Kinshasa is the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It faces Brazzaville, the capital of the neighbouring Republic of the Congo, which can be seen in the distance across the wide Congo River. While sprawling, chaotic and often intimidating, Kinshasa is also a major cultural and intellectual center for Central Africa with a flourishing community of musicians and artists.
Kinshasa has the largest population of any city proper in Africa with a population of almost 15 million (2020), and ranks as its third largest metropolitan area after Cairo and Lagos. It is also declares itself as the largest French-speaking city in the world, you will find that most people's French is far less than fluent (by any other measure, it still ranks second behind the Paris urban area). After decades of armed conflicts imposed by neighbouring countries, the infrastructures of the once leading modern African city are now being remarkably restored. Chinese companies are involved in numerous projects of reconstruction throughout the city.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Like other cities close to the Equator, Kinshasa's climate is defined by a dry and a wet season. The dry season stretches from June to September, and in these months the temperature is also a few degrees lower than throughout the rain season.
- 1 N'djili International Airport (FIH IATA). South African Airways, Kenyan Airways, Ethiopian Airlines and Royal Air Maroc each operate a number of flights per week from their hubs in Johannesburg, Nairobi, Addis Ababa and Casablanca. Air France (Paris) and Brussels Airlines (Brussels) fly from Europe.
Kinshasa's N'djili International Airport used to have a terrible reputation for corrupt officials asking for bribes. They have improved things and it is quite manageable. Just follow everyone else and try not to look like a tourist. A yellow fever vaccination certificate is essential. When flying into Kinshasa, be careful not to lose your luggage tag stub, which you need to show to prove that your luggage is yours. Watch out for being mobbed by volunteer 'helpers' once you are outside the airport, who will want to carry your bags in return for tips. When you return to the airport to leave, you can not drive your car or take a cab onto the airport property without paying for parking or access US$5-10. When departing from the airport, a fee of US$50 must be paid (a receipt is issued) before entering the terminal. Visitors are allowed to go with you into the terminal if they pay a US$10 fee.
There is a lounge on the second level where you can take a drink or eat while awaiting your flight. Announcements are not always made in a timely manner about flight departures or arrivals. In previous years visitors to the upstairs lounge could stand overlooking the tarmac but security concerns have increased the distance between the open air viewing and the lounge itself.
A taxi into town will probably cost you US$30-50, and usually has no air conditioning. It is an hour's drive into the centre of Kinshasa. Best option is to get a shuttle offered by one of the travel companies on the right outside the arrivals door.
While there is a railway line between N'Djili airport and the central station, services are limited to twice a day and are not of much use to the regular tourist.
The railway of Congo covered the entire country during colonial times, but has deteriorated. There is a long-distance passenger service from Matadi once a week (7½ hours, around US$15 for crowded second class and US$65 for "deluxe class" as of early 2021), the country's chief sea port on the Congo river and gateway from Angola 300 km away. It's one of the faster passenger trains in central Africa. Apart from the Matadi service however, the only other passenger trains are commuter trains of limited use to the average traveler. Tickets are usually only able to be bought the day of travel shortly before the train arrives and can prove to be difficult to get.
- 2 Kinshasa East railway station (Gare de l'Est) (Eastern end of Boulevard Du 30 Juin). Kinshasa's main train station, with Place du 30 Juin in front of it.
Apart from the road Matadi to Kinshasa a car is no means for overland travel. You might be successful with a 4x4 in the upper northern region (Bangassou - Nia Nia - Isiro) and maybe the axis Kinshasa - Lumumbashi. All other towns are accessible only by air transport or boat.
You can arrive by boat from Brazzaville, if you have a visa. There are speed boats that go quickly for a limited number of people, or you can take the barge with local merchants if you have time. Ask to go to "the Beach", which is the ferry terminal.
The city bus system pales in comparison to the "taxi" system that has risen organically to serve the needs of the people of Kinshasa.
Essentially, these taxis are small buses. They run set routes between embarkation points that are the "stops". The cost between these various points is usually around 350 francs. If one's destination is through multiple points, different taxis will need to be boarded to complete the route, making the system take a good deal of time during busy traffic hours.
People waiting at the stops will move their hands in a variety of gestures to signal which direction they are going. A taxi will then stop and pick up someone if they are going in the same direction and have space in the taxi.
This system works well for the locals. For visitors and foreigners, it can be quite difficult as one needs to know the hand signs, have knowledge of the routes, be ready to sit in cramped, hot vehicles with many other people, and deal with the potential dangers of these vehicles as many are barely road-worthy. Traveling through this manner absolutely requires local help for those unfamiliar with the system. One will also have to speak French or Lingala as the drivers do not speak English.
There are also traditional taxis for hire. They are available for single runs or can be hired by the day. This can be a tricky business and should be handled with care (especially at the airport) as there are those will take people to remote locations and rob them. Again, help from a local is best or using drivers that others in the area have past experience with and trust. Rates for these taxis vary widely and if one does not appear to be of African descent, there will also be an automatic premium added.
- 1 National Museum of the Democratic Republic of Congo (Musée National de la République Démocratique du Congo), ☏ . First opened in 1970, this museum moved to new premises in June 2019. Hosts a large selection of ethnographic objects.
- 2 Lola ya Bonobo, ☏ . The world's only sanctuary for orphaned bonobos. Since 2002, the sanctuary has been located at Les Petites Chutes de la Lukaya, just outside of Kinshasa.
- 3 Kinkole. A small village in the eastern part of the city's rural area. It's on the RN1 (Boulevard Lumumba), further than the airport. It has a nice restaurant area where you can enjoy all the local food on a terrace. A lot of people come here to relax so there's a lot of people trying to get you into their business. If you go closer to the river there's a fisherman market where food from the river is brought. Be careful if you want to take pictures, you'll probably have to pay someone first as this is considered the international border.
- Jardin d'Eden is a restaurant and music bar by the shores of the Nsele river, in the eastern part of the city's rural area. It is further than Kinkole, after the airport. There is a really relaxing atmosphere there. You can eat, listen to the live band playing Congolese classics or even take a boat on the river Nsele. The food and drinks are affordable for middle class.
- A barbecue on a sandbank on the Congo River is a must. Renting a boat for a day with a driver and all the gear (tables, chairs, a suntent and a barbecue) costs around US$150 at the Yacht Club Kinshasa. The boat can take 8 people, so if you share the cost it is quite affordable. A truly unforgettable experience if you don't forget the meat and the Primus.
- The Association Belgo-Congolais (ABC) rents out videos (VHS and DVD).
- Go for a walk/jog along the river in front of the British and German embassies.
- Go to church on a Sunday morning like most of the locals do.
Lingala is the local language spoken in this region beyond French. Learning a bit goes a long way to befriending locals.
- Don't forget to get some arts in Le marché des valeurs (market of value), sometimes called marché des voleurs (thieves' market). Be prepared to haggle and don't pay the initial asking price that will be at least 60-75% over the final price if not more. For some more upscale art you can go to the Academie des Beaux Arts on Avenue Pierre Mulele (formerly Avenue 24 Novembre) or to Symphonie des Arts: towards Kintambo on the Boulevard du 30 Juin, turn right after the elephant when you see the barrier on your right, then it's on your left hand across from the big colonial villa. A more time consuming but far more interesting and personal way to get to know the artists of the country would be to visit their private studios. Prices are high even there for paintings of Lema Kusa, Henri Kalama or Nshole, but worth every penny considering the quality of their works and their international prestige.
- A more relaxed and fun way to buy street art is to have a beer at Surcouf: it's on the street off the boulevard 30 Juin towards Justice off the INSS building. Sit at a table and have a drink (Primus is recommended) and the artists will come and show all kinds of artworks all the time. The same rule on negotiating applies as at Marché des valeurs.
The good supermarkets are the following:
- Peloustore located on the boulevard (big orange/yellow building with green letters). Good vegetables and all dry goods that you can find in Belgium.
- Expresse located on the boulevard, a little off from Peloustore. Here you can find good vegetables and the best "charcuterie", cold cut meat.
- City Market If you turn on the corner of Expresse you will see this large supermarket on your left hand. It has the best bread in the city. Alternatively across from it you will find excellent bread (and more) in Patisserie Nouvelle, which also has good possibilities of lunch.
- Hasson et Freres located just off the roundabout near the central station: the street just before turning on the boulevard: this is definitely the best place to get your meat: the "filet pur" is excellent.
The US dollar is the prevalent currency for most transactions of any significant quantity. Payment in US dollars for a purchase will likely return change to you in US dollars for denominations greater than $5-10. Lesser amounts, and any remainder, will be paid in Congolese francs.
Credit cards are not widely accepted so don't count on them to keep you afloat. Only major hotels (e.g. The Memling) and some supermarkets will accept them (if there are no connectivity issues). Cash can be withdrawn from the Pro Credit Bank with a valid international Visa ATM card. Denominations are distributed in USD and/or francs. Ensure that you have notified your bank of your intentions to travel in order to ensure seamless and unhindered use of foreign ATMs.
There are lots of restaurants for expatriates, where you can pay in dollars but they are very expensive. Don't be surprised to pay up to US$20 for a pizza (and $40 at the hotel for one).
- Al Dar, near the hotel Memling. A Lebanese restaurant in the city centre. A shwarma sandwich runs about US$3, and they have taboule, hummus and desserts as well.
There are many cheap roadside stalls, primarily outside Gombe.
- La Bloque, Bandalungwa. One of the better known roadside stalls.
- Mama Colonel, Bandal. An excellent restaurant. The menu has only 4 items - chicken, fish, fries and plantain - but they are barbecued to perfection.
The freshwater prawns from the Congo river are incredible - called Cossa Cossa on menus (as distinct from imported saltwater prawns which are Gambas) - generally served with a garlic and chili (pili-pili) butter sauce. A plate of these costs around US$25-40, depending where you eat.
- 3615, on the main Boulevard (next door to the Peloustore supermarket). Has an outdoor area as well as an air conditioned indoor area; and excellent food from pizza to steaks and fish. Average price for a main dish plus drink is around US$20. Dozens of prostitutes, quite fun to watch, but if you are a man alone, you will get hassled.
- Association Belgo-Congolaise (ABC). Serves meals for about US$10 in a nice outdoor terrace, though sometimes the quality of meals is questionable and the kitchen can close early. The menu includes traditional dishes such as river fish and fried plantains, or international fare like cheeseburgers and spaghetti. Food takes a long time to come. You can have espresso coffee rather than Nescafe.
- Marie Kabuang – A bit difficult to find on the first floor of the Sultani Hotel (Avenue de la Justice), but totally renewed restaurant. Very stylish and modern. Breakfast and lunch (international food) for only US$15, guarantee for a fast service, excellent taste.
- Cercle Elaeis/La Paillotte. Traditional and international food. Outdoor dining with view on the pool. Expensive but great country-club type setting. Packed with visiting expats and Lebanese families hanging by the pool on weekends.
- Chez Gaby. Portuguese-style. At the upper end of the mid-range - the food is varied and excellent and if you want to splash out, there are imported items such as foie gras and European wines.
- Chez Philo. Offers a number of Congolese dishes and the standard Belgian-style fare. Good prawns (Cossa)
- La Piscine. Outdoor tables arranged around a swimming pool-great settings and mediocre food for US$40-50 if you restrained yourself. Greek items an pizza as well as the usual dishes.
- Girassol (just off the Boulevard), turn across from Sonas, on the corner where Icare travel is located; take the most right street; it's on the right.
- Le Roi du Cossa 220 Ave Mpolo (just off the Boulevard), Gombe. A Portuguese restaurant is always a good bet for seafood, and this is no exception. Some say these are the best Cossa Cossa in the city.
- Green Garden Indian restaurant in a great garden setting. Both North and South Indian cuisines in a lovely outdoor setting. Open every day, serve dosa at any time of day. Opposite Chez Delice, behind La Piscine, parallel to Boulevard.
- Pizerria Extreme: reasonably cheap pizzas and other dishes. Turn off the boulevard at the Express supermarket corner, and it is on theleft.
- Pizerria Opoeta and Greg's bar: on the road towards the golf course: closest thing to an international pub. Good pizzas. Excellent seafood thanks to the Portuguese proprietors.
- Mangoustan restaurant at the Memling Hotel: M-F it serves lunch buffet for US$40 with a large variety of Belgian and international dishes, and on Wednesday evening offers a lavish cheese and charcuterie buffet for $40 with a varying wine-by-the glass selection. Good value. Safe parking facilities. Reservations advisable.
The more expensive restaurants are in Gombe.
- 1 Café Conc (Le Caf Conc), Av. de la Nation. The most expensive restaurant in the DRC, allegedly!
- Ciboulette. Second-most expensive. It's in the Elais compound on your right.
- 2 Chez Nicolas, Avenue de la Justice. Italian restaurant which has been around for more than 25 years.
- 3 Le Cercle Gourmand, Av. Du Cercle, ☏ . High class restaurant, belongs to the golf club.
- La Brasserie, 5, Avenue Rep Du Tchad (in Memling Hotel). Great food. Belgian-French influences with a few Congolese dishes. Rather pricy but worth it, generous portions and great service. Safe parking on hotel premises
Local beer: Turbo King is a darker beer, regular lagers are Primus (which some consider is the best local beer, brewed by the local Heineken brewery) and Skol. European Mutzig comes in smaller bottles. A bit more expensive, and slightly harder to find as it is brewed in Lubumbashi by Simba Breweries, is Tembo, a tasty amber ale preferred by locals and expats. Tembo garners the highest ranking for a DRC beer on ratebeer.com. Lots of expensive French and South African wine available in restaurants and supermarkets. Portuguese costs goes as little as $3 a bottle at grocery stores catering to expats (Peloustore, Express, etc.).
Kinshasa becomes alive most nights when residents head to Matonge, a place filled with dancing bars, restaurants and night clubs. Lately Bandal and Bonmarche are the more popular "quartiers" to visit the local bars and "discotheques". Go to a local nightclub and learn how to dance Congolese rhythms. Get ready to shake your booty! For those that prefer to stay in Gombe, the following offer good possibilities:
- 1 Chez Ntemba, Av. Douane. A hopping place after midnight.
- Ibiza Bar. Jazz bar for live music. Dancing starts around midnight. Small, smokey atmosphere, an old-fashioned jazz bar.
- 2 Standing Club, ☏ . 21:00-17:00. Small western-style bar and disco.
- VIP Bar. Larger western-style disco: mirror and disco-ball on the ceiling. On the main boulevard close to 3615
- 3 3615. Vibey but sleazy nightclub on the boulevard. Banned to UN personnel since it's allegedly a hotbed for prostitution.
- Savanana. On the boulevard in the Gecamines/Sozacom building, the highest building in Kinshasa, close to the central station. Definitely an interesting experience for those that dare confront the local girls.
Hotel bars are popular with expats and usually have live music several nights a week.
- Bar of Sultani Hotel. The style bar of the Sultani Hotel has been changed and is now providing a comfortable feeling and (jazz) partys every Friday, live music, no ticket to pay. Prices for drinks start at about 8 USD for cocktails.
- Cockpit Bar, 5 Avenue Rep Du Tchad (In Hotel Memling). The Memling's main bar. Classy setting. Business during the day, try their wild Congolese tea infused with lemongrass, a must. Cozy lounge in the evening with jazz, blues, soul music in the background. Happy hour from 18:00-20:00, where they do BOGO nights for draught beers and kwilu rhum cocktails and world music
- Bar La Piscine, 5 Avenue Rep Du Tchad (In Hotel Memling), ☏ . 12.00pm-10.30pm. The Memling Hotel's pool bar, nice food, has an upper terrace, a little oasis overlooking the pool with semi-private little gazebos - great little romantic hangout. The pool bar & charcoal grill definitely serves the best burger and bbq in town. Safari BBQ in dry season. Does BOGO nights/Happy Hour for draught beers and kwilu rhum cocktails from 17:00 to 19:00. Enclosed, guarded parking on the hotel property
Do not drink from the tap. Bottled water is readily available. Also, when cleaning your teeth use bottled water.
Accommodation in Kinshasa can be very expensive. A consequence of the past problems mean that many organisations only recognise two hotels as having international standards. So the Memling and the Grand have a virtual monopoly. Prices of these two can be in excess of $300 per night plus breakfast. Now a new luxury Hotel called Hotel Royal has opened. Modern boutique hotel with all amenities inclusive.
- Hotel de La Gombe
- CAP (Centre d'accueil protestant)
- Hotel Phenix (Barumbu district) Rooms cost $20/10,000F. Power is intermittant and water brought in buckets. Get a room that opens up to the outside. Everyone knows this large building on the main road.
- Procure St Anne This catholic monastery has a large compound in the city centre, close to the river and H&F supermarket, opposite American and Portuguese embassies. They have basic, but spacious rooms with air-conditioning and showers. Restrooms shared. Single rooms cost $40, breakfast included. Dinner is optional for approx. $10. Very nice, quiet garden and comfortable bar.
- Hotel Pasha Situated next to the Memling. Has a restaurant that serves Pakistani, Indian and Bengali food at reasonable prices. The cook speaks Urdu, Hindi, Bengali and French. Also you can order items that are not on the menu, i.e. if you are craving for some 'aalu ka paratha' or some 'haleem', just talk to Khursheed (0899431964).
- Hotel Ave Maria. A well-run and well-located place frequented by NGOs and UN types. 60 USD.
- San Pedro Hotel Kinshasa, Av. 18 Parcelles nr 16 Quartier Palais des Marbres (Palais des Marbres Ngaliema), ☏ . Check-in: 13:00, check-out: 11:00. $60-$100.
- 1 Residence Marika. A simple 3-star hotel just off the main Boulevard, with swimming pool.
- 2 Hotel Memling, 5, Avenue Rep Du Tchad, ☏ , ✉ email@example.com. Probably the best and second most expensive hotel in town. Has been around since 1937, and has since then maintained its place as the city's Number One venue on this side of the river. Wireless Internet throughout, nice but small pool, bar and restaurants, good Belgium food. Expect to pay US$300/night plus $28 for breakfast and $30 for 24 hour access to Internet ($75 for week). Hertz car rental are at the hotel, along with mobile phone companies, gift shops and the usual souvenirs. Excellent conference facilities, the hotel is located within 5 to 10 minutes of the city's main business and political ventures.
- 3 Pullman Kinshasa Grand Hotel, 4 Av. des Batetela, ☏ , ✉ firstname.lastname@example.org. The Grand Hotel is the other fancy hotel in the city, and well located near the river, embassies and the Presidential residence; it is frequented by locals as well as internationals assisting with the DRC's transition. It claims to be DRC's only 5* hotel, but the only 5* feature is the price (from US$300/night plus tax). Extremely expensive and not particularly good food, with slow service. There are two accommodation blocks. The old one is now being completely refurbished. Slow wireless internet is available for $70/week.
- 4 Hotel Royal, ☏ , ✉ email@example.com. 4-star. Expect to pay US$270/night Bed &Breakfast, with Wifi, tea coffee and water complimentary. Restaurant, cafe, cigar lounge, conference centre, in the city centre next to Brussels Airlines office.
- 5 Sultani Hotel, 30, Avenue de la Justice, ☏ , , ✉ firstname.lastname@example.org. In the city centre, close to the River Congo. There is wireless Internet included in the price and provided throughout the hotel. Prices start at US$175 for a room. The price/quality ratio is attractive compared to the other hotels. The hotel offers a business lunch for $15 which is quite rare to get in the otherwise very expensive city. Staff are motivated and speak English, French, German and Chinese.
- 6 Fleuve Congo Hotel, 119, Boulevard Colonel, ☏ . Renovated in 2012, Fleuve is now one of the most luxurious hotels in town.
- 7 Ledya Pyramide Hotel. Hotel Pyramide is a small, but luxury hotel, about 5 km out of the city centre. All rooms have a bathroom with Jacuzzi, warm water, hairdryer and a fridge. In March 2008 however, there was only cold water available and in insufficient quantities to take a proper shower or bath. Most rooms are spacious (some are like a small apartment) and dispose of flatscreen TVs and one or two air-conditioning units.
- 8 Faden House, 117, Avenue des Batetela, ☏ , ✉ email@example.com. A small guesthouse across the street from Grand Hotel. Great location in Gombe, a block away from the River Congo (great walking/jogging route) and many of the European embassies. About the same price as the Grand Hotel, but here the price includes free wifi in all the rooms, and no harassment from drunk foreign soldiers or local prostitutes. A calm oasis in Kinshasa. Some English spoken. Only 9 rooms (avoid rooms 1 and room 3). Also a well-used conference facility, and the quality of service deteriorates when staff are occupied with a function. There are small fridges in the rooms, but no safe deposit facility; and only a couple of French/Congolese TV channels.
- 9 Le Voyageur, ☏ , ✉ firstname.lastname@example.org. Definitely one of the best hotels in the city, located next to Elais; tends to be fully booked well in advance. All Elais amenities can be used.
Plenty of cyber cafes exist, so don't worry about staying connected.
Don't drink the local water. Bottled water seems to be cheap enough but sometimes hard to find for a good price. The best way is if you are staying in an upscale hotel that provides it with the room just tip the housekeeping staff to get extra bottles put in your room (usually if you tell them while giving them the money that works the best, and after the first 2 days of asking for the water you usually don't have to worry about telling them anymore, just give them the $5 a day).
Make sure you have all required vaccinations, i.e. yellow fever, typhoid, etc.
Mosquitoes can be a problem in all the city. Malaria medication should be taken.
It is strongly recommended that you have someone with you at all times that is a local (besides while being in your hotel). Taxi drivers will usually stay with you too when going to local shops and making quick stops and will serve as your translator if you get a good one. Be careful with any equipment you have with you such as digital cameras and video equipment. Be careful also of what you take pictures of. Even if they say no photos only at the airport and of government buildings, a lot of times the police and UN people will get upset if you are taking videos at other places where it is supposed to be ok to do. Just be sure to have plenty of locals with you that know what they are doing and can provide security and a way out if you get stuck or in trouble. Follow their advice and pay attention when out and about. When in doubt about taking a photo of something don't until you get very clear instructions that it is ok. Don't keep cameras in open view unless you've been cleared to take a photo (which is just like taking a photo to them it seems). Also be equally prepared for hostility and positive reactions when taking photos.
When travelling by car, always lock all the doors before you set off, as it is not uncommon for opportunist thieves to try to open them and snatch belongings. For the same reason, keep bags and valuables out of reach and out of sight.
If you are approached by people claiming to be police, be wary. If they are not in uniform, they are probably not police but are most likely hoping to relieve you of your money and valuables. A common tactic is for a group of men in a car to show a fake police identity card and ask you to go with them to the police station. Do not get in the car; just walk away. Be prepared to run. Never lose your temper, but keep negotiating in a friendly way; in the end, they will give up.
Road scams include a group of fake police officers in an unmarked 4x4 vehicle that will pull over unsuspecting people driving alone in cars, then forcibly take them in to their vehicle, drive them out to the country, rob them of everything and leave them stranded. While the main targets have been UN staff in obvious white UN vehicles, all foreigners driving should be wary of this group or others operating like them. For general safety, you should never drive alone in a vehicle, especially after dark.
BBC World Service radio broadcast in English, French and Swahili in Kinshasa on 92.6MHz.
- Belgium, Building du Cinquantenaire Place du 27 Octobre, ☏ , ✉ email@example.com.
- Brazil, Avenue Batetela, n°3098, 14 eme étage, ☏ , , ✉ firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Canada, 17, Pumbu Avenue, ☏ .
- Chad, 45, Avenue Okito, Quartier Binza Pigeon, ✉ email@example.com.
- Cuba, 40A Avenue Uvira, ☏ , ✉ firstname.lastname@example.org.
- France, 1 Avenue du Colonel Mondjiba, ☏ .
- Germany, 82, Avenue Roi Baudouin, ☏ , , .
- Ghana, No. 206, Avenue Pierre Mulele, ☏ , ✉ email@example.com.
- India, 18-B, Avenue Batetela.
- Italy, 8, Avenue de la Mongala, ☏ , .
- Nigeria, 141, Blvd. 30 Juin, ☏ .
- South Africa, 77 Avenue Ngongo Lutete, ☏ , , ✉ firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Spain, Boulevard Colonel Tshatshi nº 37, ✉ email@example.com.
- Switzerland, 654, Blvd Colonel Tshatshi, ☏ , ✉ firstname.lastname@example.org.
- United Kingdom, 83, Avenue Roi Baudoin, ☏ , ✉ email@example.com.
- United States, 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, ☏ .
- 1 Bombo-Lumene Game Reserve (130 km (81 mi) towards Kikwit).
- The Chutes de Zongo waterfalls in Bas Congo are impressive but some 130 km (81 mi) from Kinshasa - a bit far for a day trip. You can stay at the Seli Safari Resort near the falls.
- There are boats to Brazzaville across the river.