Download GPX file for this article

From Wikivoyage
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Bulgarian (български) is a South Slavic language, thus closer to Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian than to Russian or Polish but still retaining similarities to all. Native speakers numbering over 9.5 million people, it is the national language of Republic of Bulgaria and spoken by Bulgarian minorities in Yugoslavia and the Western Balkans, and Moldova, and language still in use by many immigrants of Bulgarian origin in Argentina, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.

Linguists do not agree as to whether Macedonian is a dialect of Bulgarian. Generally Yugoslavs disagree, while Bulgarians say that it is. The spoken languages are mutually intelligible for the most part, but their Cyrillic alphabets have diverged somewhat, with Macedonian's writing system resembling Serbo-Croatian's.

Most Bulgarian verbs carry inflection suffixes while some modal verbs use different words (typical example, the verb "съм" / "to be"). There are fewer verb tenses than in English with present, past, past continuous and future being the most commonly used, but the Slavic imperfective and perfective 'aspects' are present.

Nouns have three genders, and pronouns have genders. Adjectives must agree with the noun they modify and the first adjective takes the definite article if present. Those familiar with other Balto-Slavic languages will be surprised to discover that the noun cases are missing (except for a few vocatives) and replaced by prepositions and definite articles as post-positions like Romanian and Turkish. Unlike other Slavic languages, the infinitive has fallen out of use (which always ended in -ти). You may say "искам говорити" (I want to speak) over "искам да говоря" and be understood, but the locals may think you sound archaic or speak another Slavic language.

There are separate pronouns for "you": singular '"ти'" ("tchee") and the plural "'вие'" (vee-eh). The formal 'you' is the plural form with first letter capitalized ("Вие"). Like all other Slavic languages (as well as the Romance ones), the pronoun is usually omitted due to context. Many times the 'л' will sound like a 'w' sound.

Pronunciation guide[edit]

Bulgarian uses the Cyrillic alphabet, and the language is famous for introducing this writing system which Russian, the other East Slavic languages and Serbo-Croatian (and other non-Slavic languages as well) would adopt later, the latter with considerable differences. The language is usually phonetic though there are few sounds denoted by digraphs and few combinations denoted by a single letter.

Stress is generally unpredictable. Fortunately, most Bulgarian dictionaries and language-books put the accent on the stressed syllable.

Grammar[edit]

Bulgarian Grammar is very challenging and very demanding for an English speaker. Fortunately, speakers of Russian and other Slavic languages will understand the grammar in no time as Bulgarian grammar is almost similar to Russian grammar. For trivia buffs, 90% of Bulgarian vocabulary is similar to Russian and Ukrainian, giving native speakers of those languages a great advantage into learning Bulgarian or even speaking it.

Gender[edit]

Bulgarian has three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. Identifying gender is easier than in Russian or Ukrainian. Masculine nouns end in a consonant, Feminine nouns end in a or я, and neuter nouns end in o or e. There are no soft signs in Bulgarian, so gender is pretty simple.

Stress[edit]

Stress in Bulgarian is irregular, just like Russian. The stress can fall anywhere within a word, and all vowels suffer 'vowel reduction'. The best way to learn new words, is to learn them word for word, memorizing the position of the stress. Fortunately, in every dictionary or learning material, the stress is always indicated.

Case[edit]

A case system is virtually non-existent in modern Bulgarian. Instead, there are three noun inflections following three forms: positive, comparative, and superlative, each following the four categories: indefinite, subject definite, object definite and the extended (vocative).

Verb system[edit]

The verb system is perhaps the most complicated feature in Modern Bulgarian, after the irregular stress, especially compared to other Slavic languages. The verb system contains two lexical aspects (imperfect and perfect), verb inflections for person, number and occasionally gender, nine verb tenses, three moods, four evidential cases, six non-finite verbal forms and an aorist. All these attract the typical language lover, and if you are considering to become fluent in Bulgarian, you have been officially warned about how difficult this beautiful language can be.

Vowels[edit]

Unstressed "а" and "ъ", "о" and "у", "е" and "и" tend to be shorter and weaker compared to their stressed counterparts, approaching each other, though without merging completely, presenting a challenge for Bulgarian learners. You shall hear the 'ти' as a 'tchee' sound. Because the 't' becomes palatal and not said behind the teeth like in "ten"

a ah [a]
like in father or car (when stressed); when at the end of the word sounds like stub. Sounds like "uh" as in the Bulgarian letter 'ъ' when unstressed.
e eh [e]
like in pen or attend (when stressed); Sounds like a weak 'ee' when unstressed.
и ee [i]
like in machine or to be (when stressed); Sounds like a weak 'eh' as in the Bulgarian letter 'e' when unstressed.
o oh [כ]
like in more or score (when stressed); Sounds like a weak 'oo' when unstressed.
у oo [u]
like in rule or moon (when stressed); Sounds like a weak 'oh' when unstressed.
ъ uh [ə]
like in about (unstressed) or stub (when stressed). Sounds like a strong 'ah' when unstressed. This letter never appears at the start of a word, other than for the word "ъгъл", the Bulgarian word for "corner".

Semivowels[edit]

й y (i-kratko/short i)
like in yes or play

Before a vowel (after another vowel or at the beginning of a word) denotes a diphthong like in "crayon" or "yes". After a vowel at the end of the word similar to English 'y' as in "play" or "fly". Can be used only next to vowels and not before or after a consonant.

Consonants[edit]

Voiced consonants at the end of a word are pronounced as voiceless.

б bə
like in boy or rubbish, on the end of a word pronounced "p"
в və
like in ever or vineyard, on the end of a word pronounced "f"
г gə
like in gull or legacy, on the end of a word pronounced "k"
д də
like in deal or madness, on the end of a word pronounced "t"
ж zhə
like in pleasure or conclusion, on the end of a word pronounced "sh"
з zə
like in zoo or freezing, on the end of a word pronounced "s"
к kə
like in kite or rock
л lə
like in leak or look. Becoming (younger generations in some areas) closer to weak "w" as in saw (cf. Polish ł).
м mə
like in mine or ham
н nə
like in note or monkey
п pə
like in pork or comply
р rə
slightly to moderately rolled "r" as in Spanish, etc. Like in Spanish pero or otro
с sə
like in spit or cast
т tə
like in time or lightning [ at times becoming palatal with 'ти' and 'тя' ]
ф fə
like in feed or left
х hə
like in hotel or coherent [ usually aspirated similar to 'ck' in "lick"]
ц tsə
like in tsunami
ч chə
like in cheap or kitchen
ш shə
like in sheep or mishmash
щ shtə
"Sht", as in German "Still" or "Stettin" NOT shch like in Russian.
ь [']
not a sound itself, denotes softening (palatization) of preceding consonant; unlike Russian and other Slavic languages, this is very rarely used and the softening is less dramatic in Bulgarian than in other Slavic languages;
дж dzhə
like in join or edge. Mainly used for foreign loan words.

Common diphthongs[edit]

NOTE
In the middle or end of words, they are я-ia, йе-ie, йо/ьo-io and ю-iu
я yah
like in yacht or German Ja (when stressed); Sounds like 'yuh' when unstressed.
йе yeh
like in yes or yellow
йо/ьo yoh
like in yogurt or coyote. The latter is usually stressed
ю yoo
like in you or cute

Note that 'ю' and 'я' denote diphthongs [yoo] and [yah] after a vowel and at the beginning of a word, and tend to be pronounced 'ia' or 'io' in the middle or end of the word. The soft sign will not be included here as it is very rarely used since 1945.

Phrase list[edit]

Basics[edit]

Common signs


OPEN
ОТВОРЕНО (oht-VOH-reh-noh) [כt´vכrenכ]
CLOSED
ЗАТВОРЕНО (zaht-VOH-reh-noh) [zat´vכrenכ]
ENTRANCE
ВХОД (vkhohd) [´vhכd]
EXIT
ИЗХОД (EEZ-khohd) [´izhכd]
PUSH
БУТНИ (boot-NEE) [but´ni]
PULL
ДРЪПНИ (drup-NEE) [drəp´ni]
TOILET
ТОАЛЕТНА (toh-ah-LEHT-nuh) [tכa´letna]
MEN
МЪЖЕ (muh-ZHEH) [mə´ζe]
WOMEN
ЖЕНИ (zheh-NEE) [ζe´ni]
FORBIDDEN
ЗАБРАНЕНО (zah-brah-NEH-noh) [zabra´nenכ]
Hello.
Здравейте. (zdrah-VEY-teh) [zdra´veite]
Hello. (informal, to close friend)
Здравей. (zdrah-VEY) [zdra´vei]
Hi. (informal, to close friend)
Здрасти. (ZDRAHS-tee) [´zdrasti]
How are you?
Как сте? (KAHK steh?)
How are you? (informal)
Как си? (KAHK see?)
Fine, thank you.
Добре, благодаря. (doh-BREH, blah-goh-dah-RYUH)
How do they call you? (informal)
Как се казваш? (kahk seh KAHZ-vash?)
My name is ______ .
Казвам се ______ . (kahz-VUHM seh _____ .)
Nice to meet you.
Приятно ми е да се запознаем. (pryaht-NOH mee eh dah seh zah-POHZ-naem)
Please.
Моля. (moh-LYAH)
Thank you.
Благодаря. (blah-goh-DAH-ryah)
You're welcome.
Моля. (moh-LYAH)
Yes.
Да. (dah)
No.
Не. (neh)
Excuse me. (getting attention)
Извинете. (eez-vee-NEH-teh)
Excuse me. (begging pardon or formal)
Моля да ме извините. (MOH-lyah dah meh eez-vee-NEE-teh)
I'm sorry.
Съжалявам. (suh-zhah-LYAH-vahm)
Goodbye
Довиждане. (doh-VEEZH-dah-neh)
Goodbye (informal)
Чао / Ciao (Italian). (chao)
I can't speak Bulgarian [well].
Аз не говоря български [добре]. (az ne govorya balgarski [dobre])
Do you speak English? (polite)
Говорите ли английски? (govorite li angliiski?)
Do you speak English? (informal)
Говориш ли английски? (govorish li angliiski?)
Is there someone here who speaks English?
Има ли някой, който говори английски? (ima li niakoi, koyto govori angliiski?)
Help!
Помощ! (pomosht!)
Look out!
Внимавай! (vnimavai!)
Watch out!
Пази се! (pazi se!)
Good morning.
Добро утро. (dobro utro or dobroutro)
Good evening.
Добър вечер. (dobar vecher)
Good night (to sleep)
Лека нощ. (leka nosh)
I don't understand.
Не разбирам. (ne razbiram)
Where is the toilet?
Къде е тоалетната? (kade e toaletnatuh?)

Problems[edit]

Go away!
Махай се! (makhay se!). Remember the 'kh' in Bulgarian is not rough, more like English 'ck' in 'brick'.
Don't touch me!
Не ме пипай! (ne me pipay)
I'll call the police.
Ще извикам полиция. (shte izvikam politsia)
Police!
Полиция! (politsia!)
Stop! Thief!
Спри! Крадец! (spri kradets!)
I need your help.
Имам нужда от помощ. (imam nuzhda ot pomosh)
It's an emergency!
Спешен случай! (speshen sluchay!)
I'm lost.
Загубих се. (zagubikh se)
I lost my bag.
Изгубих си чантата. (izgubikh si chantata)
I lost my wallet.
Изгубих си портфейла. (izgubikh si portfeyla)
I'm sick.
Аз съм болен/болна. (az some bolen/ bolna) [male/female speaker]
I've been injured. [bleeding or other externally visible]
Ранен/а съм. (ranen/ a some) [male/female]
I've been injured. [broken bone or less visible, internal]
Контузен/а съм (kotuzen/ a some) [male/female]
I need a doctor.
Имам нужда от лекар. (imam nuzhda ot lekar)
Can I use your phone, please?
Извинете, мога ли да ползвам телефона ви? (izvinete, moga li da polzvam telefona vi?/). alternate: Мога ли да ползвам вашия телефон? (Moga li da polzvam vashiya telefon?).

Numbers[edit]

There are longer 'formal' versions of the numbers after 10, but they are not normally used in spoken Bulgarian, even on television or by highly educated people such as university professors and literary people. Interestingly, 'thousand' is imported from Greek 'hilyades', not the Slavic 'tisushta' (Russian tysyacha).

The 'people' versions of numbers are used for instance in a restaurant. How many people? Three. Колко души ще бъде? Трима. (KOHL-koh DOO-shee shteh BUH-de? TREE-mah)

0
нула (NOO-lah)
1
един (eh-DEEN) [m.] една/едно [fem./neut.] (ehd-NAH/ehd-NOH)
2
два (dvah) [m.] две (dveh) [fem. & neut.]. Referring to people: двама (DVAH-mah)
3
три (“tree”) (but remember to roll the "r"!) [m./f./n. all same]. Referring to people: трима (TREE-mah)
4
четири (CHEH-tee-ree) Referring to people: четирима (cheh-TEE-ree-mah)
5
пет (peht)
6
шест (shehs)
7
седем (SEH-dehm)
8
осем (OH-sehm)
9
девет (DEH-veht)
10
десет (DEH-seht)
11
единайсет (formal 'единадесет') (eh-dee-NIGH-seht)
12
дванайсет (formal 'дванадесет') (dvah-NIGH-seht or dvah-NIGH-seh)
13
тринайсет (etc.) (tree-NIGH-seh(t)) etc.
14
четиринайсет (che-tee-ree-NIGH-seh)
15
петнайсет (peht-NIGH-seh)
16
шестнайсет (shehs-NIGH-seht)
17
седемнадесет (seh-dehm-NAH-deh-seht)
18
осемнадесет (oh-sehm-NAH-deh-seht)
19
деветнадесет (deh-veht-NAH-deh-seht)
20
двайсет (DVIGH-seht)
21
двайсет и едно (DVIGH-s(eh) ee ehd-NOH)
22
двайсет и два (DVIGHS ee DVAH)
23
двайсет и три (DVIGHS ee TREE)
30
трийсет (TREE-seh(t))
40
четирийсет (cheh-TEE-ree-seh)
50
петдесет (peh-deh-SEH(Y))
60
шестдесет (shehss-SEH(Y))
70
седемдесет (seh-dehm-deh-SEH(Y))
80
осемдесет (oh-sehm-deh-SEH(Y))
90
деветдесет (deh-veh-deh-SEH(Y))
100
сто (stoh)
157
сто петдесет и седем (STOH PEH-deh-seh i SEH-dehm)
200
двеста (DVEH-stah)
231
двеста трийсет и едно (DVEH-stah TREEY-seh i ehd-NOH)
300
триста (TREE-stah)
400
четиристотин (CHEH-tee-ree STOH-teen)
500
петстотин (PEHT-stoh-tin)
600
шестстотин (SHEST-stoh-tin)
700
седемстотин (SEH-dehm-stoh-tin)
800
осемстотин (OH-sehm-stoh-tin)
900
деветстотин (DEH-veht-stoh-tin)
1000
хиляда (heel-YAH-dah)
2000
две хиляди (DVEH HEEL-yah-dee)
1,000,000
един милион (eh-DEEN mee-lee-OHN)
1,000,000,000
един милиард (eh-DEEN mee-lee-AHRD) [one billion (USA)]
1,000,000,000,000
един билион (eh-DEEN bee-lee-OHN) [one trillion (USA)]
number _____ (of train, bus, etc.)
номер _____ (за влакът, аутобусат, и т.н.) (NOH-mehr) (almost sounds like “nowhere”)
the number _____
номерът _____ (NOH-mehr-uht)
half
половин (poh-loh-VEEN)
less
помалко (POH-mahl-koh) secondary stress on 'mal'
more
повече (POH-veh-cheh) other syllables unstressed

Time[edit]

now
сега (seh-GUH)
later
по-късно (POH-kuhs-noh)
before
преди (preh-DEE)
morning
утро (OO-troh)
afternoon
следобед (sleh-DOH-beht)
evening
вечер (VEH-chehr)
night
нощ (nohsht)

Clock time[edit]

What time is it?
Колко е часът? (KOHL-koh eh chah-SUH?)
It's....in the morning/afternoon.
.... часът сутрин/след обед. (...chah-SUH SOO-treen/sled-OH-beht)

Days[edit]

Monday
понеделник (poh-neh-DEHL-neek)
Tuesday
вторник (VTOHR-neek)
Wednesday
сряда (SRYAH-dah)
Thursday
четвъртък (cheht-VUHR-tuhk)
Friday
петък (PEH-tuhk)
Saturday
събота (SUH-boh-tah)
Sunday
неделя (neh-DEH-lyah)
Today
днес (dnehs)
Tomorrow
утре (OO-treh)
Yesterday
вчера (FCHEH-rah)

Months[edit]

January
януари (yah-noo-AH-ree)
February
февруари (feh-vroo-AH-ree)
March
март (mahrt)
April
април (ah-PREEL)
May
май (mai)
June
юни (YOO-nee)
July
юли (YOO-lee)
August
август (AHV-goost)
September
септември (sehp-TEHM-vree)
October
октомври (ohk-TOHM-vree)
November
ноември (noh-EHM-vree)
December
декември (deh-KEHM-vree)
Month/s
месец/и (meh-sehts/ee)

Writing time and date[edit]

Bulgarian uses 'military' time, as is standard in European countries, often with a period instead of colon and with 'ч.' [for 'chahSUH', 'hour'] following (i.e. 1PM is 13.00 ч., 9:47AM is 09.47 ч.) In writing or when speaking of official times, such as concerts, plays or transportation, the 24-hour clock is always used, in speech the 12-hour clock is sometimes used when there is little possibility for misunderstanding.

Clock time is a bit beyond the scope of a phrasebook in complexity for most languages, but in Bulgarian, the minutes can be referred to in half-hours or specific minutes. In addition, constructions such as "a quarter to six" are used (literally "6 minus 15").

The 'T' in 'chah-SUHT' (o'clock часът) may only be pronounced if it is the beginning of the sentence, and usually not then unless the speaker is trying to be especially official. The 'V' meaning 'in [time]' or 'at [o'clock]' is usually pronounced 'F' before vowels and if there is difficulty or confusion is pronounced with an extra syllable like 'vuhf' or 'vuv' (depending on the following letter). This is displayed in the examples below.

time
време (VREH-meh) [n.b. also means 'weather']
morning
сутрин (SOO-treen)
a.m./in the morning
сутринта (soo-treen-TAH)
mid-day/noon
обед (OH-beht) more vague than in English; approximately 12:00 to 2PM
afternoon
следобед (sleh-DOH-beht) after 2PM
evening
вечер (VEH-chehr) starting around 5PM
p.m./in the evening
вечерта (veh-chehr-TAH)
night
нощ (nohsht) after 10PM but going until around 2AM (literally 2 in the morning is expressed '2 in the night')
at night
през нощта (prehz nohsht-TAH)
What time is it?
Колко е часът? (KOHL-koh eh chah-SUH?)
The time is ...
Часът е ... (chah-SUH eh ...)
[It's] ... in the morning/afternoon.
... часът сутринта/следобед. (... cha-SUH soo-treen-TAH/slehd-O-beht)
At 8AM [in the morning]
В 08.00 ч. [сутринта] (FOH-sehm chah-SUH [soo-treen-TAH])
At 5
45PM [in the afternoon] : В 17.45 ч./В 05:45 следобед (vuhf seh-dem-NIGH-seh ee cheh-tee-rees ee peht chah-SUH or vuhf PEHT/FPEHT ee cheh-TEE-rees ee peht sled-OH-beht)
At a quarter to 8PM
В осем без петнайсет вечерта(FOH-sehm behz peht-NIGH-seht veh-chehr-TAH)
At a 7
45PM : В седем и четирисет и пет без четвърт вечерта (vuf SEH-dehm ee cheh-tee-rees ee peht veh-chehr-TAH)
At a quarter past 09
00 [a.m.] : В 09.15 ч./В девет и четвърт (vuhv DEH-veht ee cheht-VUHRT)
At 13
30 [1:30PM] : В 13.30/В тринайсет и половина (ftree-NIGH-seht ee poh-loh-VEE-nah)
The train departs at 11
17 [a.m.] : Влакът заминава в 11.17 [единайсет и седемнайсет (минути)] (VLAH-kuht zah-mee-NAH-vah feh-dee-NIGH-seht ee seh-dehm-NIGH-set [mee-NOO-tee])
second/s
секунда/и (seh-KOOND-ah/ee)
minute/s
минута/минути (mee-NOO-tah/mee-NOO-tee)
hour/s
час/часа (chahss/CHAH-suh)
o'clock
часът (chah-SUH[T])
day/s
ден/дена (dehn/deh-nuh)
week/s
седмица/седмици (SEHD-mee-tsah/SEHD-mee-tsee)
month/s
месец/а (MEH-sets/ah)
year/s
година/години (goh-DEE-nah/goh-DEE-nee)

Dates[edit]

Dates are spoken using ordinal numbers, i.e. January first, 2008 is literally 'First January, 2008'. The order is European: Day, Month, Year. The month is sometimes expressed in Roman numerals. Names of days and months are not capitalized (unless at the beginning of a sentence).

date
дата (DAH-tah)
day [of the week]
ден (dehn)
Monday, January 1, 2008
Понеделник, 1. януари, 2008/1.I.2008 (poh-neh-DEHL-neek PUHR-vee yah-noo-AH-ree dvah HEEL-yah-dee ee OH-sma)
What date is it today?
Коя дата е днес? (koh-YAH DAH-tah eh dnehs?)
What day is today?
Кой ден е днес? (koy DEHN eh dnehs?)

Seasons[edit]

season/seasons
сезон/и (seh-ZOHN/ee)
the seasons of the year
годишни времена (goh-DEESH-nee vreh-meh-NAH)
summer
лято (LYAH-toh)
in the summertime
през лятото (prehs LYAH-toh-toh)
autumn
есен (EH-sehn)
in autumn
през есента (prehs eh-sehn-TAH)
winter
зима (ZEE-mah)
in winter
през зимата (prehs ZEE-mah-tah)
spring
пролет (PROH-leht)
in springtime
през пролетта (prehs proh-leht-TAH)

Colors[edit]

The colors in Bulgarian come in feminine, masculine and neuter forms.

black
черен/о/а (CHEH-rehn/oh/uh)
white
бял/о/а (byahl/oh/uh)
gray
сив/сиво (seef/see-VOH)
red
червен/о/а (chehr-VEHN/oh/uh)
blue
син/о/а (sin/oh/uh)
yellow
жълт/о/а (ZHUHLT/oh/uh)
green
зелен/о/а (zeh-LEHN/oh/uh)
orange
оранжев/о/а (oh-RAHN-zhehf/voh/vuh)
purple
лилав/о/а (lih-LAHF/voh/vuh)
pink
розов (ROH-zohf)
brown
кафяв (kah-FYAHF)

Transportation[edit]

airplane/ airline
самолет (sah-moh-LEHT)
taxi
такси (tahk-SEE)
train
влак (vlahk)
truck
камион (kah-mee-OHN)
tram
трамвай (trahm-vah-EE)
trolley
тролейбус (troh-lee-BOOS)
bus
автобус (ahf-toh-BOOS)
minibus
малък автобус (MAH-luhk ahf-toh-BOOS)
car
кола (koh-LAH)
van
фургон (FOOR-gohn)
ferry
ферибот (feh-ree-BOHT)
ship
кораб (KOH-rahb)
boat
лодка (LOHD-kah)
helicopter
хеликоптер (kheh-lee-kohp-TEHR)
bicycle
велосипед (veh-loh-see-PEHD)
motorcycle
мотоциклет (moh-toh-tsee-KLEHT)

Bus and train[edit]

Where's the bus/trolley stop?
Къде е спирката на автобуса/трамвая? (kuh-DEH eh SPEER-kah-tah nah ahf-toh-BOOS-uh/trahm-VIGH-uh?)
Which bus/trolley goes to ...?
Кой автобус/трамвай отива до ...? (KOY ahf-toh-BOOS/trahm-VIGH oh-TEE-vah doh ...?)
Does this bus/trolley go to ...?
Този автобус/трамвай отива ли до ...? (TO-zi ahf-toh-BOOS/trahm-VIGH oh-TEE-vah lee doh ...?)
Which line takes me to ...?
С коя линия ще стигна до ...? (skoh-YAH LEE-nee-yah shteh STEEG-nuh doh ...?)
What's the next station?
Коя е следващата станция (koh-YAH eh SLEHD-vah-shtah-tah STAHN-tsee-yah?)
Is this the right platform for ...?
Това ли е перонът за ...? (toh-VAH lee eh peh-ROH-nuh zah ...?)

Directions[edit]

How do I/we get to _____ by bus/subway/train?
Как да стигна/стигнем до _____ с автобус/метро/влак? (kahk dah STEEG-nuh/STEEG-nehm doh _____ sahf-toh-BOOS/meh-TROH/vlahk?)
...the main train station?
...централна гара? (tsehn-TRAHL-nah GAH-rah?)
...the bus station?
...автогара? (...AHF-toh-gah-rah?)
...the airport?
...летището? (leh-TEE-shteh-toh?)
...the center?
...центъра? (TSEHN-tuh-ruh?)
...the _____ hostel?
хостел ______? (hoh-stel ______?)
...the _____ hotel?
...хотел _____? (hoh-TEHL _____?)
...the university?
...университета? (oo-nee-vehr-see-TEH-tuh)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British embassy?
...Американското/Канадското/Австралийското/Британското посолство? (ah-meh-ree-KAHN-skoh-toh/kah-NAHD-skoh-to/ahf-strah-LEEY-skoh-toh/bree-TAHN-skoh-toh poh-SOHLST-voh)
Where are there a lot of...
Къде има много... (kuh-DEH EE-mah MNOH-goh...)
...hotels?
...хотели? (...hoh-TEH-lee?)
...restaurants?
...ресторанти? (...reh-stoh-RAHN-tee)
...bars?
...барове/кръчми? (...BAH-roh-veh/KRUHCH-mee) A bar is typical international-style while a 'kruchma' is more like a pub.
...the sights to see?
...забележителности? (...zah-beh-leh-ZHEE-tehl-nohs-tee?)
Can you show me on the map?
Можете ли да ми покажете на картата? (MOH-zheh-teh lee dah mee poh-KAH-zhe-teh nah KAHR-tah-tah?)
street
улица (OO-leet-sah)
boulevard
булевард (boo-leh-VAHRD)
highway (major road)
шосе (shoh-SEH)
square
площад (plohsh-TAHD)
park
парк (pahrk)
Turn left.
Завийте наляво. (zah-VEEY-teh nah-LYAH-voh)
Turn right.
Завийте надясно. (zah-VEEY-teh nah-DYAHS-noh)
on the left
вляво (VLYAH-voh)
on the right
вдясно (VDYAHS-noh)
straight ahead
направо (nah-PRA-voh)
towards _____
към _____ (kuhm)
past _____
след _____ (slehd)
before _____
пред _____ (prehd)
across (from)/opposite
срещу (sreh-SHTOO)
Look for _____.
Търсете _____. (tuhr-SEH-teh)
the traffic-light
светофара (sveh-toh-FAH-ruh)
detour
отклонение (oht-kloh-NEH-nee-eh)
intersection
кръстовище/пресечка (kruh-STOH-veesh-teh/preh-SEHCH-kah)
to the north
на север (nah SEH-vehr)
to the south
на юг (nah YOOK)
to the east
на изток (nah EES-tohk)
to the west
на запад (nah ZAH-paht)
uphill
на горе (nah GOH-reh)
downhill
на долу (nah DOH-loo)

Taxi[edit]

In Bulgaria, the customer is not always right. At a taxi stand, you must first ask the driver if he/she will take you where you want to go. If the window is closed, open the front passenger door to ask. You also do not need to take the first taxi in the stand. If there is a company you prefer, walk to that taxi or check the prices on the windows. If there is no one in any of the taxis but you see people standing (talking, waiting, smoking) nearby, you can ask them to be taken the same way (second phrase) and one will accept.

Taxi!
Такси! (tahk-SEE)
Can you take me/us to _____?
Ще може ли до _____? (shte MOH-zhe lee doh _____?)
How much does it cost to get to _____?
Колко струва до _____? (KOHL-koh STROO-vah doh _____?)
Is there a driver here?
Има ли някой да кара такси? (EE-mah lee NYAH-koy dah KAH-rah tahk-SEE?)

Lodging[edit]

Where's a_____?
Къде има_____? (KUH-deh EE-mah)
cheap hotel
евтин хотел (EHF-teen KHOH-tehl)
good hotel
хубав хотел (KHOO-bahf KHOH-tehl)
nearby hotel
хотел наблизо (KHOH-tehl nah-BLEE-zoh)
clean hotel
чист хотел (cheest KHOH-tehl)
Do you have any rooms available?
Имате ли свободни стаи? (EE-mah-teh lee svoh-BOHD-nee STAI)
How much is a room for one person/two people?
Колко струва една стая за един човек/двама души? (KOHL-koh STROO-vah EHD-nah STAH-ya zah EH-deen CHOH-vehk/DVAH-mah DOO-shih?)
Does the room come with...
Има ли в стаята ... (ee-MAH lee vuh STAH-ia-tuh ...)
...bedsheets?
...чаршафи? (tchar-SHAH-fi?)
...a bathroom?
...баня? (bah-NYAH)
...a telephone?
...телефон? (teh-leh-FOHN)
...a TV?
...телевизия? (teh-leh-vee-ZYIAH)
May I see the room first?
Мога ли да видя стаята първо? (MOH-guh lee duh vee-DYAH sta-IA-tah pur-VOH?)
Do you have anything quieter?
Имате ли нещо по-тихо? (EE-mah-teh lee NEHSH-toh poh-TEE-khoh?)
...bigger?
...по-голямо? (POH-goh-lyahm?)
...cleaner?
...чисто? (cheest?)
...cheaper?
...по-евтино? (POH-ehv-tee-noh?)
OK, I'll take it.
Добре, аз ще я наема. (doh-BREH, ahz shteh ia nah-EH-mah)
I will stay for _____ night(s).
Аз ще остана за _____ нощ/нощувки (ahz shteh ohs-tah-NAH zah...nohsht/noh-SHOOF-kee)
Can you suggest another hotel?
Можете ли да предложите друг хотел? (moh-ZHEH-teh lee duh prehd-LOH-zhite droog khoh-TEHL?)
Do you have a safe?
Имате ли сейф? (EE-mah-teh lee safe)
...lockers?
...шкафчета? (shkahf-CHEH-tah?)
Is breakfast/supper included?
Има закуска/вечеря включена? (ee-MAH zah-KOOS-kuh/veh-CHEH-ryah vklyoo-CHEH-nah?)
What time is breakfast/supper?
По кое време е закуската/вечерята? (poh koh-EH vreh-MEH eh zah-KOOS-kuh-tah/veh-CHEH-ryah-tah?)
Please clean my room.
Моля, почистете стаята ми. (moh-LYAH, poh-chees-TE-teh stah-IA-tuh mee)
Can you wake me at _____?
Можете ли да ме събудите в _____? (moh-ZHEH-teh lee dah meh suh-BOO-dee-teh vuh...?)
I want to check out.
Искам да проверя. (ees-KAHM dah proh-VEH-ryah)

Money[edit]

money
пари (paRI)
coins
монети (moNEti)
credit card
кредитна карта (KREditna KARti)
bankdraft
баиков превод запис (BANkov PREvoDZApis)
banknotes
банкноти (bankNOti)
exchange
валутна обмяна (vaLUtna OBMIAna)
loose change
пари на дребно (paRI na DREbno)
signature
подпис (PODpis)
I want to exchange some
Искам да обменя (ISkam da obmeNIA)
...money.
...пари. (...paRI)
...travellers cheques.
...пътнически чекове. (...PUHtnicheski CHEkove)
What's the exchange rate?
какъв e обменният курс? (kaKUHF e oBMEHnia kurs?)

Eating[edit]

A table for one person/two people, please.
Маса за един човек/двама души, моля. (MA-sa' zuh eh-DEEN choh-VEHK/dvah-MUH doo-SHEE, moh-LYUH)
Can I look at the menu, please?
Мога ли да видя в менюто, моля? (moh-GUH lee duh vee-DYAH vuh meh-NYOO-toh, moh-LYAH)
Can I look in the kitchen?
Мога ли да погледна в кухнята? (moh-GUH lee duh poh-GLEHD-nuh vuh koo-KHNYAH-tuh?)
Is there a house specialty?
Има ли къща специалност? (ee-MAH lee kuh-SHTAH speht-SYAHL-nohst?)
Is there a local specialty?
Има ли местен специалитет? (ee-MAH lee MEHS-tehn speh-TSYAH-lee-teht?)
I'm a vegetarian.
Аз съм вегетарианец. (ahz suhm veh-geh-tah-RYAH-nehts)
I don't eat pork.
Аз не ям свинско. (ahz neh yahm sveens-KOH)
I don't eat beef.
Аз не ям говеждо месо. (ahz neh yahm goh-VEZH-doh MEH-soh)
I only eat kosher food.
Аз ям само кошер храна. (ahz yahm sah-MOH KOH-shehr khrah-NAH)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard)
Можете ли да го "Lite", моля? (MOH-zheh-teh lee dah goh "Lite", MOH-lyuh?)
fixed-price meal
фиксирана цена хранене (feek-see-RAH-nah TSEH-nuh khrah-NEH-neh)
a la carte
а ла карт (ah lah kahrt)
breakfast
закуска (zah-KOOS-kah)
lunch
обяд (OH-byahd)
tea (meal)
чай (chai)
dinner/supper
вечеря (veh-CHEH-ryah)
I want _____.
Искам _____. (EES-kahm)
I want a dish containing _____.
Искам ястие, съдържащи_____. (EES-kahm YAHS-tyeh, suh-duhr-ZHAH-shtee)
chicken
пилешко месо (pee-LEHSH-koh MEH-soh)
beef
говеждо месо (goh-VEHZH-doh MEH-soh)
fish
риба (REE-buh)
ham
шунка (SHOON-kah)
sausage
наденица (NAH-deh-nee-tsah)
cheese
сирене (SEE-reh-neh)
eggs
яйца (yai-TSAH)
salad
салата (sah-LAH-tah)
(fresh) vegetables
(пресни) зеленчуци (PREHS-nee) zeh-lehn-CHOO-tsee)
(fresh) fruit
(пресни) плодове ((PREHS-nee) PLOH-doh-veh)
bread
хляб (khlyahb)
toast
тост (tohst)
noodles
юфка (YOOF-kah)
rice
ориз (OH-reez)
beans
боб (bohb)
May I have a glass of _____?
Може ли една чаша _____? (MOH-zheh lee ehd-NAH CHAH-shah....?)
May I have a cup of _____?
Може ли една купа _____? (MOH-zheh lee ehd-NAH koo-PUH....?)
May I have a bottle of _____?
Може ли една бутилка _____? (MOH-zheh lee ehd-NAH boo-TEEL-kah...?)
coffee
кафе (kah-FEH)
tea (drink)
чай (chai)
juice
сок (sohk)
(bubbly) water
(шампанско) вода ((shahm-PAHNS-koh) voh-DAH)
water
вода/води (voh-DAH/voh-DEE)
beer
бира/пиво (BEE-rah/PEE-voh)
red/white wine
червено/бяло вино (chehr-VEH-noh/BYAH-loh VEE-noh)
May I have some _____?
Може ли малко _____? (moh-ZHEH lee MAHL-koh....?)
salt
сол (sohl)
black pepper
пипер (PEE-pehr)
butter
масло (mahs-LOH)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
Извинете ме, сервитьор? (eez-vee-NEH-teh meh, sehr-VEE-t'ohr?)
I'm finished.
Аз съм свършил. (ahz some svuhr-SHEEL)
It was delicious.
Беше вкусно. (veh-SHEH vkoos-NOH)
Please clear the plates.
Моля, изчистете плочи. (moh-LYAH, eez-CHEES-teh-teh ploh-CHEE)
The check, please.
За проверка, моля. (zah proh-VEHR-kah, MOH-lyuh)

Shopping[edit]

Do you have this in my size?
Имате ли това в моя размер? (EE-mah-teh lee toh-VAH vuh moh-ia rahz-MEHR?)
How much is this?
Колко е това? (kohl-KOH eh toh-VUH?)
That's too expensive.
Това е твърде скъпо. (toh-VUH eh tvuhr-DEH skuh-LOH)
Would you take _____?
Бихте ли приели_____? (beekh-TEH lee pryeh-LEE...?)
expensive
скъп (skuhp)
cheap
евтин (ehf-TEEN)
I can't afford it.
Не мога да си го позволя. (neh MOH-gah dah see goh pohz-VOH-lyah)
I don't want it.
Аз не го искам. (ahz neh goh EES-kahm)
You're cheating me.
Вие сте ми изневерява. (vyeh steh mee eez-neh-VEH-ryah-vuh)
I'm not interested.
Аз не се интересувам. (ahz neh seh een-teh-reh-SOO-vahm)
OK, I'll take it.
Добре, аз ще го взема. (doh-BROH, ahz meh goh VZEH-muh)
Can I have a bag?
Може ли една чанта? (MOH-zheh lee ehd-NAH CHAHN-tah?)
Do you ship (overseas)?
Имате ли кораба (чужбина)? (EE-mah-teh lee koh-RAH-buh(choozh-BEE-nuh)?)
I need...
Имам нужда... (EE-mahm NUZH-duh...)
...toothpaste.
...паста за зъби (PAHS-tah zah ZUH-bee)
...a toothbrush.
...четка за зъби (CHEHT-kah zah ZUH-bee)
...tampons.
...тампони (tahm-POH-nee)
...feminine napkins.
...дамски превръзки. (DAMS-kee pre-VRUHZ-kee)
...soap.
...сапун. (sah-POON)
...deodorant.
...дезодорант. (deh-zoh-DOH-rahnt)
...shampoo.
...шампоан. (shahm-poh-AHN)
...perfume.
...парфюм. (pahr-FYOOM)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen)
...облекчаване на болката. (oh-blehk-chah-VAH-neh nah bohl-KAH-tah)
...cold medicine.
...лекарство за простуда. (leh-KAHRST-voh zah proh-STUH-dah)
...stomach medicine.
...лекарство за стомах. (leh-KAHRST-voh zah stoh-MAKH)
...a razor.
...бръснач (BRUHS-nahch)
...shaving cream.
...Крем за бръснене. (krehm zah bruhs-NEH-neh)
...an umbrella.
...чадър. (chah-DUHR)
...sunscreen.
...слънцезащитен крем (sluhn-tseh-zahsh-TEE-tehn krehm)
...a postcard.
...пощенска картичка. (pohsh-TEHNS-kah kahr-TEESH-kah)
...postage stamps.
...пощенски марки. (poh-SHTEHNS-kee MAHR-kee)
...batteries.
...батерии. (bah-TEH-rii)
...writing paper.
...хартия за писане. (khahrt-NYAH zah pee-SAH-neh)
...a pen.
...писалка (pee-sahl-KAH)
...a pencil.
...молив. (MOH-leef)
...English-language books.
...книги на английски език. (KNEE-gee nah ahn-GLIYS-kee eh-ZEEK)
...English-language magazines.
...Английски език списания. (spee-SAH-nyah nah ahn-GLIYS-kee eh-ZEEK)
...an English-language newspaper.
...на английски език вестник. (nah ahn-GLIYS-kee eh-ZEEK VEHST-neek)
...an English-Bulgarian dictionary.
... английско-български речник. (ahn-GLIYS-koh-buhl-GAHRS-kee rehch-NEEK)

Driving[edit]

Where can I hire a car?
Къде мога да наема кола? (kuh-DEH MOH-ghah dah nah-EH-mah koh-LAH)
How much is it daily/weekly?
Колко струва на ден/ на седмица? (KOHL-koh STROO-vah nah dehn/ nah SEHD-mee-tsah?)
Does that include also the mileage?
Ли, които включват също пробег? (lih, KOHN-toh VKLYOH-chvaht suh-SHTOH PROH-behg?)
Can I get insurance?
Мога ли да получа застраховка? (MOH-guh lee dah poh-LOO-chuh zahs-trah-KHOV-kuh?)
stop (on a street sign)
спирка (SPEER-kuh)
one way
еднопосочен (ehd-noh-poh-SOH-chehn)
yield
родитба (roh-DEET-buh)
no parking
Забранено паркирането (zah-brah-NEH-noh pahr-kee-rah-NEH-toh)
speed limit
ограничение на скоростта (ohg-rah-nee-CHEH-nyeh nah skoh-ROHST-tah)
gas (petrol) station
бензиностанция (behn-zee-noh-STAHN-tsyah)
petrol
бензин (BEHN-zeen)
diesel
дизел (DEE-zehl)

Authority[edit]

I haven't done anything wrong.
Аз не съм сторил нищо лошо. (ahz neh some STOH-reel NEE-shtoh LOH-shoh)
It was a misunderstanding.
Това е някакво недоразумение. (toh-VUH eh nyah-KAHK-voh neh-doh-rah-ZOO-meh-nyeh)
Where are you taking me?
Къде ме водиш? (KUH-deh meh voh-DEESH?)
Am I under arrest?
Арестуван ли съм? (ah-rehs-TOO-vahm lee some?)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen.
Аз съм американец/Австралия/Великобритания/канадски гражданин. (ahz suhm ah-meh-ree-KAH-nehts/ows-TRAH-lyah/veh-lee-kob-ree-TAH-nyah/kah-NAHDS-kee grahzh-DAH-neen)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate.
Искам да говоря с американския/Австралия/Британски/Канадско посолство/консулство. (EES-kahm dah goh-VOH-ryah sah ah-meh-ree-KAHNS-kee-yah/ows-TRAH-lee-yah/vree-TAHNS-kee/kah-NAHDS-koh poh-SOHLS-tvoh/kohn-SOOLS-tvoh)
I want to talk to a lawyer.
Искам да говоря с адвокат. (ees-KAHM duh goh-VOH-ryah suh ad-voh-KAHT)
Can I just pay a fine now?
Може ли да плати глоба сега? (MOH-zheh lee dah PLAH-tee GLOH-bah SEH-gah?)

Asking about language[edit]

How do you say _____ in Bulgarian?
Как се казва _____ на български? (KAHK seh KAHZ-vah _____ nah BUHL-gahr-skee?)
What is this/that called?
Как се казва това? (KAHK seh KAHZ-vah toh-VAH?)
What is that?
Какво е това? (kahk-VOH eh toh-VAH?)

Learning more[edit]

This Bulgarian phrasebook has guide status. It covers all the major topics for traveling without resorting to English. Please contribute and help us make it a star!