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Ayaz Kala

Ayaz Kala (also spelled Ayaz Qala) and Toprak-Kala are archaeological sites in the autonomous republic of Karakalpakstan in Northern Uzbekistan.



Ayaz Kala is on the wastern side of the Sultan-Uiz-Dagh Mountains. The site consists of three fortresses which were built from the 4th century BCE to the 7th century CE. The fortresses were part of a series of forts at the edge of the Kizilkum Desert, which provided defence against raids by nomads and the Saca of the Syr-Darya delta

The World Monuments Fund has put Ayaz Kala on the watch-list of 100 most endangered sites.

Get in


Ayaz Kala is easily accessible by vehicle from Khiva and Urgench via Biruni and Buston. Ayaz Kala is about 70 km from Urgench on a bitumen road. The last 2 km are on a sand road to the Ayaz Kala Yurt Camp. There are numerous foot paths between the sites. It is about 32 km from Ayaz Kala to Toprak-Kala.

Get around




Ayaz Kala 1


A fortress dating back to end of the 4th or beginning of the 3rd century BCE. In this time Khorezm had become independent from Persia. Ayaz Kala 1 was part of a chain of fortresses protecting the agricultural settlements from attacks by nomads. The fortress is situated on the top of a hill, approx. 100 m high, providing wide views over the surrounding plains. The fortress is rectangular in plan with sides 182 and 152 m long. The main axis is oriented from South to North.

At the southern end of the axis is a square gateway, which is a typical element of frontier fortresses of Khorezm. The enemies' approach lies parallel to the south east walls and invaders were vulnerable to attack from above. A massive gateway defended by two rectangular towers leads into a small rectangular chamber. This chamber was overlooked on all sides by high walls from which bowmen could shoot at the enemy in case the first gate was breached.

The enclosure of the fortress consists of an inner and outer wall with a vaulted corridor between them, about 2 m wide. The walls continue above the vaults, forming a protected rampart walk. The walls are up to 10 m high and at their base 2.2 to 2.4 m thick. The walls are reinfoced in the 3rd century BCE by 45 watchtowers in half elliptical form, at a distance from each other of 11.5 m at the northern and of 14 m at the eastern and western sides.

The fortress seems to have been in use until the 1st century CE and might have served as a refuge for the locals up to the early medieval period.

Ayaz Kala 2


A feudal fortress dating from the 6th to 8th century CE. in the Afrighid period. It was built on the top of a conical hill, about 40 m high, situated south west of Ayaz Kala 1. The fortress consists of the entry on the south western side and the main building which is oval in shape.

In the 6th to 8th century CE Khorezm was ruled by the Afrighid dynasty of Khorezmshahs. At this time the "dihqans", a new class of feudal landowners came into existence. They were descendants of the ancient nobility, courtiers or soldiers who had been rewarded for military services. Their agricultural estates were called "rustaq". They lived in "donjons", small square forts surrounded by a defensive wall. An important example called Yakke Parsan is situated 10 km south of Ayaz Kala.

Ayaz Kala 2 was built of rectangular mud bricks on a foundation of "paksha" (cob). The upper parts of the outer walls were crenulated. The building was fortified with low battlements and a row of arrow slits. Ayaz Kala 2 had a 50 m long sloping man-made staircase on the southern side of the fort.

The main building is considered as a palace with residential quarters, ceremonial halls with ceilings supported by multiple columns and a fire temple, luxuriously decorated with wall paintings. This building seems to have been the residence of a feudal lord loyal the Khorezmshah. The building was built in the 4th century CE and destroyed by two separate fires. The palace was in use during the 6th and 7th cent AD as a domestic dwelling. Ayaz Kala 2 seems the have been the center of a small rural community and might have been in use until the Mongol invasion in the 13th century CE.

Parts of the film Gengiz Khan were shot on Ayaz Kala 2. The best view of the site is from the top of Ayaz Kala 1. The best pictures of Ayaz Kala 1 and 2 are taken at sunset.

Ayaz Kala 3


A fortified garrison dating from the 1st to 2nd century CE. The monumental building in the north east corner may have been founded in thr 5th or 4th cent. BC: The site covers an area of about 5 hectares.

The enclosure wall is one of the largest fortresses in Karalpakstan. Ayaz Kala 3 is 66 percent larger than Ayaz Kala 1. The biggest of these fortresses is Akcha Khan Kala, which is three times larger than Ayaz Kala 3. It has the shape of a parallelogram with sides 260 m and 180 m long. The structure of the external wall is similar to Ayaz Kala 1. The external walls are 7.5 m wide. The circular watch towers have a size of 8 m. The fortress was built with paksha in the lower parts and masonry in the upper parts. made of adobe blocks. The entrance to the fortress on the western side consists of an S-Shaped extension of the external wall. The interior of the fortress is empty.

The monumental buildings in the north east corner cover an area of 2,400 m². The building has 40 rooms divided into 4 groups by 2 central corridors. There are remains of a narrow corridor on three sides of the buildings. The southern and eastern walls have square watch towers, about 2m x 2m.

It is supposed that Ayaz Kala 3 was used in Kushan times as a garrison or as a ruler's residence and refuge for the local farming population and that a small force used Ayaz Kala 1 as a lookout post.


  • 1 Toprak-Kala (Tuproq qal'a). An archaeological site in the autonomous republic of Qaralpakstan in Eastern Uzbekistan. It is an excavated town dating back to the 1st to 5th century CE, and is considered as the most important monument on Chorezm from the Kushan time. Its ground plan is 500m x 300m and it was surrounded by a wall made of bricks, 10 to 15 m high. The King's Palace in the northwestern part of the town was built on an elevated base rising about 15 m above the rest of the town. Three monumental towers, 25 m high, still exist. In front of the palace was the temple area with the holy fire. The town was divided by streets into several districts with blocks of dwellings with 150 to 200 rooms. The Kings's Hall covered an area of 280 m². The wall paintings and monumental clay sculptures were the works of a school of arts which could develop a particular Chorezmian style under the influence of Graceo-Bactrian art. The rooms of the palace had colourful wall paintings. The fortress is considered as the palace of the shah of Chorezm. In the ruins of Toprak Kale a great number of Kushan and Chorezm coins dating from the 2nd to the 5th century and small copper discs with portraits of the rules of Chorezm and written documents on wooden plates or on skins, the most ancient documents in this area, were found.



The land around the fortresses is owned by Ayaz Kala Tours. They run the Ayaz Kala Yurt Camp, organise tours to the fortresses, camel rides as well as boat excursion and bird watching on Ayaz Kala Lake.








  • Ayaz Kala Yurt Camp. Access from Khiva and Urgench is via a pontoon bridge over the Amu Darya River. The yurts are on a hill about 30 meters high. The ancient fortresses of Ayaz Kala are nearby. The yurts can accommodate 20 to 25 persons. US$60 per person incl. three meals of dishes of Karalpak, Kazakh and Uzbek cuisine, camel ride US$6 per person.



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