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Europe > Britain and Ireland > United Kingdom > England > East of England > Essex (England) > Colchester (England)

Colchester

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Colchester is a town in Essex, East Anglia. Home to the University of Essex, the Colchester Institute and an Army Garrison, and with its attractive old buildings, Roman wall, castle and proximity to Constable country, Colchester is an interesting place to visit.

Understand[edit]

Colchester Castle

Colchester is a picturesque provincial town in the county of Essex, and the geographical region of East Anglia. It is commonly regarded as the "oldest recorded town" in England (due to being mentioned by Roman author Pliny).

Originally the capital of the Celtic tribe Trinovantes, it was conquered by Claudius's army in 43 AD and became the first Roman capital - and Britain's first-ever city. Known as Camulodunum, it was burned to the ground by Boudicca's Iceni tribe approximately two decades later.

Boudicca and her 100,000-strong army were soon defeated, but Colchester never returned to prominence in Roman Britain, becoming instead a settlement for ex-legionaries.

After the fall of the Roman Empire, Colchester then passed through the hands of the Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Normans and was home to the royalists during the month-long siege of the English Civil War. Some modern historians often speculate that "Camelot" could actually be a misspeling of "Camulod(unum)" by an early chronicler unaware of the name change to "Colchester".

The town's main attraction is the Norman castle, founded by William the Conqueror himself, on the foundations of the earlier Roman Temple of Divine Emperor Claudius. It bears similarities to the Tower of London, which was built at the same time.

The town also boasts Roman walls, Saxon and Norman churches, countless timber-framed houses, buildings still showing bullet-holes and scars from the Civil War, and also the oldest Victorian water tower in Britain, known locally as Jumbo.


Colchester (England)
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Get in[edit]

The easiest way to get in/out of Colchester is either by Rail or Coach. All travel timetables both into and around Colchester can be found from the County Council

By train[edit]

Town Station

Colchester is served by 5 train stations.

  • 1 Colchester Station, Station Approach Road, CO1 1XD. Known locally as North Station (local buses call it North Station on the schedules) is located about 1 mile north of the town centre and is Colchester's main rail hub. It has approximately 5 services an hour to London (Liverpool Street) taking 50 minutes to 1 hour. Half-hourly expresses between London Liverpool St and Norwich cover the 50 mile trip in around 50 minutes with 1-2 intermediate stops. Commuter trains take a bit longer and make many intermediate stops and are less comfortable, although tickets are valid on either service. There are also services to/from Norwich (50 minutes), Lowestoft, Ipswich, Colchester Town, Harwich, Clacton-on-Sea and Walton-on-the-Naze. The station has recently been re-developed and has two entrances the north entrance has a ticket office, self-service machines, ATMs, a taxi stand, long-stay parking and a bus station. The south entrance is smaller and has bicycle parking and self-service ticketing but no staffed ticket booths. You need a ticket to enter and exit the station as it has automatic ticket barriers. To get to the town centre, buses 61 and 62 run from right outside the north exit to Colchester High Street, although most local services depart from North Station Road go through the south exit and walk down to the main road. Colchester railway station (Q2750618) on Wikidata Colchester railway station on Wikipedia
  • 2 Colchester Town Station, St. Botolphs Circus, CO2 7EF. More conveniently located at the St. Botolphs road junction in the south-east of the town centre and has a half-hourly shuttle to Colchester North as well as hourly services to Walton-on-the-Naze. You had to before change at Colchester (North) outside peak hours, however as December 2010 you can get direct services to London during off-peak. Colchester Town railway station (Q4489756) on Wikidata Colchester Town railway station on Wikipedia
  • 3 Hythe, Station Rd, Hythe, CO2 8JR. A small, unstaffed station in the eastern suburb of Hythe, close to the large Tesco superstore and within walking distance of the University of Essex. There are hourly services between Colchester and Walton plus now a days, there are rush hour services between London and Clacton. Avoid this station after dark as it's often too quiet and isolated. Hythe railway station (Q2552020) on Wikidata Hythe (Essex) railway station on Wikipedia
  • 4 Wivenhoe, Station Rd, Wivenhoe, CO7 9DJ. Serves the attractive riverside suburb/town of Wivenhoe and the University of Essex it has hourly services to London and Clacton, and a local hourly service between Colchester and Walton. Wivenhoe railway station (Q2873893) on Wikidata Wivenhoe railway station on Wikipedia
  • 5 Marks Tey, Station Rd, Marks Tey, CO6 1EE. In the western village and suburb of Marks Tey and is the interchange for the local line to Sudbury. It has regular connections from Colchester and London, Clacton and Ipswich and hourly services to Sudbury. Marks Tey railway station (Q2025932) on Wikidata Marks Tey railway station on Wikipedia

By bus[edit]

The two main operators in the town are First Essex and Network Colchester, with Chambers (services from Sudbury), Hedingham Omnibuses (services from surrounding areas), Beestons (services from Dedham), New Horizon (services from Great Bentley) and Regal (evening and Sunday journeys on routes normally provided by other operators). Most services run from the Temporary Bus Station on Queen Street but will pick up at other stops around the town centre.

By coach[edit]

National Express coaches serve the bus station (and various other stops) on route 484 between London Victoria and Clacton-on-Sea (three journeys daily), 350 between Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Nottingham, Peterborough, Cambridge (and other towns and cities) and Clacton (1 journey daily) and route 250 between Ipswich, Stansted and Heathrow Airports (every two hours round-the-clock daily)

Network Colchester (airportbybus) operates limited-stop bus service 133 from Colchester Bus Station, the University of Essex and Colchester North Rail Station to Braintree and Stansted Airport (every hour daily).

By car[edit]

Colchester can be reached by car either via the A12, which links up with the M25 from the south, the A14, which links up with the M1/M6 from the North or the A120, which connects to the M11.

By bicycle[edit]

The city is on National Cycle Route 1 from Ipswich, Norwich and on to Shetland to the north and to Chelmsford, London and on to Dover to the south.

Get around[edit]

Map of Colchester (England)

On foot[edit]

The town centre is easily walkable and much of it is pedestrianised. The town core is encircled by High Street, Queen Street, Osbourne Street, St Johns Street and Head Street. Castle Park covers much of the north-eastern town centre and makes for a pleasant traffic-free stroll out of the town centre.

By car[edit]

Driving around Colchester isn't too much hassle, although traffic tends to come to a standstill during the rush-hours. Within the town-centre, parking on the street is illegal, or at least limited to short-stay (i.e. no more than 20 minutes) meaning that you will need to use a public car park. When approaching the town centre, digital displays on the road-side will tell you the availability of parking spaces in each parking building, saving you from having to search hard for a space. Generally, surface car parks such as Vineyard Street or the Britannia Building are the cheapest (about GBP1.50 per hour), Colchester Borough Council multi-storey parking buildings are a little more expensive (about GBP2.20 an hour) and are open 24 hours, whilst NCP parking buildings are the most expensive. In most cases you will be given a ticket upon entry from the automatic barrier, and the fee should be paid at the payment machine before returning to your car in order to exit the car park. Parking on residential streets close to the town centre requires a residents parking permit, so it's not advisable to park there as you may incur a parking penalty.

By bus[edit]

Local buses have limited use to the average visitor as almost everything is whithin walking distance, although they can be useful to reach further-afield attractions such as Wivenhoe, the university, Highwoods Country Park, Colchester Zoo etc. All buses serve the town centre via the inner one-way system, which can be confusing e.g. if you enter the town centre from the rail station, you will alight on High-Street (this is the first stop in the town centre), however to return to the station you have to board in Head Street. It's advisable to always check the schedule (available from the bus information centre on Queen Street) to make sure you don't board in the wrong place and head off in the opposite direction. Most routes run at 10-30 minute intervals from 5AM–6PM and run less frequently in the evening up to 11PM. Fares start at around GBP1.50 for a single ticket (or GBP2.50 for a return) although if you plan to make more than a couple of journeys, a GBP3.00 day rover ticket is a useful investment as it gives you unlimited journeys for 1 day. Change is usually available but drivers will usually be reluctant to change anything bigger than a GBP5.00 bill. Useful routes are:- 61/62: Both serve the University and Wivenhoe. 75: Goes to Colchester Zoo. 65: Goes to Highwoods Country Park 67/67A: Goes to West Mersea.

By bicycle[edit]

Colchester is an attractive place to cycle, and 2 National Cycle Routes pass through the town. Due to heavy traffic and narrow roads, cycling in the town centre is a little hairy and there is little in the way of cycle-lanes, however there are plenty of cycle-paths away from the main roads when you get away from the town centre. Some bike stores such as Colchester Cycle Stores on St John's Street may allow you to rent a bicycle. Note that many National Cycle Routes run off-road and are not suitable for certain bicycle types e.g. road bikes.

By taxi[edit]

Metered taxis are a little hard to find although they can usually be picked up from taxi ranks on the High Street or outside North Station (north exit). However, it's usually cheaper and more convenient to call for a minicab - the most useful operators include:-

See[edit]

War Memorial
  • 1 Colchester Castle. is the largest Norman keep in Britain, build on the foundations of the Roman temple to Claudius it has the town centre on one side and landscaped gardens on the other. The museum covers the extensive history of Britain's Oldest recorded town, from pre-Roman times, Boudicca's rebellion, the Norman invasion, medieval witch hunts, the civil war and up to the present day. Guided tours of the Roman foundations and Norman roof take place at set times throughout the day for a small fee. There is a restaurant and gift shop. Colchester Castle (Q198287) on Wikidata Colchester Castle on Wikipedia
  • 2 Castle Park (Main entrance east end of Colchester High Street next to the Castle.). Daily 07:30-evening (locked overnight). A fairly large park in the grounds of Colchester castle. A number of events are held there annually, including cricket matches (There is a cricket week every year when Essex C.C. play visiting counties), music festivals and a fireworks display in November.
  • 3 Colchester Zoo, Maldon Road, Stanway, CO3 0SL. Makes an interesting day out for the family. With some of the best cat and primate collections in Europe, and recent winner of the 'Large Visitor Attraction of the Year' Award, it's well worth a visit. Colchester Zoo (Q5142118) on Wikidata Colchester Zoo on Wikipedia

Museums and galleries[edit]

Colchester is home to 3 museums, each one housed in a different beautiful old building and offering a different insight into the history behind Colchester. It is also home to 2 galleries, each offering a distinct approach to the presentation of art and both housed in beautiful neighbouring buildings, one contemporary and one historic:

  • 4 The Castle Museum, Castle Park, CO1 1TJ, +44 1206 282939. M-Sa 10:00-17:00. Su 11:00-17:00. Last admission 16:30. Colchester Castle is the largest Norman Keep in Europe. Archaeological collections of international quality covering 2,500 years of history are beautifully showcased, including some of the most important Roman finds in Britain. Adult £7.75 Children (4-16) or concessions £4.80 Family ticket (2 adults 2 children) £21.00. Colchester Castle (Q198287) on Wikidata Colchester Castle on Wikipedia
  • 5 The Hollytrees Museum, Castle Park, CO1 1UG, +44 1206 282940. Monday - Saturday: 10AM-5PM Closed on Sundays. A beautiful Georgian building presenting domestic life and childhood in Colchester over the past 300 years. Find out about the origin of the famous nursery rhyme Twinkle Twinkle Little Star - which was written in Colchester! Free admission. Hollytrees Museum (Q5882457) on Wikidata Hollytrees Museum on Wikipedia
  • 6 The Natural History Museum, High St, Colchester, CO1 1DN, +44 1206 282941. Tu-Sa 10:00-17:00. Su 11:00-17:00. A fascinating chance to get closer to nature. Find out about wildlife habitats, biodiversity and climate change. Admission free.
  • 7 The Minories, 74 High Street, CO1 1UE, +44 1206 612428, . Monday-Saturday 10AM-5PM Closed on Sundays. The Minories is Colchester's oldest art gallery, opening its doors to the public in 1956. It shows a diverse range of contemporary art and design by artists and makers from the eastern region as well as historic work that relates to Colchester. It has a beautiful walled garden (perhaps Colchester's best kept secret) and a cafe serving good quality homemade local produce. Free admission. The Minories (Q15979563) on Wikidata The Minories, Colchester on Wikipedia
  • 8 Firstsite, Lewis Gardens, High Street, CO1 1JH, +44 1206 577067. 10AM-5PM. Contemporary visual arts centre with exhibitions and workshops located in a new building. Also a restaurant. Firstsite (Q5454287) on Wikidata Firstsite on Wikipedia

Mersea Island[edit]

Mersea Causeway The Strood

A small island located on the estuary of the River Blackwater. The northern end of the island is mostly made up of marshland but there are three settlements on the southern half - Barrow Hill (which consists of several houses along a road), East Mersea (a small collection of farms, a post office, a pub, a couple of tacky holiday parks and an outdoor youth centre) and West Mersea, a small fishing town most notable for it's seafood, fish and chips, countless pubs, a few small independent shops and a Co-op supermarket. It is quite a pleasant place to wander around with many miles of beaches. The island can be reached by car along the B1025 from Colchester (approx 9 miles) and crossing the Strood causeway (originally built by the Romans) onto the island - note that during high tides the causeway is likely to flood which effectively cuts off the island from the rest of society as it is the only road access. Only spring tides (as opposed to neap tides [1]) will flood the Strood and these normally occur when high tide is midday/early afternoon though weather conditions can affect the times, height and duration of the access being flooded. Bus service 67 runs every 30 minutes from Colchester Bus Station to West Mersea High Street (some peak hour services also pick up/drop off at Colchester North rail station), although unfortunately as it is the only public transport option the fare is very high (roughly £4 single, £6 return), meaning that it is actually cheaper to travel to Chelmsford from Colchester by bus, which is roughly 3 times as far. Journey time is roughly 30–40 minutes depending on the route taken and the time of day. There are no buses to East Mersea other than school services. During the summer there is a ferry service from East Mersea to Point Clear and Brightlingsea on the Tendring peninsular.

The island is also known for its oyster beds and local oysters are served several specialist restaurants on Coast Road, West Mersea.

  • 1 West Mersea Oyster Bar, Coast Road, West Mersea, CO5 8LT (At junction of Coast Rd and Victory Rd), +44 1206 381600. Opening times vary through year. Check web site.. £12.

Wivenhoe[edit]

Once a small fishing town on the River Colne to the south of Colchester, Wivenhoe is now a suburb separated from the rest of the town by the University of Essex. It has grown considerably over the last few years as it has become a popular place for London commuters to live because of the good rail links. However, the waterfront area and the High Street are still very traditional with lots of small independent shops, restaurants, pubs, a fish and chip shop and a Co-op supermarket. Wivenhoe can be reached in about 20 minutes by car by taking the A133 out of town past the university and then taking the Wivenhoe exit. There is free parking just off of the High Street and outside the Co-op supermarket, as well as long-stay Pay and Display parking at the train station. (Note that cars cannot use Boundary Road at the University as a shortcut as barriers restrict access to buses and university traffic). Trains run every 30 minutes from Colchester North to Wivenhoe, and every hour from Colchester Town. Buses 61 and 62 run every 10 minutes from Colchester High Street to Wivenhoe - note that service 61 takes a very indirect route. Wivenhoe can also be easily reached by foot or cycle along the Wivenhoe Cycle Trail which starts from Colchester Castle Park, runs through the Hythe and along the river, ending up at Wivenhoe Station.

  • 9 Bourne Mill, Bourne Road, CO2 8RT, +44 1206 549799, . 25 March - 1 Nov 2015: Wed-Sun, Bank Holidays 11AM-5PM. Picturesque watermill with working waterwheel. A delightful piece of late Elizabethan playfulness. Built for banquets and converted into a mill in the 19th century. Just a mile south of Colchester sits Bourne Mill, a grade 1 listed building steeped in history. It was built as a fishing lodge in 1591, converted to a fulling mill around 1640 and then converted to a corn mill in about 1840, which continued working until the 1930s. It is well worth a visit for all the family. Bourne Mill is set in tranquil grounds, next to a millpond and babbling stream. The mill still has a working waterwheel and the grounds give plenty of scope for family fun. The grounds have a pond, wetlands and woods and are home to a variety of wildlife including birds, bats, waterfowl, bugs and beetles. Refreshments, shop, limited on-site parking Adults £3.75, children £1.90.

Do[edit]

The only cinema in Colchester is the multiplex Odeon on Head Street which comprises eight screens and shows all of the big blockbuster movies as well as occasionally putting on alternative and foreign films. The prices are on the expensive side so take your own snacks.

There is also a theatre, the Mercury, for the theatrically inclined, which puts on shows throughout the year.

Colchester is also home to a large number of important historic and archaeological sites, inclduing Britain's oldest Roman city walls; the ruins of St. Botolph's Priory and St. John's Abbey; the oldest Roman gateway in the country, and Britain's only discovered Roman Circus (chariot race track). For an overview of the town, you can pick up a hop-on-hop-off tour with the Colchester City Sightseeing open-top bus, which can be found at the gates of Castle Park.

Colchester Arts Centre

Buy[edit]

Colchester has a large selection of shops, ranging from those you would find in any large town (Marks & Spencer, Debenhams etc.) to many small individual shops. The High Street is the place to start - it is here you will find Williams and Griffin's, which is an awarding-winning department store and part of the Fenwick group (with great views from the top-floor restaurant). However, if you take one of the small turnings on the right as you go down the High Street you will find yourself in a warren of small semi-pedestrianised roads full of interesting things to buy. You can create and dress your own teddy bear at Build-a-Bear in Culver Square or treat yourself to some chocolates from Godiva in Eld Lane. There are some lovely old buildings and plenty of cafes to refresh the heavy-laden shopper.

If you are looking for appropriate souvenirs of your stay, the shop in the Castle Museum has plenty to buy with a Roman theme.

The new Colchester discount voucher scheme can save you money at your local business. Townvoucher.com offers great bargains from your shops, pubs restaurant and events.

Supermarkets[edit]

  • 1 Waitrose (Supermarket), St Andrews Av, Colchester, CO4 3BQ (http://www.waitrose.com/bf_home/bf/455.html), +44 1206 861230. M-Th 08:00-20:00. F 08:00-21:00. Sa 08:00-20:00. Su 10:00-16:00. Cafe.
  • 2 Asda (Supermarket), Turner Rise, Colchester, CO4 5TU (Close to town railway station.), +44 1206 543159. M 07:00-00:00. Tu-F 24hrs. Sa 00:00-22:00. Su 10:00-16:00. Petrol station (different hours). Pharmacy (different hours).
  • 3 Sainsbury's (Supermarket), 1 Western Approach, Stanway, CO3 8AA (W side of town), +44 1206 748440. M-Sa 06:00-00:00. Su 10:00-16:00.

Eat[edit]

Drink[edit]

Sleep[edit]

Stay safe[edit]

Proclaimed by some as the safest town in the UK, by others as a run-down, crime-infested dump, generally Colchester is safe and you should take the usual precautions. Petty crime is quite rare. Be careful where you leave your car, particularly after dark, as car theft can be a problem. Several downtown multi-storey car parks are open 24 hours and are much safer than the surface lots around the edge of the town centre (which are unstaffed and often meeting points for illegal street racers). The 'loop' road around the town centre (Cowdray Avenue, East Hill, Southway and Balkerne hill) becomes an impromptu race-track for illegal street racers at night - be on the lookout for people driving dangerously. The town centre can become rowdy on Friday and Saturday nights around pub-closing time so try to avoid getting into fights and stay in big groups - fortunately taxis are cheap and easy to find at this time. There are a couple of no-go areas that can be dangerous, particularly after dark. Most notable are Greenstead (a large council housing development in the east), the area around Harwich Road known as 'White City', and the Monkwick estate near the Army Garrisson in the south; however these areas have little to offer for tourists. Try to avoid drinking in the so-called 'Squaddy' pubs near the Army Garrisson in South Colchester as they can be very rowdy and fights involving members of the military can be common. Avoid taking trains from Hythe Station after dark as the station is poorly lit, isolated and has no staff and little CCTV. If you do have to take a train from here, wait by the level crossing on the street and don't enter the platform until the train pulls in - don't wait on the platform.

Go next[edit]

Routes through Colchester
LondonWitham  SW UK road A12.svg NE  → Dedham Vale → Ipswich


This city travel guide to Colchester is a usable article. It has information on how to get there and on restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please feel free to improve it by editing the page.