Palmanova is in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. The architecture is remarkable; Palmanova is both one of the earliest planned cities and one of the latest examples of a medieval walled city.
The city was built by the Republic of Venice, starting in 1593, primarily as a border post to defend against the Ottoman Turks. The shape was a nine-pointed star, close to ideal for defense according to the military thinking of the day. The core of the city, the main wall and the moat were finished by the 1630s, but additional fortifications were built later; the third and final wall was completed in the early 19th century. The walls are inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List together with five other Venetian wall structures in Italy and along the Adriatic Sea.
Palmanova has never really succeeded as a city, and current population is only about 5,000.
There is a fine cathedral and a scenic central plaza, both from the early 1600s. However, the fortifications — which are in good repair — are the main attraction.