WARNING: The regions of North & South Kivu have been in a state of conflict since the early 1990s. The days of the notoriously bloody violence that occurred during the First and Second Congo Wars (during which 5 million died in fighting or through resulting disease/famine) officially ended with a peace treaty in 2003. However, low-level violence spurred by several warlords/factions has occurred ever since (despite several peace accords) and this region is home to the largest UN peacekeeping mission in the world. Hundreds of thousands live in refugee camps near Goma. In April 2012, a new faction of Congolese army mutineers formed—"M23"—who have captured/attacked many towns in the region, where they are accused of killing civilians and raping women. After capturing Goma, they withdrew and have been involved in unsuccessful peace talks with the Congolese government. (Updated July 2013) As of spring 2017 there is advice against all travel to most of the region and against all but essential travel to Goma and Bukavu.