Port Arthur is a small town and former penal settlement on the Tasman Peninsula in Tasmania, the island state of Australia. The town is about one and a half hours drive from the state capital Hobart.
The major attraction of Port Arthur is the Port Arthur Historic Site, the 40-hectare (100-acre) site of a former convict colony. Many highly recognisable ruins remain, including the penitentiary, the hospital, the insane asylum, and the church. Some portions of the site have been recreated but much is in the original condition. The Port Arthur Historic Site is Australia's best known historical site from the convict era, and one of eleven sites making up the UNESCO World Heritage listing "Australian Convict Sites".
Port Arthur was established as a timber station in 1830, supporting the infant colony of Van Diemen's Land. It became the site of a major penal (prison) colony for male convicts from 1833, a place of secondary punishment for re-offenders, in the 19th-century era of convict transportation to Van Diemen's Land (the former name of Tasmania). It very quickly gained a reputation as a "hell on earth". At its peak in the late 1840s, Port Arthur became a near self-sufficient settlement, driven by the labour of its tormented inmates. After a couple of decades of decline in the 1850s and 1860s, Port Arthur ended its days as a penal settlement in 1877.
Port Arthur was then a township and its named changed to Carnarvon in the 1880s. Land was parcelled up and put to auction while people were taking up residence in and around the old site. Timber mills and farming animals as well as produce was a major source of income while people lived there.
On Sunday 28 April 1996, Port Arthur was the site of a devastating violent crime. A single gunman killed 35 people and injured many more, with visitors, staff and locals among the victims. Memorials to those who died can be found at the site; however, visitors are asked to not attempt to discuss the massacre with locals. This massacre resulted in a drastic tightening of Australian gun control laws, which until then had been one of the most lenient in the world.
Port Arthur is located about 100 km south-east of Hobart on the Tasman Peninsula.
By car, Port Arthur is a day trip from Hobart via the A3 Tasman Highway and A9 Arthur Highway, although the Historic Site is quite large and it is good to plan at least 4–6 hours there. The roads between them are sealed and in reasonable condition, although much of the trip is on narrow country roads, not highways. Drivers from Hobart should take the Tasman Highway past Hobart Airport to Sorell and the Arthur Highway from Sorell. The road is well signposted as "Port Arthur" from the airport onwards.
Bus tours of the historic site are available through:
- Tasman Island Cruises departing Hobart at 7AM daily and returning 6PM (adults $35, children under 17 $35, children under 3 free), includes a 3-hour cruise of the peninsula, and a 3 hour at leisure in the historic site.
Port Arthur Historic Site
Admission to the historic site is via the visitors centre from the carpark, alternatively via the dirt track next to one of the car parks. Parking at the site is free. As of Sep 2021, the entry prices available are:
- Site entry: adult $45, child $20, concession $36
- Coal mines tour: adult $30, child $15
- Commandant's Tour (daily 12:30PM): adult $30, child $15, family $90
- Escape from Port Arthur Tour (daily 11AM): adult $20, child $10, family $60
- Isle of the Dead cemetery tour (4 per day): adult $30, child $15
- Port Arthur Ghost Tour (Th F Sa evenings): adult $36, child $18
- Dinner and a Ghost Tour (variable): adult $97
- 4-hour private tour with lunch and drinks (2-10 people): $300 per person
Having arrived at Port Arthur, most people view the ruins on foot. All tickets include a 30-minute ferry trip. Visitors who purchase guided tours of the Isle of the Dead or Point Puer take this ferry to the two locations: there are no self-tours of these locations.
For the less mobile traveller, Visitor Centre facilities allow for independent access, including the cafe, restaurant, gift shop, interpretation gallery and washrooms. The remainder of the historic site comprises a variety of areas, some of which provide independent access, and others which require assisted access. Disabled parking is provided adjacent to the Visitor Centre entry. A courtesy buggy provides a regular drop off and pickup service around the site for visitors who have limited mobility. (Enquire on arrival, at the information counter, for times of operation).
Port Arthur Historic Site
The historic site is open every day of the year from 9AM. Visitors may tour the site until dusk, and those on a Ghost Tour remain until the conclusion of their tour in the late evening.
Some of the site is ruined, less from neglect and more as a consequence of several severe bushfires in the 1890s. Ruins are partially restored but the Site does not intend to reconstruct them completely. The major points of interest inside the Historic Site are:
- The ruins of the 1 Penitentiary in Champ St. This is the best known ruin on the site and one of the largest. It is located around the bay from the Visitors Centre. It opened as a flour mill in 1843 with convicts in chains driving the wheels to mill the flour. This was never successful and it was converted into a prison housing the convicts from 1857.
- The 2 Commandant's House past the Penitentiary. The house was built in 1833 and extended several times. It is not ruined, and has rooms reconstructed using furnishings of the time, illustrating both the daily lives of the Commandant and his family, and the house's later use as a hotel and boarding house from 1877 to the 1930s.
- The 3 Government Gardens leading up the hill to the ruins of the Church. The Gardens are a reconstruction of the 19th century gardens from seed analysis and descriptions from the time. In the 19th century, they were designed as a retreat for the ladies of the colony.
- The 4 Isle of the Dead. The colony's cemetery was placed on a small island about 200 metres into the bay from the colony proper. The Isle can only be visited on an escorted tour (see Get in). The tour takes about 1 hour and runs several times a day except on Christmas Day.
- The Point Puer Boys' Prison. The Boys' Prison, located on the other side of the bay from the main colony, housed boys between 1834 and 1849 and was established under the reformatory impulse that young offenders might do better separately from adult prisoners. It was renowned for harsh discipline. Point Puer can only be visited on an escorted tour (see Get in). The tour begins at 11:30AM, takes about 2 hours and is available from September to July each year, excepting Christmas Day.
- The Memorial Garden for those killed in the 1996 massacre. The Garden is on the walk between the Visitors Centre and the ferry terminal. It contains a native garden, a pool and a large cross underneath which flowers are placed for those who died (please see the Respect section below regarding visiting the Memorial Garden)
- The Stack of Stories gallery inside the Visitors Centre. Character cards in a state-of-the-art interactive gallery inviting visitors to delve deeper into the who, what and when of the sites fascinating and layered history.
- Go on the Ghost Tour of Port Arthur. It is a fantastic experience and one not to be missed. The tours are 90 minutes long and depart each night except 25th December from the Visitor Centre. Adult $36, child $18 (Sep 2021). Bookings are essential. A steady nerve is recommended and tours are not cancelled for rain.
- Just outside the historic site, you will find Tasman Island Cruises, Arthur Highway, ☏ +61 3 6250 2200, firstname.lastname@example.org. The company operates 3-hour eco-cruises to Tasman Island from Port Arthur daily all year round. The tours cruise the stunning coastline of the Tasman Island National Park and boast seal sightings and have also had regular dolphin and whale sightings. The staff are excellent and it's not to be missed when in the area.
The gift shop is in the visitor's centre has a variety of local products.
- 1830 Restaurant & Bar has sweeping views of the Penitentiary, gardens and grounds. Its menu uses fresh seasonal produce sourced from local growers and producers, and offers a range of Tasmanian wines, craft beers, whiskeys and spirits. The restaurant and bar is open every evening through the Easter Break from 4PM with meals served from 6PM. After daylight savings on 2 April it opens for meals at 5PM.
- Port Arthur Cafe - freshly brewed coffee and sweet treats, cold drinks, beers, wines and spirits, and fresh food, all made on site using local ingredients. Sandwiches for a picnic in the grounds, or something cooked to order.
- Museum Coffee Shop - in the Asylum is open daily from 9AM until 5PM. Enjoyable in all weather conditions with indoor and outdoor dining space you can enjoy a good coffee, homemade cakes, delicious snacks and light meals.
- Visiting Magistrates House - visitors during the day can also enjoy a wine or beer, tea or coffee and light refreshments including Devonshire Tea in the restored 19th century home, which was once occupied by some of the settlement’s most important dignitaries.
There is accommodation nearby in Port Arthur such as the Motor Inn & the Port Arthur Villas, but many travellers see Port Arthur in a day trip from Hobart.
- Port Arthur Motor Inn & Restaurant, 29 Safety Cove Rd, ☏ +61 3 6250 2101. Check-in: 1PM, check-out: 10AM.
This is an outdoor site with highly changeable weather. It can be quite cool even at the height of summer: prepare for daytime temperatures as low as 10–15℃ (50–60℉) in summer. Wearing comfortable walking shoes and being prepared for possible changes in weather will ensure you have an enjoyable time. A hat, sunscreen and a raincoat are strongly recommended.
The historic site generally tries to maintain a respectful attitude towards the convict-era inhabitants of the colony, many of whom led unimaginably difficult lives. They do not role-play or reenact convict times; however, you are unlikely to offend or hurt someone by making light of convict times.
The 1996 massacre is a subject to be approached carefully. Please do not discuss the massacre with staff or local residents of Port Arthur, unless they bring up the topic. Many locals and historic site staff were present in the area or were at the site of deaths that day and others had friends die. Appropriate respect and decorum should be observed in the Memorial Garden also: friends and family of those killed still visit the site. Pay particular attention to this on the anniversary of the massacre, 28 April. Talking about gun laws should also be avoided at all costs.
|Routes via Port Arthur (Tasmania)|
|Sorell ← Taranna ←||N A9 S||→ END|
|Taranna ← Nubeena ←||WNW B37 ESE||→ END|
|END ←||N C347 S||→ Tasman National Park (Maignon Bay/Safety Cove)|