. From business philosophy, value orientation, and professional ethics to business mode, organization and management means, and even bookkeeping, abacus, secret and other technical methods, a whole set of ethical culture and institutional culture has been formed. This is the most essential meaning of Jin Shang culture. In addition, due to the mainstream status of Jin merchants in all walks of life, the existence and development of Jin merchants led to a series of cultural phenomena.
Since the ancient city of Pingyao was recognized as a World Cultural Heritage by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization in 1997, the international influence of Pingyao International Photography Exhibition has continued. From the movie "Raise the Red Lantern" to the popular TV drama "Qiao's Yard" and the drama "Start of Autumn" sensation, they have carried the rich connotation of Jin Shang culture of the "four cities" (Taigu City, Pingyao Ancient city, Qixian historical and cultural city and Yuci Old City), "six courts" (Yuci Changjia manor, Qixian Qiaojia courtyard, Qujia courtyard, Lingshi Wang courtyard, Taigu Caojia courtyard, Taigu Kong Xiangxi House).
Jinzhong is also home to folk and non-material culture: the Cold Food Festival originated in Jiexiu and spread throughout the country; the legend of the "The Cowherd and the Weaver Girl" originated in Heshun; and the legend of Shouyang County is the hometown of the birthday boy , the Zuoquan Xiaohua opera, Qitai Yangge, Yushe Bawangbian and other folk traditions nourish people living and working on this land.
The two days before the Qingming Festival on the lunar calendar were called Cold Food Festival. During the Spring and Autumn Period, Jie Zitui, a leading official of the State of Jin, was burned to death in Mianshang (now Jiexiu). Duke Wen of the State of Jin was deeply grieved and ordered the whole country not to cook with fire on this day, and to use dry food or cold food to satisfy hunger. After the Qin and Han Dynasties, it gradually became a local custom and spread outward. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, there were many literati and bachelors who used the Cold Food Festival to eulogize Jie Zitui's "do not speak of Lu". At the same time, because the two days before the Qingming Festival coincide with the "150" (105 days after the Winter solstice), while common folk also regarded the Cold Food Festival as a ghost festival for ghost marriage, dry funeral, or temporary house burial. Yao He, a poet in the Tang Dynasty, once wrote in Cold Food: "At present one hundred and fifty, the rain begins to clear up." During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, people would maintain the custom of eating cold food, to remember Jie Zitui. On this day, people can start work and earth at will. When they tear down houses or build bridges and roads, they must dig the land and shovel the walls on this day in advance to show that the project has begun. When the work is officially started in the future, other gods will not interfere.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Jinzhong City is located in the mid-latitude inland Loess Plateau, a warm temperate continental semi-arid monsoon climate zone. The basic characteristics of the climate are: four distinct seasons of the year, dry and windy in spring, hot and rainy in summer, clear and crisp in autumn, cold and snowless in winter, short in spring and autumn, and long in winter and summer.
The nearest airport is Taiyuan's Taiyuan Wusu International Airport, which lies just outside Jinzhong's muncipal boundaries. Buses operate about 8 times a day between the airport and the city centre. The bus fare is ¥3.
There are two main railway stations in Jinzhong:
- 1 Jinzhong Railway Station (晋中站), Hongmaying Street, Yuci District (榆次区红马营街) (bus nos. 1, 201 and 205). The main station in Jinzhong for high-speed train services.
- 2 Yuci Railway Station (榆次站), 103 Yingbin Street, Yuci District (榆次区迎宾街103号) (bus nos. 1, 2, 4 (including both inner and outer circle routes), 5, 15, 203, 207, and 801), ☏ . This station only serves regular-speed trains, but has the advantage of being closer to the city center.
Due to Jinzhong's close proximity to Taiyuan, there are a number of public buses based in Taiyuan that cross over into Jinzhong. Bus no. 901 for instance can take you from Taiyuan Railway Station to the center of Jinzhong.
- 3 Jinzhong Bus Terminal (晋中市汽车客运总站), Southeast corner of intersection of National Highway 108 and Longhu Street, Yuci District (榆次区一零八国道与龙湖街交汇处东南角) (local bus routes 3, 101, 106 and 205), ☏ . Jinzhong's main central bus station. There aren't that many buses departing from here, however. Mostly what you will find is buses heading to nearby towns. For longer routes, you will probably need to use one of the bus stations in Taiyuan.
A special tourist bus operates from Yuci Old Town. Stops on the route include Yuci Old Town, Chang Family Compound, Qiao Family Compound, Pingyao Old Town, Mianshan and Wang Family Compound.
- 1 Chang Family Compound (常家庄园), Chewang Village, Dongyang Town, Yuci District (榆次区东阳镇车辋村) (southwestern area of Yuci District; take bus no. 12), ☏ , . 8AM-6:30PM. One of the Shanxi merchant family compounds. Like the other family compounds, the Chang Family Compound was built over several generations by a wealthy merchant family to house the many branches of this successful clan. The Chang Family Compound is the largest of the Shanxi merchant family manors; despite its impressive size, however, what remains today is just one quarter of the original 600,000 square-meter compound, which contained over 1500 rooms. As the family prospered and grew in size, the Changs placed a great emphasis on education. This academic focus produced many scholars, painters, and calligraphers, and for this reason this compound is more interesting artistically than some of the other compounds in the region. Each of the courtyards, which are laid out along a 1 km long road, is somewhat different, but the themes throughout are very similar, with grey buildings, archways, smaller courtyards, and gardens in each one. The courtyards are filled with carvings in brick, stone, and wood, and there are many examples of carving which are of very high quality. The garden in one of the courtyards contains a collection of carved stone lions of various shapes and sizes. Originally there were 108 lions in the collection; today only 50+ remain. Behind these courtyards is a large garden, designed in both the northern China and southern China styles, purportedly because the Chang family had to entertain visitors from both north and south. A 29-meter tall Guanji Tower in this garden is the tallest structure in the compound and offers expansive views over the entire compound from the top. ¥80.
- 2 Jinzhong City Museum (晋中市博物馆), 188 Guang'an Street, Yuci District (榆次区广安街188号) (150 m southwest of the intersection of Guang'an Street and Xinjian North Road. Bus routes 5, 11, 13 North, 13 South, 205, and New 202). 09ː00-17ː00, no entry after 16ː00, closed on Mondays. Also closed on Chinese New Year's Eve and the first day of Chinese New Year. Open on all other public holidays, including public holidays that fall on a Monday. The Jinzhong City Museum is a brand new museum, which opened in June 2018. Visitors are limited to 4000 per day. Free.
- 3 Yuci Old Town (榆次老城), 225 Fuxing Road, Yuci District (榆次区府兴路225号) (there is a bus stop outside the main entrance, which is served by bus nos. 12, 18, 19, 22 (including both inner and outer circle routes), 31, 35, 38, New 202, 206, 901 (branch route) and the Tourist Express Bus), ☏ , firstname.lastname@example.org. 08:00-19:00 (summer), 08:30-18:30; ticket sales end 60 minutes before closing time; no entry permitted in last 30 minutes. Historically Yuci was a prosperous merchant town similar to Pingyao. Unlike Pingyao, however, Yuci suffered serious damage to its architectural heritage during the mid-twentieth century, so most of the structures you see here today have been either rebuilt or extensively renovated. A notable exception is the Yuci City God Temple (榆次城隍庙), which dates from the Yuan Dynasty and is considered one of the best preserved city god temples in China. ¥60.
- 4 Jiexiu City God Temple (介休城隍庙), 285 Dongda Street, Jiexiu City (介休市东大街285号) (about 2 km northeast of Jiexiu Railway Station and 2.5 km west of Jiexiu Bus Station). 08:30-17:30. A city god temple dating from the Ming Dynasty. Like other city god temples, Jieixu's city god temple is used to worship the local city god.
- 5 Mount Mian (绵山, Mianshan), Nanhuaizhi Village, Mianshan Town, Jiexiu City (介休市绵山镇南槐志村) (either take the special tourist bus that departs from Yuci Old Town or take a train to Jiexu East Railway Station and get a bus from there), ☏ . 08:00-19:30 (April-October), 08:30-18:00 (November-March). Mian Shan (or Silky Mountain) is noted for its natural scenery, especially for its cultural and religious relics. It is also the birthplace of the Qingming Festival (Grave Cleaning Day), which is one of China’s most important traditional festivals and items of intangible cultural heritage. The mountain is is located in Jiexiu City, 40 km south of Pingyao. Tours often combine this with the Wang Family Compound and Zhangbi Ancient Castle as they are close together. Ticket packages include multiple bus tickets, which seem necessary to buy in order to get to the mountain's many attractions. ¥110 (April-October), ¥90 (November-March).
- 6 Zhangbi Castle (张壁古堡, Zhangbi Fortess), Zhangbi Village, Longfeng Town, Jiexiu City (介休市龙风镇张壁村) (take bus no. 301 from Jiexiu Railway Station), ☏ , toll-free: . 08:00-18:00. Zhangbi Castle was founded in the Sixteen Kingdoms period with a construction area of 12,000 square meters. It is based on the traditional Chinese horoscope and the concepts of Earth and earth. The castle has a north-south gate, a brick north gate, and an outer gate. The outer gate was used to fortify the barbican and was topped with religious temples. The Barbican Gate opens to the northeast and forms two gateways with the north gate. The two gates are not on the same axis, which not only follows the principles of ancient military defense, but also implies the use of geomancy. Nanbao Gate is a stone gate with a carved stone dragon head. Outside the gate, there are nine red stone paved roads, symbolizing the dragon's beard. ¥67.
- 7 Red Cliff Grand Canyon (红崖大峡谷, 红崖峡谷 Red Cliff Canyon), Xiaobaigou Village East, Lingshi County (灵石县小柏沟村东) (the park entrance is about 4.5 km east of Lingshi East Railway Station; there are said to be special tourist buses operating between the station and the park entrance), ☏ . Apr-Oct: 08:00-18:00; Nov-Mar: 09:00-17:00. The park is a combination of danger, strangeness and seclusion. It is a natural scenic spot with a beautiful ecological environment, dense forests, open meadows and beautiful scenery. It is also rich in water resources, with many waterfalls, forming a more spectacular water system. Therefore, it was awarded the “Most Influential Forest Park” by the State Forestry Administration of the People's Republic of China. The scenic spot offers many recreational activities such as watching the sea of clouds at the top of the mountain, rafting in the valley, taking part in the water carnival, and so on. It is the only eco-tourism resort in northern China to feature a combination of canyons, forests, alpine meadows and diversified meteorological landscapes. ¥80.
- 8 Wang Family Compound (王家大院), JIngsheng Village, Jingsheng Town, Lingshi County (灵石县静升镇静升村) (Jinzhong's special tourist bus terminates here; you can also get a bus or train to Lingshi, then take either take bus no. 7 or 8, or catch a taxi to get the Wang Family Compound from there), ☏ . 08:30-17:20. With 54 courtyards and over 1000 rooms, this massive compound is one of the largest of the residential complexes built by successful Shanxi merchants. It is, for instance, four times the size of the Qiao Family Compound. The Wang family started in farming and expanded into trading, then became officials. As the family grew in size and as they prospered, more and more courtyards were added to this residential complex, which was first constructed in the mid 1600s. Just as important as the scale of the complex is the distinctive architectural style and artistic finishing. As one moves from courtyard to courtyard, one can see an impressive collection of decorative lattice screens and windows, shaped openings between rooms and courtyards, and graceful roofs. The houses and courtyards feature carvings everywhere--in stone, brick, and wood--from the eaves of the houses and ridges of the roofs to window frames, timber joints, and doorways. Paintings, calligraphy, and Qing Dynasty furniture also decorate the houses. ¥55.
- See also: Pingyao
- 9 Pingyao Ancient City (平遥古城) (accessible by both train and bus; see Pingyao#Get_in), ☏ . Founded in the reign of King Xuan of the Zhou Dynasty and expanded during the time of Emperor Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty, Pingyao has a history of more than 2,800 years. The old town of the Ming and Qing dynasties is still largely intact and is regarded as the most complete ancient Han Chinese town in China. Pingyao is also known as one of the “Four best preserved ancient cities in China”, and it is one of only two ancient cities in China that have successfully applied for world cultural heritage status for an entire ancient city. UNESCO described the ancient city of Pingyao as an outstanding example of an ancient Chinese city during the Ming and Qing dynasties, with all its features preserved. General entry is free; some attractions in the city charge a fee.
- 10 Qiao Family Compound (乔家大院), Qiaojiabao Village, Dongguan Town, Qi County (祁县东观镇乔家堡村) (the most direct way to get here is to take the special tourist bus that departs from Yuci Old City; you can also get a bus or train to the county seat of Qi County and then get a public bus (no. 29) from there), ☏ . 08:30-18:30. This extensive compound was constructed in 1756 by Qiao Guifa, who made his fortune selling tea and bean curd in Inner Mongolia. He returned to his hometown in Qi County and built his dream house, which was then expanded by later generations of Qiao's. This magnificent complex is laid out in the shape of the Chinese xi character, meaning "double happiness." After entering through the main gate, you finds yourself on a long path leading to the main hall, which is the family's ancestral hall. This path divides the compound into southern and northern sections. Both halves have three courtyards each, and these six courtyards in turn include 20 smaller courtyards, 313 rooms, and a number of gardens spread out over a two-acre piece of land. The compound impressed visitors not just for its size but also for the exquisitie craftsmanship displayed in the brick carvings, woodwork, murals, and inscribed tablets. The wide variety of different roof styles is particularly interesting to see, and there are over 140 chimneys in the compound, each having its own design. Zhang Yimou's popular film, Raise the Red Lantern, was filmed here. ¥115.
- 11 Qu Family Compound (渠家大院), 33 Dongda Street, Qi County (祁县东大街33号) (in the county seat; 1.3 km north of Qi County Railway Station), ☏ . 08:00-17:30 (winter), 08:00-19:00 (summer). The Qu Family Compound is another extended family residence built near Pingyao Ancient City by a successful Shanxi merchant clan over a number of generations. This 300-year-old compound was very unusual in having five layers of courtyard, and the entire compound has 8 large courtyards, 19 smaller courtyards, and 240 rooms overall. One enters the compound from a street built in the Ming and Qing Dynasties and which still retains the architectural feel of that period. Despite its great size, it is said that what is seen here represents only about one-fifth of the Qu family's estate. The Qu family was a very successful example of the Shanxi merchant, and their estate used to occupy most of the eastern half of Qi County. Overall, they owned 10 compounds containing over 1000 rooms. During the Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese occupied the compound, and the family had to temporarily relocate their head office to Chengdu. A Japanese observation post built above the roof of one of the buildings in the complex still remains. A few blocks away from the main compound is the Changyuchuan Teahouse, which also belonged to the Qu family. The ticket to the Qu Family Compound also includes entrance to a series of six museums in the area, including those dedicated to rulers, scales, mirrors, and vessels for measuring rice. The most interesting one is an abacus museum which includes a pagoda built completely from 668 abacuses. ¥40.
- 12 Cao Family Compound (曹家大院, 三多堂 Sanduo Hall), Donghou Street, Taigu District (太谷区东后街) (get a bus or train to Taigu District (the train only takes 15 minutes); then take bus no. T06 from either Taigu Bus Station or Taigu East Railway Station), ☏ , . Apr-Oct: 08:00-18:00, Nov-Mar: 09:00-17:00. ¥60.
- 13 Kong Xiangxi Residence (孔祥熙宅园, 孔家大院 Kong Family Compound), No. 1 Shangguan Lane, Taigu District (太谷区上官巷1号) (2.2 km from Taigu Bus Station and 1.4 km from Taigu Railway Station; after arriving in Taigu District, you may walk to the residence, get a taxi or take bus no. T01, T03, T05, T16 or T22), ☏ . 08:00-17:30. ¥60.
There are many cinemas in Jinzhong.
Jinzhong Cinema is located in North Dao Street, Zhongdu Road, Yuci District, Jinzhong City, Shanxi Province, China. Many movies can be watched in this cinema.
On February 28, the highlight of the China (Jinzhong) Shehuo Festival was held in the urban area of Jinzhong City. 14 teams and nearly 3,000 performers from various counties (cities) of Jinzhong City showed the new look of Jinzhong land. This year's Shehuo event features a large lantern show and street art performance. The "large-scale Lantern Exhibition" was exhibited in Yingbin Square, Yuhu Park, Yingbin Green Square, Yuci Cultural Center Square and Yuci Old Town of Jinzhong City, focusing on showing the "moving" style of Jinzhong colored lanterns.
- Taigu Guilingji
- Taigu Guilingji is a specialty of Taigu County, Jinzhong City, Shanxi province. Turtle Age set has been sold to Hong Kong, Macao and other regions, and even exported to Southeast Asia, Africa, Europe, and other 21 countries. In order to meet the needs of drug diversification and export, Taigu people used good wine fenjiu as base wine, and made Guilingji into a rare medicinal liquor guilingji with unique flavor.
- Pingyao paper-cut
- Traditional chinese paper cutting decorations. The Pingyao style of paper cutting comes in three rich and diverse forms, close to life, with profound meaning. In ancient Ming and Qing streets, every three to five steps is a home, has become a unique folk culture scenery line. Paper-cut works, emitting a rich flavor of life and rustic flavor, as an expressive folk custom, gently touch the hearts of visitors.
- Liu He tai pillow
- The Empress Dowager Cixi is said to have travelled west to Pingyao，she was suffering from internal and external troubles, so she could not sleep for a long time. The Pingyao officials who were waiting for him outside hurriedly presented the "Six-pillow" that was unique to Pingyao at that time, to put Empress Dowager Cixi to sleep. The next day, Empress Dowager Cixi was so happy that he asked the pillow why it was called "Liu He". She learned that "Liu He" was a finger pillow with six holes in it, and that each hole was connected to the other, representing the upper and lower parts, the east and the west, and the north and the south, it means peace and harmony in the world. Empress Dowager Cixi was so pleased that she blurted out, "The world is at peace, the country is at peace, the people are at peace!" and she gave the name "Tai".
- Shanxi lingshi embroidery
- Shanxi lingshi embroidery has a unique form of expression unique form, complement element, simple, refined. Shanxi is the representative of rural embroidery. There are three types of embroidery, clothing, daily necessities and ceremonial decorations. Typical embroidery works for the pillow, some design into two tiger head, a human face tiger head, a fish tail tiger head or a frog. Today, embroidery is more widely used in cushions, insoles, wallets and tourist souvenirs.
- Six tunes of fragrant wine
- Qi County, in Jinzhong Province, has fertile soil and rich water resources. It is rich in grains such as wheat and sorghum, and is suitable for making wine. According to the Qi County Annals, people have the custom of "Making wine on the day of the spring equinox" and "Making music on the 6th of June.". Lutian fragrant wine of Qi County was named a famous wine of Shanxi province in 1974. It has pure fragrance, mellow and refreshing, soft and sweet, and has an aftertaste.
- Pingyao bowl holder
- Long-standing Pingyao characteristics of the flavor of pasta snacks, with gluten texture, smooth and delicious characteristics.
- Also known as filling sugar, Shanxi Jiexiu characteristics of the traditional sugar, Jiexiu eight precious one of the precious, but also one of the top 10 Shanxi special food. It is a kind of food with crispy and sweet bite, which is highly praised by the majority of consumers. Jiexiu Guan Tang has a long history. According to county records, as early as the late Ming and early Qing sold nationwide, has a high reputation.
- Pingyao beef
- A specialty of Pingyao County Province, this is a Chinese National Geographic product and the Qing dynasty imperial palace tribute.
- Baked cake by hanging stove
- Well-made, exquisite materials, crispy outside inside tender, crispy delicious, beautiful appearance, because of its utensils, workmanship, modeling, appetite and other“Pasta” different, it was named“Traditional famous food” by the industry and Commerce Department.
- Pearl porridge
- One of the traditional snacks in Shouyang County province. Pearl porridge is a common Xiaomi mung bean porridge in Shanxi province.
- Shouyang County tea
- A famous traditional snack in Shouyang County, Shanxi province, it is a combination of pancakes and mooncakes for breakfast. This kind of food, crispy on the outside and crispy on the inside, is shaped like a small pastry moon cake. According to legend, the name “Tea Food” was given by Tang dynasty great writer Han Yu.
- 1 Yu Sheng Ballad Public house (愉笙民谣清吧), B1, Xinjinfu Basement Shopping Mall, Yunhua Street, Jinhua Street, Yuci District, ☏ . Monday to Sunday 18:00-02:00. It's a folk-themed bar. The Coke barrel is only 58￥, and the price of beer is also very cheap.
- 2 Jehoo Day Coffee and Night Wine (几何JEHOO 日咖夜酒), No. 1006, 1st Floor, 580 Ding Yang Road (980m walk from University Life Plaza), ☏ . Monday to Sunday15:00-03:00. The atmosphere is very good, very suitable for taking pictures and punching cards. Cocktails and beers are both around RMB 10 or so.
- 3 Summer Club, A5-306 Vanke Plaza, Ding Yang Road (70m walk from University City Life Plaza, ☏ . Monday to Friday 16:00-04:00 Saturday, Sunday 14:00-04:00. Cheap, even open in the afternoon, with a resident singer at 9pm. A bottle of Tsingtao beer for just ¥6.
Coffee and Tea
- 4 Blue Mountain Coffee (蓝山咖啡), Tian Sen Jia Yuan A, An Ning Street, Yuzi District, ☏ . Monday to Sunday 09:00-00:00. Not only can you enjoy afternoon tea here, but you can also eat at dinner time. RMB90 for tea plus snacks in the set menu.
Not many hotels to choose from if you are not Chinese
- 1 Xinghai Hotel (星海酒店), No. 5, Row 10, Nie Village Villa Area, Xinjian North Road (Near Shanxi Media College, Shanxi Medical University), ☏ . Check-in: 2PM, check-out: check-out: noon. ￥89-103.
- 2 Youjuwushu Hotel (有居无束酒店), Floor 16, Apartment Building, No. 1 Dongrui Creative Street, Fengxiang Street, ☏ . Check-in: 2PM, check-out: check-out: noon. ￥108-141.
- 3 Yunshuige Theme Hotel (云水阁主题酒店), Unit 2, Building 1, Tangning Avenue, Intersection of Xinjian North Road and Wenhua Street, ☏ . Check-in: moon, check-out: 2PM. ￥97-115.
- 4 Zhian Cinema Apartment (至安影院公寓), Building 8, Dongrui Creative Street, Longhu Street (Near Wanda Plaza), ☏ . Check-in: 2PM, check-out: check-out: noon. ￥178-187.
- 5 Du Fu Cao Tang B&B (杜府草堂民宿), No.8 Qing Yang South Lane, Yun Zhu Village, Yun Tu Town, ☏ . Check-in: 2pm, check-out: noon. ￥99-259.
- For more information on accomodation in Pingyao, see the Pingyao § Sleep article.
110 - Police, 119 - Fire, 120 - First aid, 122 - Traffic accidents
- Taiyuan, the capital of Shanxi Province.