Kronstadt is a city and military seaport on Kotlin Island, off Saint Petersburg, in the Gulf of Finland.
Kronstadt was founded by Emperor Peter the Great in 1704 as a maritime fortress and naval base on Kotlin Island. The name "Kronstadt" was invented by Peter the Great, and in German means "Crown City".
The port is ice-bound for 140–160 days in the year, from the beginning of December to April. A very large proportion of the inhabitants are sailors.
The Kronstadt Sea Fortress used to be considered the most fortified port in the world. Kronstadt still retains some of the "forts", small fortified artificial islands. Others were destroyed or recycled during the construction of the Saint Petersburg Flood Prevention Facility Complex, a brand new dam of protective structures, which connects the island to the shore and is part of the federal city's Ring Road. Formerly, there were 42 such forts, situated in line between the southern and northern shores of the Gulf of Finland. Some fortifications were located inside the city itself, and one was on the western shore of the Kronslot Island (on the other side of the main navigational channel).
Until 1998, Kronstadt was a closed city, from then on it became a touristic attraction with free access to its territory. The exception is Kronstadt military harbor, and the territories of various military units stationed in the city and surrounding area. The architecture of the city center and city walls mostly dates from the first half of the 19th century.
In the 1970s and 80s, modern neighborhoods were built on the outskirts of the city.
There is no direct rail service. The nearest station "Oranienbaum-I» in Lomonosov, which can be reached from the Baltyskaya station in St. Petersburg.
Kronstadt is part of the Ring Road (CR) around St. Petersburg, which connects Kotlin island from the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, near Sestroretsk, and the southern coast, near the Little Izhora. To St. Petersburg through the Mountain Village, 35 km; to the metro station "Prospect Veterans", 60 km.
From St. Petersburg to Kronstadt there are several routes:
- from metro station "Chernaya Rechka" - shuttle K-405;
- from metro station "Staraya Derevnya" - shuttle K-510 and bus 101
- from metro station "Prospect Prosvescheniya" - shuttle K-407
- from rail station "Oranienbaum" - Bus 175
It's very easy to arrange waterborne transport to/from SPb, there are several operators. Contacts:
- passenger pier Kronstadt: Ammunition per. 5, +7 (812) 311-33-17
- passenger pier University: Coal Street., 14 g / d of Art. "Orienbaum-I», +7 (812) 422-87-21
- trucking companies: JSC "Passenger Port", St. Petersburg, Obukhov Defense, 195, +7 (812) 262-50-88, central office +7 (812) 262-62-51
Kronstadt is small and compact enough to navigate on foot, but there are social and internal lines of buses. Route numbers of extensions are the letters "CD". The fare of 25 rubles (in 2013).
- 1Co - Leningrad pier - MAKAROVSKAYA gate.
- 2KR - Leningrad harbor - Fort Schantz.
- 3KR - Leningrad harbor - block 19B.
- (Морско́й собо́р святи́теля Никола́я Чудотво́рца). Tu-Th 11:00-18:00 (office - 17:00). First built in 1728–31, the present structure was built in 1903–1913, as the main church of the Baltic Fleet, dedicated to all fallen seamen. It had a very tumultous story, having been a cinema hall in Soviet times. Right now it's undergoing extensive repairs and improvements, and was reconsecrated in April 2012. Former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev recently said the cathedral "looks better than 100 years ago." Repairs are scheduled to be completed in 2013, in time for the cathedral's centennial anniversary.
- Historic Architecture and Art Museum, Leningradskaya Str., 2, ☎ .
- Museum of the Kronstadt Fortress, Yakornaya ploschad, 2, ☎ , . Wed-Sun 11:00-17:00.
- Maritime Factory Museum, Lenin Avenue, 39, 4th floor. Tue, Wed, Fri 15:00-20:00. Free.
- Memorial Apartment Museum of St. John of Kronstadt, Posadskaya st., 21, ☎ . Tue-Thu, Sat, Sun 12:00-17:00.
- Memorial Museum office Popov.
Among other picturesque public buildings, are the naval hospital, the British seamen's hospital (established in 1867), the civic hospital, admiralty (founded 1785), arsenal, dockyards and foundries, the school of marine engineering, and the English church.
- Austeria Restaurant (Аустерия), Sovetskaya ul, 43, ☎ .
- Cafe Amulet (Кафе «Амулет»), pr. Lenina, 18, ☎ .
- Bistro (Бистро), Kommunisticheskaya ul, 16, ☎ .
- Cafe Brigantina, Sovetskaya ul, 41, ☎ .
- Cafe Dom Druzhby (Кафе «Дом дружбы»), Kommunisticheskaya ul., 3, ☎ .
- Cafe Zolotoy Yakor (Кафе «Золотой якорь»), Mayakovskaya ul, 3, ☎ .
- Cafe Imperial (Кафе «Империал»), pr. Lenina, 43, ☎ .
- Cafe, ул. Карла Либкнехта, 29, ☎ .
- Cafe Classic (Кафе «Классик»), pr. Lenina, 29, ☎ .
- Cafe Labaz (Кафе «Лабаз»), Grazhdanskaya ul, 7/11, ☎ .
- Cafe Lika (Кафе «Лика»), Leningradskaya ul., 3, ☎ .
- (Кафе «Луза»)pr. Lenina, 43, ☎ .
- Cafe Na Troikh (Кафе «На троих»), Kommunisticheskaya ul., 3, ☎ .
- Cafe Novaya Volnya (Кафе «Новая волна»), ul. Gidrostroiteley, 8, ☎ .
- Cafe Notch (Кафе «Ночь»), pr. Lenina, 53, ☎ .
- (Кафе «Ника»)Flotskaya ul., 17, ☎ .
- Cafe Parus (Кафе «Парус»), Flotskaya ul., 29/9, ☎ .
- Pelmennaya (Пельменная), pr. Lenina, 18, ☎ .
- Cafe Podvorye (Кафе «Подворье»), Grazhdanskaya ul, 7/11, ☎ .
- Cafe Skazka (Кафе «Сказка»), pr. Lenina, 31, ☎ .
- Cafe Strelets (Кафе «Стрелец»), pr. Lenina, 33, ☎ .
- Cafe Taverna (Кафе «Таверна»), Kommunisticheskaya ul, 1, ☎ .
- (Кафе «Трактир»)Posadskaya ul, 3, ☎ .
- Cafe Fort (Кафе «Форт»), pr. Lenina, 26, ☎ .
- Cafe Fort Konstantin (Кафе «Форт „Константин“»), ☎ .
- (Гостиница ВМФ), Kommunisticheskaya ul, 1, ☎ .
- (Гостиница ВМФ), Kronstadt highway, 28, ☎ , .
- Frigat Service Hotel (Гостиница «Фрегат-Сервис»), ul. Gidrostroiteley, 8-а (fort Konstantin), ☎ .
- Micromacro Hotel, ul. Veleschinskogo, 9/13, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.