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Kalmyk (Хальмг келн) is the main language of Kalmykia. The language is part of the Mongolic language family and is mutually intelligible with Oirat spoken in Dzungaria. It is written with the Cyrillic alphabet although it was historically written in a traditional script called "Todo Bichig." About 90~150,000 people can speak the language. It is the only Mongolic language in Europe.

Pronunciation guide[edit]

The pronunciation of Kalmyk Cyrillic letters is more or less the same as that of the Russian Cyrillic alphabet but with the addition of 6 letters: "Әә/Ää", "Һһ/Hh", "Җҗ/Jj", "Ңң/Ññ", "Өө/Öö", and "Үү/Üü." Moreover, the letter Вв is sometimes pronounced as "w" although it is also pronounced as "v" as it usually is in Russian and the letter "Ее" is usually pronounced as "ye" only at the beginning of a word.

Vowels[edit]

Аа Әә Ее Ёё Ии Оо Өө Уу Үү Ыы Ээ Юю Яя

Consonants[edit]

Бб Вв Гг Һһ Дд Жж Җҗ Зз Йй Кк Лл Мм Нн Ңң Пп Рр Сс Тт Фф Хх Цц Чч Шш Щщ Ъъ Ьь

Common diphthongs[edit]

аа әә ии ий нь өө уу үү

Phrase list[edit]

Pronouns[edit]

I = Би

We = Бидн

You = Чи

You (Plural/Polite) = Та

He/She/It = Тер

They = Тедн

My = Мини

Our = Мана

Your = Чини

Your (Plural/Polite) = Тана

His,Her/Its = Терүнә/Түүнә

Their = Теднә

Basics[edit]

Common signs


WELCOME
Ирхитн эрҗәнәвидн
OPEN
CLOSED
ENTRANCE
EXIT
PUSH
Түлкх
PULL
Татх
TOILET
Нуужнг
MEN
Запу күн
WOMEN
Күүкд күн
FORBIDDEN
Hello.
Сән бәәцхәнт! or Мендут. (Sän bäätsxänt) or (Mendut)
Hello. (informal)
Менд. (Mend)
How are you?
Ямаран бәәнт? (Yamaran bäänt?)
Fine, thank you.
Гем уга, ханҗанав. (Gem uga, xanjanav )
What is your name?
Чини нерн кемб? (Chini nern kemb?)
My name is ______ .
Мини нерн ______. (Mini nern _____.)
Nice to meet you.
Таньлцлдан байрлҗанав. (Tan'ltsldan bayrljanav)
Please.
Буйн болтха. (Buyn boltxa )
Thank you.
Ханҗанав. (Xanjanav)
You're welcome.
Учр уга/Буйн болтха. (Uchr uga/Buyn boltxa)
Yes.
Ээ or тиим. (ee or tiim)
No.
Уга. (uga)
Excuse me. (getting attention)
. ( )
Excuse me. (begging pardon)
Бичә му сантн. (Bichä mu santn)
I'm sorry.
Би Гемән сурҗанав. (Bi gemän surjanav)
Goodbye
Байртаhар харhтл. (Bayrtahar Xarhtl)
Goodbye (informal)
Cән бәәтн! (Sän bäätn)
I can't speak Kalmyk [well].
[ ]. ( [ ])
Do you speak English?
Та англь келәр келдвтә? (Ta angl' kelär keldvtä?)
Is there someone here who speaks English?
? ( ?)
Help!
Нөкд болтн! (Nökd boltn!)
Look out!
! ( !)
Good morning.
Сән хонвт!. (Sän xonvt)
Good evening.
Сән хонтн! (Sän xontn)
Good night.
Сән хонтн! (Sän xontn)
Good night (to sleep)
. ( )
I don't understand.
Би медҗ ядх . (Bi medj yadx)
Where is the toilet?
Һарч ирдг хора альд? (Harč irdg xora al’d?)
How do you say __ in Kalmyk?
Хальмг келәр __ яһҗ нерәдгнә? (Xal'mg kelär __ yahj nerädgnä?)

Problems[edit]

Leave me alone.
Амр өгтн! (Amr ögtn!)
Don't touch me!
! ( !)
I'll call the police.
. ( .)
Police!
Цагда! (Tsagda!)
Stop! Thief!
! ! ( ! !)
I need your help.
. ( .)
It's an emergency.
. ( .)
I'm lost.
. ( .)
I lost my bag.
. ( .)
I lost my wallet.
. ( .)
I'm sick.
. ( .)
I've been injured.
. ( .)
I need a doctor.
. ( .)
Can I use your phone?
? ( ?)

Numbers[edit]

1
Негн (Negn)
2
Хойр (Xoyr)
3
Һурвн (Hurvn)
4
Дөрвн (Dörvn)
5
Тавн (Tavn)
6
Зурhан (Zurhan)
7
Долан (Dolan)
8
Нәәмн (Näämn)
9
Йисн (Yisn)
10
Арвн (Arvn)
11
Арвн негн (Arvn negn)
12
Арвн хойр (Arvn xoyr)
13
Арвн hурвн (Arvn hurvn)
14
Арвн дөрвн (Arvn dörvn)
15
Арвн тавн (Arvn tavn)
16
Арвн зурhан (Arvn zurhan)
17
Арвн долан (Arvn dolan)
18
Арвн нәәмн (Arvn näämn)
19
Арвн йисн (Arvn yisn)
20
Хөрн (Xörn)
21
Хөрн негн (Xörn negn)
22
Хөрн хойр (Xörn xoyr)
23
Хөрн hурвн (Xörn hurvn)
30
Һучн (Huchn)
40
Дөчн (Döchn)
50
Тәвн (Tävn)
60
Җирн (Jirn)
70
Далн (Daln)
80
Найин (Nayin)
90
Йирн (Yirn)
100
Зун (Zun)
200
Хойр зун (Xoyr zun)
300
Һурвн зун (Hurvn zun)
1,000
Миңһн (Miñhn)
2,000
Хойр миңһн (Xoyr miñhn )
10,000
Түмн (Tümn)
100,000
Бумн (Bumn)
1,000,000
Сай (Say) or Негн сай (Negn say)
1,000,000,000
Җува (Juva)
1,000,000,000,000
( )
number _____ (train, bus, etc.)
( )
half
Өрәл (Öräl)
less
( )
more
( )

Time[edit]

now
Ода (Oda)
later
( )
before
( )
morning
Өрүн (Örün)
afternoon
( )
evening
Асхн (Asxn)
night
Сө ()

Clock time[edit]

one o'clock AM
( )
two o'clock AM
( )
noon
( )
one o'clock PM
( )
two o'clock PM
( )
midnight
( )

Duration[edit]

_____ second(s)
___ Мисхл (Misxl)
_____ minute(s)
___ Мүч (Müch)
_____ hour(s)
___ Час (Chas)
_____ day(s)
___ Өдр (Ödr)
_____ week(s)
___ Долан хонг (Dolan xong)
_____ month(s)
___ Сар (Sar)
_____ year(s)
___ Җил (Jil)

Days[edit]

today
Эндр (Endr)
yesterday
Өцклдүр (Ötskldür)
tomorrow
Маңhдур (Mañhdur)
this week
( )
last week
( )
next week
( )
Sunday
Нарн (Narn)
Monday
Сарң (Sarñ)
Tuesday
Мигмр (Migmr)
Wednesday
Үлмҗ (Ülmj)
Thursday
Пүрвә (Pürvä)
Friday
Басң (Basñ)
Saturday
Бембә (Bembä)

Months[edit]

January
Туула Сар (Tuula Sar)
February
Лу Сар (Lu Sar)
March
Моһа Сар (Moha Sar)
April
Мөрн Сар (Mörn Sar)
May
Хөн Сар (Xön Sar)
June
Мөчн Сар (Möchn Sar)
July
Така Сар (Taka Sar)
August
Ноха Сар (Noxa Sar)
September
Һаха Сар (Haxa Sar)
October
Хулһн Сар (Xulhn Sar)
November
Үкр Сар (Ükr Sar)
December
Бар Сар (Bar Sar)

Writing time and date[edit]

Colors[edit]

black
Хар (Xar)
white
Цаһан (Tsahan)
gray
Бор (Bor)
red
Улан (Ulan)
blue
Көк (Kök)
yellow
Шар (Shar)
green
Ноһан (Nohan)
orange
Улвр шар (Ulvr shar)
purple
Цеңкр (Tseñkr)
brown
Күрң (Kürñ)

Transportation[edit]

Bus and train[edit]

How much is a ticket to _____?
( )
One ticket to _____, please.
( )
Where does this train/bus go?
( )
Where is the train/bus to _____?
( )
Does this train/bus stop in _____?
( )
When does the train/bus for _____ leave?
( )
When will this train/bus arrive in _____?
( )

Directions[edit]

How do I get to _____ ?
( )
...the train station?
( )
...the bus station?
( )
...the airport?
( )
...downtown?
( )
...the youth hostel?
( )
...the _____ hotel?
( )
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate?
(Amerik Känadi Australi Britani)
Where are there a lot of...
( )
...hotels?
(budol)
...restaurants?
(gatgoru)
...bars?
(bark)
...sites to see?
( )
Can you show me on the map?
( )
street
hyдмж(hudmtj)
Turn left.
(Endüru tishey)
Turn right.
(chik'ru tishey)
left
Эндү (Endü)
right
Чик (Chik)
straight ahead
( )
towards the _____
( )
past the _____
( )
before the _____
( )
Watch for the _____.
( )
intersection
( )
north
Ар үзг (Ar üzg)
south
Өмн үзг (Ömn üzg)
east
Зүн үзг (Zün uzg)
west
Барун үзг (Barun üzg)
uphill
( )
downhill
( )

Taxi[edit]

Taxi!
( )
Take me to _____, please.
( )
How much does it cost to get to _____?
( )
Take me there, please.
( )

Lodging[edit]

Do you have any rooms available?
( )
How much is a room for one person/two people?
( )
Does the room come with...
( )
...bedsheets?
( )
...a bathroom?
( )
...a telephone?
( )
...a TV?
( )
May I see the room first?
( )
Do you have anything quieter?
( )
...bigger?
( )
...cleaner?
( )
...cheaper?
( )
OK, I'll take it.
( )
I will stay for _____ night(s).
( )
Can you suggest another hotel?
( )
Do you have a safe?
( )
...lockers?
( )
Is breakfast/supper included?
( )
What time is breakfast/supper?
( )
Please clean my room.
( )
Can you wake me at _____?
( )
I want to check out.
( )

Money[edit]

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars?
( )
Do you accept British pounds?
( )
Do you accept Euros?
( )
Do you accept credit cards?
( )
Can you change money for me?
( )
Where can I get money changed?
( )
Can you change a traveler's check for me?
( )
Where can I get a traveler's check changed?
( )
What is the exchange rate?
( )
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)?
( )

Eating[edit]

A table for one person/two people, please.
( )
Can I look at the menu, please?
( )
Can I look in the kitchen?
( )
Is there a house specialty?
( )
Is there a local specialty?
( )
I'm a vegetarian.
( )
I don't eat pork.
( )
I don't eat beef.
( )
I only eat kosher food.
( )
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard)
( )
fixed-price meal
( )
a la carte
( )
breakfast
( )
lunch
( )
tea (meal)
( )
supper
( )
I want _____.
( )
I want a dish containing _____.
( )
chicken
Такан махн (Takan maxn)
beef
( )
fish
Заһсн (Zahsn)
ham
( )
sausage
( )
cheese
( )
eggs
Өндгн (Öndgn)
salad
( )
(fresh) vegetables
( )
(fresh) fruit
Зер-земш (Zyer zemsh)
bread
Өдмг (Ödmg)
toast
( )
noodles
( )
rice
( )
beans
( )
May I have a glass of _____?
( )
May I have a cup of _____?
( )
May I have a bottle of _____?
( )
coffee
Кофe (Kofye)
tea (drink)
Цә (Tsä)
Kalmyk tea
Дҗомба (Djomba)
juice
( )
(bubbly) water
( )
(still) water
( )
beer
( )
red/white wine
( )
May I have some _____?
( )
salt
Давсн (Davsn)
black pepper
( )
butter
( )
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
( )
I'm finished.
( )
It was delicious.
( )
Please clear the plates.
( )
The check, please.
( )

Bars[edit]

Do you serve alcohol?
( )
Is there table service?
( )
A beer/two beers, please.
( )
A glass of red/white wine, please.
( )
A pint, please.
( )
A bottle, please.
( )
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please.
( )
whiskey
( )
vodka
Әрк (Ärk)
rum
( )
water
Усн (Usn)
club soda
( )
tonic water
( )
orange juice
( )
Coke (soda)
( )
Do you have any bar snacks?
( )
One more, please.
( )
Another round, please.
( )
When is closing time?
( )
Cheers!
( )

Shopping[edit]

Do you have this in my size?
( )
How much is this?
Кедүнә? (Kedünä?)
That's too expensive.
( )
Would you take _____?
( )
expensive
( )
cheap
( )
I can't afford it.
( )
I don't want it.
( )
You're cheating me.
( )
I'm not interested.
(..)
OK, I'll take it.
( )
Can I have a bag?
( )
Do you ship (overseas)?
( )
I need...
( )
...toothpaste.
( )
...a toothbrush.
( )
...tampons.
. ( )
...soap.
( )
...shampoo.
( )
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen)
( )
...cold medicine.
( )
...stomach medicine.
... ( )
...a razor.
( )
...an umbrella.
( )
...sunblock lotion.
( )
...a postcard.
( )
...postage stamps.
( )
...batteries.
( )
...writing paper.
( )
...a pen.
( )
...English-language books.
( )
...English-language magazines.
( )
...an English-language newspaper.
( )
...an English-English dictionary.
( )

Driving[edit]

I want to rent a car.
( )
Can I get insurance?
( )
stop (on a street sign)
( )
one way
( )
yield
( )
no parking
( )
speed limit
( )
gas (petrol) station
( )
petrol
( )
diesel
( )

Authority[edit]

I haven't done anything wrong.
( )
It was a misunderstanding.
( )
Where are you taking me?
( )
Am I under arrest?
( )
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen.
( )
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate.
( )
I want to talk to a lawyer.
( )
Can I just pay a fine now?
( )


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