- For the Indian-controlled part of Kashmir, see Jammu and Kashmir.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu:آزاد جموں و کشمیر) or, for short, Azad Kashmir (literally Free Kashmir), is the Pakistani-controlled portion of Kashmir, lying west of Indian-controlled Jammu and Kashmir.
Nice people and fertile, green and scenic mountain valleys are characteristics of Azad Kashmir, making it one of the most beautiful regions on the Subcontinent. While Kashmir as a whole is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful regions in the world, Azad Kashmir is as well rich in natural beauty and often dubbed "Heaven on Earth" by tourists for its scenic natural beauty and stunning landscapes. Its snow-covered peaks, forests, rivers, streams, valleys, velvet green plateaus and climate varying from arctic to tropical combine to make it an excellent and popular tourist destination both for domestic and foreign tourists throughout the year.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan is a remote autonomous state, with 3 administrative divisions:
- Mirpur Division
- Muzaffarabad Division
- Poonch Division
- 1 Muzaffarabad — the capital of the state and close to the epicentre of the 2005 earthquake
- Palandri or Pallandri (Urdu: پلندری) — a town in Sudhanoti district of Azad Kashmir. It is located at latitude 33° 42′ 54″ N, longitude 73° 41′ 9″ E, 90 km (56 mi) from Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. It is connected with Rawalpindi and Islamabad through Azad Pattan road. The main tribe of Pallandri is the Sudhan tribe. It is at an elevation of 1372 m and is 97 km (60 mi) from Rawalpindi via Azad Pattan. First capital of the state. The most famous educational institution of Pallandri is Cadet College.
- 2 Bagh —
- 3 Bhimber —
- Chak Haryam — hills on both sides of the river, lush green forests, enchanting streams, high altitude lakes and attractive surroundings
- 4 Dadyal —
- 5 Kotli —
- 6 Mirpur — the second largest city of Azad Kashmir and popular for its nearby Mangla view resort
- 7 Rawalakot — a place of great natural beauty
Azad Kashmir has a population of four million. It is a self-governing territory controlled by Pakistan. It borders the Indian-controlled state of Jammu and Kashmir to the east (separated from it by the "Line of Control", the military control line between the Indian and Pakistani-controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir).
As with the rest of Pakistan, Azad Kashmir is an ethnically diverse place that's home to numerous ethnic groups and cultures. Unlike Jammu and Kashmir, most residents of the region are not ethnic Kashmiris and the Kashmiri language isn't widely spoken.
The culture of Azad Kashmir has many similarities to that of northern Punjabi (Potohar) culture in Punjab province.
The Mirpuris, an ethnic group whose roots are in Mirpur, are noted for forming most of the Pakistani community in the United Kingdom. Many Mirpuris moved to the United Kingdom during the 1960s and the 1970s.
A devastating earthquake hit Azad Kashmir in 2005 centred near the city of Muzaffarabad. It was the eighteenth deadliest earthquake of all time and aid teams from around the world came to the affected region to assist in relief
The climate of Azad Kashmir varies with altitude. The central and northern parts, as a mountainous area in the lesser Himalayas zone, is very cold in winter with snowfall and moderate in summer, while the southern parts of Azad Kashmir have extremely hot weather in the summer and only moderately cold weather in the winter. Azad Kashmir receives rainfall in both winters and summers.
Given the difficult geographical position of Azad Kashmir, there's no railway station. There are two airports in Azad Kashmir, in the capital city Muzaffarabad and in Rawalakot, but they are closed and it's not possible to fly directly to Azad Kashmir. The nearest major airports are in Islamabad or Rawalpindi.
While by road is the only way to get in Azad Kashmir, travelling by road to Azad Kashmir is itself an attraction as you come across the most beautiful scenes of winding rivers and hills. Practically, Azad Kashmir can be easily approachable by road from all nearby cities of Punjab and buses leave from Islamabad approximately every 20 minutes for different destinations in Azad Kashmir, but the most commonly used routes are:
- From Rawalpindi to Muzaffarabad via the beautiful hills of Murree (140 km).
Albeit by road is the only practical means of getting around, still there are various ways of getting around in Azad Kashmir, if you are not already travelling with your own vehicle. Most tourists hire a taxi (various kinds available), which takes you around to all the sight seeing spots in Azad Kashmir. Muzaffarabad and Mirpur has the busiest bus network, running from early hours of the morning to late night.
The northern part of Azad Kashmir encompasses the lower part of the Himalayas where scenic views are in abundance which make it a very popular holiday-retreat during the summer months.
There're many tourist spots but some most well-known are the two historical forts Red Fort (Chak Fort) and Black Fort located on the bank side of the Neelam River in Muzaffarabad. They were contracted in 16th century and holds archaeological significance. Pir Chinasi is tourist spot 30 km east of Muzaffarabad on the top of hills at the altitude of 9,500 feet (2,900 m). The mountain peak has gained large fame for its ziyarat of a famous Saint Pir and this place is visited by tourists who can get a great view of Muzaffarabad and rural areas around the hidden city.
Neelam Valley is a long river, possesses scenic beauty, great panoramic views, towering hills on both sides of the noisy river, lush green forests, enchanting streams and attractive surroundings. Another great river is the Leepa Valley which is full scenic beauty as well. It has high mountains covered with pine trees covered with snow during the winter season.
Some other great tourist attractions are extremely beautiful artificial Banjosa Lake surrounded by densely pine forest and mountains, which make its very charming and romantic. A nearby hilltop Toli Pir is very natural beautiful area.
Azad Kashmir is known for its great valleys and high, lush green mountain ranges; outdoor recreation opportunities are plentiful. It has varied mountainous landscape ranging from low hills to high mountains (2000 to 6000 m) which are suitable for many adventure sports such as climbing, trekking, mountaineering, summer camping and hiking or even paragliding.
Azad Kashmir is a great place for water sports activities, from rafting, canoeing and kayaking to wind surfacing, boating, rowing and hovercraft.
The popular and traditional cuisines of Azad Kashmir are Kashmiri Raan (Fried leg of lamb in Kashmiri style), Rogan Josh, Balti Gosht, Kashmiri Dal Chawal (A mixture of split peas, split red lentils, and boiled rice), and Dam Aloo (Fried Potatoes in Kashmiri style).
Kashmiri tea (Kashmiri chai) is a traditional tea beverage of Azad Kashmir. It is slow-steeped milk tea of a creamy pink complexion made from special tea leaves, milk, salt, pistachios, almonds, and cardamom and sometimes cinnamon is also added for flavour.
There are lots of options from dormitories to luxury resort hotels and you can find all type of lodging facilities mostly own by AJK Tourism and Archeology Department available in Azad Kashmir whether you're looking to camp, a budget room for a backpacker or want to pay and stay in luxury. There are various guest houses, rest houses, motels and hotels at most of the tourist spots and in major cities. Rooms in Azad Kashmir range from Rs 1,000 to Rs 50,000 in the most luxurious hotel Pearls Continental.
Azad Kashmir is quite a safe and peaceful region. Crime-wise also Azad Kashmir is considered to be relatively safe.
Sometimes, temperatures go below freezing, especially in the winter; dress accordingly.
Some parts of Azad Kashmir are off-limits to tourists, particularly the 15-mile-wide buffer zone or 16 km along the Line of Control that separates the state from the neighbouring Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir. Domestic tourists can visit Azad Kashmir without any restriction, but are advised to keep their identity papers with them. Foreign tourists are allowed to visit the following places only with a permit: Dheerkot, Rawalakot, Chotta Gala, Chikkar, Daokhan, Muzaffarabad, Mangia and Sehnsa. Permits are issued by the AJK Home Department at Muzaffarabad.
Don't take photographs of military installations around the Line of Control or you'll be in very serious trouble.
As with many people living in Kashmir, people are divided into several opposing camps – some who desire full independence, some who desire integration with Pakistan, and some who desire integration with India. It's best to refrain from discussing this subject as it could lead to fierce, passionate debates or arguments.
Given the complexity of the Kashmir conflict, it's also wise to refrain from bringing anything up about Gilgit-Baltistan becoming a province.