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- Malaysia which incorporates most of the peninsula plus several island territories
- Singapore, a densely populated and highly developed island city-state at the tip of the peninsula
- The southern part of Thailand includes part of the Malay Peninsula, used to consist of Malay sultanates and continues to have a Malay Muslim majority in some provinces, but it was never politically part of Malaya.
Malay or Bahasa Malaysia/Bahasa Melayu is the main language of the area, with English being a common second language.