Northern Ontario covers 90% of the area of Ontario, but has only 6% of its population—about 730,000 people.
Cities, towns and districts
With the exception of the Greater Sudbury municipality, all of northern Ontario's land is divided into districts. These districts include vast tracts of sparsely-populated territory where public services are provided by the government of Ontario.
Sparsely-populated Kenora District covers 407,213 km² (almost 38 percent of the province's land area), extending north to Hudson's Bay and including most of the Ontario-Manitoba border. This area is in the Central time zone.
- 2 Blue Lake Provincial Park
- 4 Dryden
- 5 Kenora
- 3 Pimachiowin Aki
- 6 Red Lake
- 7 Sioux Lookout
- 4 Wabakimi Provincial Park
This district covers most of northwestern Lake Superior, the westernmost Canadian territory in the Great Lakes region.
- 8 Dorion, home of Ouimet Canyon
- Greenstone: 9 Geraldton and 10 Longlac (located on both the Trans-Canada Highway and The Canadian rail line)
- 11 Manitouwadge
- 12 Marathon
- 13 Nipigon
- 14 Red Rock
- 15 Schreiber, the northernmost point on Lake Superior, near the main exposure of the Gunflint chert
- 16 Terrace Bay
- 17 Thunder Bay
- 18 Cochrane
- 19 Hearst was founded 1913 as a rail town, 208 km west of Cochrane
- 20 Kapuskasing
- 21 Moosonee is the railhead of the Ontario Northland Railway on Hudson's Bay
- 22 Timmins
This is mining country, near the Ontario-Quebec border.
Algoma District is at the eastern end of Lake Superior, where it borders Michigan at Sault Ste. Marie.
- 26 Blind River, on the north channel of Lake Huron
- 27 Elliot Lake
- 28 Hornepayne
- 5 Lake Superior Provincial Park - The Agawa Pictographs
- 29 Sault Ste. Marie
- 6 St. Joseph Island
- 30 Wawa
- 31 White River (Ontario) is the birthplace of Winnie the Pooh in literary tourism
- 32 Espanola is the seat of Sudbury District.
- 33 Greater Sudbury is the largest city in the district.
- 34 French River
- 35 Killarney (Ontario)
Parry Sound District
Ontario is Canada's most populous province, with nearly 40 percent of the country's population, but most of Ontario's 13.5 million people live in southern communities along the Windsor-Quebec corridor.
This leaves the rest of the province very sparsely populated, with Northern Ontario's few people spread across a vast area which spans two time zones. Don't expect to drive across all of Northern Ontario in a day; it's 1,000 mi (1,600 km) of Trans-Canada Highway from North Bay to the Manitoba border and a few communities (mostly on Indigenous lands around Hudson Bay) have no intercity road access at all.
Most of Northern Ontario sits on the Canadian Shield, a vast rocky plateau. As a result, the region's main businesses are mining and forestry, although tourism also plays a role in the economy. Its main population centres are Greater Sudbury in the east, and Thunder Bay in the West.
In the early 20th century, Northern Ontario was often called "New Ontario", although this name fell into disuse because of its colonial connotations. (In French, however, the region may still be referred to as Nouvel-Ontario, although le Nord de l'Ontario and Ontario-Nord are now more commonly used.)
There are several small francophone communities in Northern Ontario, but English speaking travellers shouldn't encounter any issues with language since most of those living in these communities are bilingual (English-French). There are also many communities that speak mainly Cree, though there are usually English speakers there as well.
Air Canada Express provides daily service from Toronto Pearson International Airport (YYZ IATA) to Sudbury, Sault Ste. Marie, Timmins and Thunder Bay from Toronto (Thunder Bay also served from Winnipeg, Manitoba). Westjet flies to Thunder Bay from Toronto. Bearskin Airlines (based in Thunder Bay) provides services to various smaller communities in Northern Ontario, including Red Lake, Dryden, Sioux Lookout and Kenora from Winnipeg, Manitoba. Porter Airlines flies to Timmins, Thunder Bay, Sudbury and Sault Ste. Marie from Toronto City Island Airport (YTZ IATA).
The 2 main routes through Northern Ontario are Highways #11 and #17. They diverge at North Bay with Hwy. 11 going north and Hwy. 17 going west to Sault Ste. Marie then north from there. Both highways continue westward toward Manitoba, with a few points where there is only one road. The Trans-Canada Highway distance from North Bay to the Manitoba border is approximately 1650km (1050mi).
ViaRail provides service from Toronto to Sudbury and continues through Northern Ontario to Winnipeg, Manitoba and westward. Sudbury is the only major city in Northern Ontario ViaRail operates to. While the former Ontario Northland passenger rail service from Toronto to North Bay and Cochrane, Ontario has been replaced by a bus, there is passenger rail service from Cochrane to Moosonee on the Polar Bear Express.
Ontario Northland coach service includes the following routes:
- Toronto-North Bay
- Sudbury-Thunder Bay
- North Bay-Timmins-Hearst
- Thunder Bay-Winnipeg
Kasper Bus serves western areas, including:
- Thunder Bay-Longlac
- Thunder Bay-Sioux Lookout-Winnipeg
- Thunder Bay-Fort Frances
- Thunder Bay-White River
- Sioux Lookout-Red Lake
Crossing the region by bus, e.g. from Sudbury to Thunder Bay, is possible with a change at White River.
Car rental services are available in most of the larger centres, including Kenora, Red Lake, Thunder Bay, Nipigon, Terrace Bay, Marathon, Sault Ste. Marie, Sudbury, Timmins, and North Bay.
In Northern Ontario, the car is a must if you wish to get from place to place. In most cases, you will be driving the Trans-Canada Highway (a cross-Canada network of highways, often offering more than one route), either on Highway 17 or Highway 11. Highway 17 follows a more southerly route hugging Lake Superior, while 11 ventures northward at North Bay and heads through a less populous region of the province before heading southwards. Highways 11 and 17 run concurrently from the Nipigon River west to the Thunder Bay region, a single point of failure. To the west, 11 heads to the US border at Rainy River while Trans-Canada 17 continues west to Manitoba.
Ontario Northland operates the Polar Bear Express railway between Cochrane and Moosonee, on the Hudson Bay shore, hauling mostly locals (the railway is the only method of overland access for many isolated Northern communities) and freight, plus some tourists. This train is one of the few remaining in North America that lets you flag it down to get picked up. Northbound trains leave Cochrane at 9AM five days a week, arriving in Moosonee at 2:20PM. Going the other way, trains depart Moosonee at 5PM and return to Cochrane at 11:30PM.
Ouimet Canyon, near Dorion, is 100 metres (330 ft) deep, 150 metres (490 ft) wide and 2 km (1.2 mi) long. It is protected as part of Ouimet Canyon Provincial Park.
The Aguasabon Falls and Gorge near Terrace Bay is a 30-m (100-foot) waterfall that was created as a spill basin for a generating station. It offers tourists an amazing view through a wheelchair accessible boardwalk that overlooks the falls.
The Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung Historical Centre (Manitou Mounds) 33 km from Rainy River, is one of the most significant centres of early habitation and ceremonial burial in Canada. The centre offers interpretive tours and galleries, a collections space with over 16,000 artifacts, a gift shop that showcases artwork by local Indigenous artists, and a restaurant that serves traditional Ojibway cuisine.
The M.S. Kenora cruise is a great way to experience the splendour of Lake of the Woods. The cruise passes by Coney Island beach, through the scenic channels south of Kenora, and returns through the exciting ‘Devil’s Gap’, a channel guarded by a mythical rock bearing its name. Bald eagles and wildlife can also be sighted.
The Fort William Historical Park in Thunder Bay is a recreation of the days of the North West Company and the Canadian fur trade circa 1815. It offers a look at fur trade life, culture, rafts, medicine, business, domestic life and heritage farming.
The Agawa Canyon Tour Train is a very popular scenic one-day rail excursion to Agawa Canyon Park, 114 railway miles north of Sault Ste Marie. There is a three-hour stopover at the canyon where there are hiking trails and a railway museum. The train has dining cars, dome cars, and regular coach cars.
Science North is a science education centre in Sudbury with an IMAX theatre, a butterfly gallery, a robotics lab, and interactive exhibits on geology, animal biology and other areas of science.
Camping: Northern Ontario has a lot of provincial parks, some for day use only and others that have camping facilities. There are 3 large ones accessible by highways: Quetico Provincial Park; Lake Superior Provincial Park and Kakabeka Falls Provincial Park. Wabakimi Provincial Park is not accessible by highway, but is accessible from The Canadian passenger rail line (which can be flagged down, and features a baggage car that can handle canoes).
There is one national park: Pukaskwa National Park (pronounced "puck-a-saw"; just south of Marathon) which offers day use and overnight facilities. No motorized boats are allowed to be used in the park except those that access the park from Lake Superior.
Many towns through the region have outfitters who will equip you with everything you need for fishing, hunting or snowmobiling trips, and can provide guides, or organize the whole trip for you, often to remote private lodges, some accessible only by float plane.
Black flies and mosquitoes are abundant throughout Northern Ontario. To protect yourself when camping or hiking, wear long sleeve shirts (white or brightly colored), thick socks, and long pants (tuck the pants into the socks) and apply insect repellent containing DEET. A mosquito net can be nicer than applying repellent to your face. Also some type of bug netting in your tent is advised. Flies are most active at dawn and dusk between mid June and late July.
Winter driving in the North can be treacherous, given the inclement winters here. Be prepared to adjust or cancel travel plans should the weather conditions require it.
West to Manitoba; south to Minnesota, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Central Ontario and Eastern Ontario; east to the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec; or, if you have access to an aircraft, north to Nunavut.