Terrace is an inland city in the North Coast of British Columbia. The largest city in the region, it has a population of about 12,500 people (2015), a significant portion of which are the Kitselas people, who have lived in the area for thousands of years.
The community is the regional retail and service hub for the northwestern portion of British Columbia.
Terrace was once the cedar pole capital of the world. Over 50,000 poles were manufactured annually to supply many parts of North America with telephone and electric power poles. The world's tallest pole, 50 metres (160 ft) long, was cut in Terrace and stands in New York City. For many years, logging was the region's major industry, but Terrace's economy has been forced to diversify since nearly all wood mills not operated by First Nations groups have closed down. Terrace's largest employers are in the public sector, but there are still some large private employers. Many people in Terrace commute to Kitimat to work at Alcan. The city has continually tried to reinvent itself as a service hub for northwestern British Columbia.
In 2001, the community was significantly affected by problems with and the closure of the largest local employer, the former Skeena Cellulose Inc. sawmill. The mill was bought by Terrace Lumber Co., a group of local owners, and reopened in late August 2005, but did not prosper and closed in mid-2006. By the end of 2006, the remaining equipment was auctioned off and the mill was torn down. The mill's former site is now a vacant lot with its footings covered in graffiti.
The city's economic prospects are linked to tourism, mineral developments to the north and northwest, construction of a power line towards Iskut and energy-related developments in Kitimat. The Prince Rupert container port expansion has resulted in increased rail traffic by CN Rail.
The region is one of the oldest continuously occupied regions of the world and, long before European contact, was one of the most densely populated areas north of Mexico. The flat mountain ranges surrounding Terrace are traditionally called Ganeeks Laxha, which in the Tsimshian language means the "Stairway to Heaven". The Skeena River was known as the K'shian River, meaning "where the mist comes out" — ksi, to come out from; yeen (hian-mist), clouds. The Tsimshian Nation's traditional economy was based on hunting, fishing and social gatherings, for domestic consumption or trade, on their traditional lands. For the Aboriginal people, the Skeena River was used for transportation, communication, war, trade, as a source of food, and at times for protection.
In 1866 the steamer Mumford made it as far as Kitsumkalum with supplies for the Collins Overland Telegraph line. It took an average of three days to travel from Port Essington (at the mouth of the Skeena River, near Prince Rupert) to Hazelton. In 1891 the Hudson's Bay Company sternwheeler Caledonia negotiated the Kitselas Canyon and reached Hazelton. A number of other steamers were built around the turn of the century, in part due to the growing fishing industry and the Klondike Gold Rush. In honour of its steamboat heritage, Terrace celebrates a festival called Riverboat Days each summer.
The riverboats operated on the Skeena for only 22 years; the last boat, the Inlander, finished up in September 1912, when the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway took over its function.
During World War II, military units composed primarily of conscripts from central and eastern Canada were stationed in Terrace. Morale was low due to the poor relationship between the soldiers and the local populace, the isolation, the damp weather, lack of recreation, crowded facilities, and the distance from home. In late 1944, because of declining enlistment and heavy casualties, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King was forced to reconsider his promise to not deploy conscripts overseas. Mackenzie King decided to a one-time assignment of conscripts for overseas service. On November 24, 1944, news that conscripts might be sent overseas triggered a mutiny amongst the men stationed in Terrace. It took until November 29 for officers to restore order to the troops. The Terrace Mutiny was the most serious breach of discipline in Canadian military history.
Being close to the Pacific Coast, Terrace has a humid continental climate with wet, cold winters (though much milder than inland places) and drier, warm summers, with an annual normal mean temperature of 6.3 °C (43.3 °F) varying between average temperature in January of −4.3 °C (24.3 °F) and in July 16.4 °C (61.5 °F).
Terrace receives an average annual rainfall of 970.1 mm (38.19 in) and snowfall of 375.4 cm (147.80 in); totalling 1,322 mm (52.05 in) of precipitation, which is enough to sustain the lush vegetation of the area. October to February are the wettest months.
- 1 Northwest Regional Airport (YXT IATA), 103-4401 Bristol Rd, ☏ , fax: . Northwest Regional Airport serves the communities of Terrace and Kitimat.
There are several flights that fly to Terrace. Central Mountain Air runs flights from Prince George (1.25 hours), and Air Canada and Westjet offer operate flights daily from Vancouver (1.5 hours).
Canadian airlines that operate to Terrace:
- Air Canada, ☏ , toll-free: . Canada's largest airline with hubs in Vancouver, Calgary, Toronto, and Montreal. It operates across Canada and services international destinations.
- Central Mountain Air, toll-free: , firstname.lastname@example.org. Operates flights mostly in British Columbia and to a lesser extent in Alberta. Edmonton, Prince George, and Vancouver effectively serve as hubs for the airline.
- Westjet, toll-free: . Canada's second largest airline services with hubs in Calgary and Toronto. It operates across Canada and services international destinations.
Terrace sits at the intersection of Highway 16 (Yellowhead Highway) and Highway 37. The city is 2 hours east of Prince Rupert, 1½ hours north of Kitimat, 1 hour west of Kitwanga (southern terminus of Highway 37, the Stewart-Cassiar Highway), and 8 hours west of Prince George. As this is northern mountains, driving in this area is not recommended in the winter if you are not familiar with travel in such conditions.
- 2 VIA Rail Canada, 3100 Kalum St (Stops at Terrace station), toll-free: . Operates a route between Jasper and Prince Rupert with stops in McBride, Prince George, Vanderhoof, Burns Lake, Houston, Smithers, New Hazelton, Kitwanga, and Terrace. The train travels during the daytime, taking two days in each direction. There is an overnight stop in Prince George, where passengers will need to book sleeping accommodations. Travel time to Prince George from Jasper is 7.5 hours. Travel time to Terrace from Prince George is 10 hours, from Vanderhoof is 8 hours, from Burns Lake is 6 hours, from Smithers is 3.75 hours, and from Prince Rupert is 2.25 hours. On days that it arrives in Terrace, eastbound trips arrive at 10:20AM, and westbound trips arrive at 6PM. Trains depart five minutes after arriving. Jasper is also a stop for The Canadian, which travels between Vancouver and Toronto.
- BC Bus North, ☏ . Twice per week bus service between Prince George and Prince Rupert with stops in Vanderhoof, Fraser Lake, Burns Lake, Houston, Smithers, New Hazelton, Kitwanga, and Terrace, and Port Edward. Travel time to Terrace from Prince George is 9.25 hours, from Prince Rupert is 1.75 hours, from Smithers is 2.75 hours, and from Vanderhoof is 7.5 hours. Fare is $40 to $65, depending on distance.
Terrace is small enough to walk around downtown,
By public transit
- BC Transit (Terrace Regional Transit System). Operates bus routes within Terrace and to some nearby communities from Monday to Saturday.
- Bus route # 11 operates between Terrace and Kitimat (1 hour 5 minutes to 1 hour 10 minutes) from Monday to Saturday. Some of these trips stop at Northwest Regional Airport.
- BC Transit (Hazeltons Transit System), ☏ , toll-free: . Operates a bus route three days per week between Terrace and Kispiox via New Hazelton and Kitwanga. On three other days per week, operates trips between Smithers and Kispiox via New Hazelton. Fare ranges from $2 to $6, depending on destination. Children 12 and under travel for free.
- Kalum Kabs, ☏ .
- The Kermodei Bear: This all white relative of a black bear is the town mascot of Terrace. It is not an albino, but one with a recessive gene inherited from both parents. Sacred to the First Nations people of the area, sightings are exceedingly rare, and few locals have seen one.
- 1 Heritage Park Museum, 4702 Kerby Ave, ☏ . May 31-Aug 31: daily 10AM - 6PM; otherwise by appointment. The site features a number of interesting, early buildings including eight authentic log structures, an artifact-storage shed (open to the public), a wagon garage, a miniature replica school house, a blacksmith shop and an organic Heritage Garden. Together they offer a rare glimpse into the social, industrial and economic life of Terrace in the early years of the last century. By donation.
- 2 George Little House, 3100 Kalum St, ☏ , email@example.com. George Little is the man that most people refer to as “The Founder of Terrace”. He gave the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway 9 acres of his land so that a new railway station would be placed upon it; thus started the beginnings of another northern town. With the coming of the railway, Terrace soon became a busy commercial hub. George Little built this permanent home for his family in 1914. The main reception floor is used as retail space to sell local artists' wares (including First Nations art) and Terrace souvenirs.
- Kitselas Canyon National Historic Site (on the banks of the Skeena River on Kitselas Indian Reserve Number One, about 20 km NE of Terrace). The site encompasses approximately 5000 years of Aboriginal history and is a place of major significance to the Tsimshian people; in the 19th century, two permanent Tsimshian villages occupied a strategic position on the river, giving the people here control over the gateway between the coast and the interior, and therefore control of trade with the Hudson's Bay Company. The fact that Gitlaxdzok was a fortified village site makes it unique on the north coast; and, the cultural record is especially rich and has allowed detailed archaeological reconstruction of the culture history at Kitselas Canyon, including aspects of social change, the lasting relationship with people on the coast, vast trade networks, and changes in settlement patterns.
- Fish: There are many lodges, guides, and tour companies to help you catch steelhead, salmon and trout, and the Skeena is well known for its good fishing.
- During the summer, Terrace offers many outdoor activities, such as fishing for a wide range of freshwater fish, mountain biking, hiking, kiting and hunting in the surrounding areas.
- In the fall, many of Terrace's inhabitants go out to search for pine mushrooms (Tricholoma magnivelare), and pick berries.
- There is a variety of winter sports available in Terrace and the surrounding region including skiing and snowboarding at nearby Shames Mountain, as well as snowmobiling, ice fishing, curling, and ice skating.
- 1 House of Sim-oi-Ghets (House of Chiefs), PO Box 544 (Located 3 miles West of Terrace, BC on Highway 16 West), ☏ , fax: , firstname.lastname@example.org. M-Sa 9AM-5PM, Su 11AM-5PM, closed statutory holidays, open until 6PM in summer.
- 2 Skeena Mall, 4741 Lakelse Avenue (off Highway 16 in Downtown Terrace). Su 11AM-5PM, M-Th 9:30AM-6PM, F 9:30AM-9PM, Sa 9:30AM-6PM. Retailers include Save-On-Foods, Winners and Sport Chek.
- 1 Don Diego's, 3212 Kalum Street, ☏ . M-Sa 11AM-9PM. Gourmet Mexican, but not really authentic.
- Blue Fin Sushi Bar, 4608 Lakelse Ave, ☏ . Tu-Th 11:30AM-8PM, F Sa 11:30AM-9PM. Sushi, sashimi and other Japanese fusion dishes, a wide variety of menu items, made with fresh seafoods, vegetables and fruits. Brown rice and soy wraps are also available as alternatives to white rice and seaweed. A selection of desserts and BC wines.
- Northern Dhaba Hot House, 4728 Lazelle Ave, ☏ . M-Sa 11:30AM-8PM. Indian.
- Mumford's Beerhouse & Grill, 5430 Highway 16 West, ☏ . Gastropub.
- Spirit Nightclub, 4620 Lakelse Avenue (located on the west side of the Coast Inn of the West), ☏ , fax: . Th-Sa 10PM-2AM.
- Sherwood Mountain Brewhouse, #101 - 4816 Highway 16 West, ☏ , email@example.com. Sa-Th noon-8PM, F noon-9PM.
- 1 The Lodge at Skeena Landing, 4055 Motz Road, ☏ . Free Wireless Internet, Keurig coffee, free parking, fireplaces and patios in some rooms. From $139.
- 2 Copper River Motel, 4113 Hwy 16 East, ☏ , toll-free: . Trailers available for rent. RV and tent sites also available. Rooms from $95.
- 3 Rest Inn, 4326 Lakelse Avenue, ☏ . Flat screen TV + DVD player, air conditioner, refrigerator, microwave, coffee machine, toaster, free Wi-Fi throughout, business centre, Free private parking, room selection with or without kitchenette, free shuttle service from & to the airport, laundry facilities available. From $95.
- 4 Skeena River House Bed & Breakfast, 1778 Sleeping Beauty Lane, ☏ , toll-free: . All rooms have a private bathroom, free Wi-fi, free breakfast, access to the deck and Riverfront Common Room (with dining table, fireplace, television, pool table, and bar). From $125.
- 5 Sunshine Inn Executive Suites, 4812 Highway 16 West, ☏ , toll-free: , firstname.lastname@example.org. Executive suites plus long stay apartments. $130+.
|Routes through Terrace|
|END ← Prince Rupert ←||W E||→ Kitwanga → Jasper|
|Daajing Giids-Skidegate ← Prince Rupert ←||W E||→ Kitwanga → Prince George|
|END ← Kitimat ←||S N||→ Kitwanga → Watson Lake|