- For the Central-Eastern European region also known as Galicia, see Lesser Poland and Western Ukraine articles.
Galicia (Galician: Galiza) is both an "autonomous community" and a "historical nation" in northwestern Spain. The capital is Santiago de Compostela. Galicia is a coastal region well known for its mild climate and distinct geography, with many peninsulas and rías (fjord-like inlets) giving the region a long coastline and a strong relationship to the sea.
- 1 Santiago de Compostela — historic capital city, the old town is a World Heritage site and the cathedral is the crown jewel of the Way of Saint James pilgrimage
- 2 A Coruña — Galicia's largest city, home to the world's oldest functioning Roman lighthouse, the Tower of Hercules
- 3 Baiona — a popular summer holiday town with a yearly celebration of the return of Columbus's Pinta to its harbor
- 4 Combarro — small coastal town near Pontevedra city with a picturesque old town, with dozens of hórreos along the coastline
- 5 Fisterra — the westernmost point in Spain, traditionally the grand finale of the Way of Saint James, after visiting the cathedral of Santiago
- 6 Lugo — the capital of the province of Lugo, the city's historic Roman walls are a World Heritage site and are very well preserved
- 7 Muros — coastal town with a beautiful old center, a small but bustling port and fresh seafood
- 8 O Grove — coastal city in Pontevedra, famous for its beaches, seafood, and proximity to the famous Rias Baixas wine region
- 9 Pontevedra — the picturesque, pedestrian-friendly capital of the Pontevedra province and the Rias Baixas region at the mouth of the eponymous ría
- 10 Ribadavia — quaint Galician town near Ourense with a dilapidated castle and a beautiful old center, including the Plaza Mayor and 1000 year old Jewish quarter
- 11 Tuy — old town with a fortified cathedral on the Portuguese border (Valença lies just across the Miño river)
- 12 Vigo — a mixture of old and new neighborhoods, point of departure to the Cíes islands, part of the "Illas Atlánticas" National Park
- 1 Rías Baixas — the most famous of Galicia's five officially recognized wine regions, famous for its Albariño white wine
Galicia was one of the central points for Western European Megalithic Culture (8000-2000 BC), and physical remains are still visible today. Nonetheless, Galicians trace their cultural ancestry back to Celtic tribes which began to settle around 1000 BC. Celtic Civilization in Galicia had its heyday between 600 and 25 BC, up to when Galicia fell under the power of the Roman Empire. Still, a weak Romanization meant the consolidation of a hybrid culture, bearing strong Celtic traits.
Galicia is considered "the first country in Europe", following the establishment of the Swabian Kingdom in 411 AD. The Swabian dynasty lasted until 585, when it was replaced by the Visigoth dynasty. With the Muslim occupation of southern Iberia from 711 and the subsequent dismantlement of the Visigoth Empire, Galicia began to consolidate itself as one of the main Christian Kingdoms in Medieval Iberia, namely thanks to the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela.
Galicia was annexed to Castile (Spain) in 1486; this was the beginning of the so-called "Dark Centuries" (Séculos Escuros). Since then, Galicia has attempted to regain its independence or achieve greater autonomy up to this day. Galicia only lost its formal denomination of "kingdom" in 1833. There was a failed attempt to proclaim a Galician Republic in 1931.
Since 1981, the 'Galician Statute of Autonomy' grants Galicia extended autonomy within the framework of the Spanish State. Galicia has its own national parliament, president and symbols, although it is curtailed from international representation. Many Galicians claim for a greater autonomy or even independence; others are happy with the current arrangements.
Galicians take great pride in their cultural heritage and architecture. You will find plenty of good examples of this by just 'getting lost' in any Galician city, town or village. Santiago de Compostela is a must, but it is also a good idea to wonder off the tourist track, as this is safe, unexpensive and highly rewarding. Furthermore, Galicia is well-known for its splendid landscapes, ranging from spectacular sea views to mountain areas.
The local language is Galician, a romance language sometimes referred as dialect of Portuguese influenced by Spanish orthography, and the differences between the spoken languages are often blurry for outsiders. Galician has a somewhat different accent from that of standard Portuguese and has unique colloquialisms and traces of former cultures, using a number of pre-Indo-European, Celtic and Germanic words not found in standard Portuguese.
Galician (or Galego) is Galicia's own language. Both Galician and Spanish are official in Galicia, as recognized by the Spanish Constitution and the Galician Statute of Autonomy. Galician is understood by the vast majority of the population, and Spanish can be spoken by virtually everyone (although it is heavily influenced by the Galician accent and vocabulary). Travellers should have no problems communicating in Spanish or in standard Portuguese.
After the arrival of the Castilian nobility towards the end of the Middle Ages, Galician disappeared from the public eye and was preserved only privately. It was only in the 19th century that Galician started to be reclaimed in all areas of everyday life. Today, children are taught both Spanish and Galician in school, and the majority of the population speaks Galician normally, although that varies very much depending on the location.
Young people study English at school, so they should have at least some basic knowledge of that language. The odd person may speak some French or even German (expatriates especially).
The territorial organization of Galicia is quite complex, and, as a visitor, you will not need to know it in detail, but bear in mind that Galicians have a unique spatial perception regarding their surroundings and settlement pattern. For example, there some 317 municipalities in Galicia (concellos or concelhos), and 53 small regions called comarcas or bisbarras. Furthermore, the 317 concellos are also subdivided into a number of parishes (parroquias), and parishes may contain a number of lugares (settlements). Galicians may refer to these jurisdictions when mentioning their locality, especially in rural areas.
In 1833 Spain was also divided into provinces, of which Galicia has four. These are:
- A Coruña
Most likely the best option if coming from abroad. Galicia has three international airports (A Coruña, Vigo and Santiago de Compostela), of which Santiago de Compostela's is the largest. This airport (called Lavacolla) connects Galicia with a number of European cities, such as London, Dublin, Frankfurt, Liverpool, Istanbul and Rome. There also are flights between A Coruña and Lisbon and London. There are plenty of flights to a number of Spanish cities from all three airports and the odd charter flight to South America.
Road communications from and to Galicia are quite good, with plenty of motorways connecting Galicia with Spain and Portugal.
There are routes from Portugal and cities in Spain (including overnight sleeper cars to Madrid and Barcelona), with domestic routes in the process of being upgraded to high speed tracks. Service from Vigo to Porto takes just over two hours, while the fastest train to Santiago to Madrid currently takes about five and a half hours. Full introduction of high-speed trains is due in approximately 2018. There will be fast connections to and from Madrid and intermediate points. High speed connections to Lisbon and Porto have been discussed but no work has begun. There is a narrow gauge link between Ferrol and Asturias, operated by FEVE.
Although you cannot travel directly from the UK to Galicia by ferry, you can get pretty close by taking the ferry from Plymouth to Santander (Brittany Ferries) or Portsmouth to Bilbao (P&O Ferries).
Santander is in the region of Cantabria, which lies between Galicia's neighbour Asturias and the Basque Country, which borders France. Bilbao is a bit farther east, in the Basque Country, but by traveling from there to Galicia you will be able to see all of Spain's northern coast.
RENFE runs trains in and out of Galicia's major cities as well as many smaller ones. The RENFE website provides all travel times, and tickets can be purchased online. There may not be many trains each day, but the speed of travel has improved in recent years. For internal trips in Galicia, the A Coruña-Vigo line (north to south along the Atlantic coast) is the fastest and most efficient. The new high speed link (AVANT) connecting Ourense, Santiago and A Coruña has been partially completed. FEVE's narrow gauge line covers the north coast from Ferrol to the border with Asturias.
There are a number of bus companies that will take you to virtually anywhere in Galicia, and indeed in and out of Galicia. You will have to get yourself acquainted with these at the local bus station (there is one in each city and town), as there is a large number of possible routes and combinations. To the uninitiated, this can be confusing in the beginning.
Renting a car is always a good option. Since it is not that common in Galicia, this keeps the price of renting relatively low. Diesel fuel is cheaper than gasoline, and the few toll roads can be relatively expensive but avoidable if traveling short distances. Roads are generally in good condition, though small mountain towns may have narrow, unmarked roads. Motorway driving might be fast but not vicious. Radar ticketing machines are common along motorways but are signaled in advance. Indications in rural areas may be scarce, and the Galician settlement pattern and method to name places can be confusing. A GPS will help to solve all these problems.
- Entroido - The origins of the Galician Entroido has long been debated. The events date back to pre-Christian times. Some have related the celebration to ceremonies the ancient Romans would perform for the god, Saturn. Today it is strongly Christian. Each year, in February or March, major cities in each region began the festivities. There are similarities and differences in each regions celebrations. People from the different villages surrounding the city come together to eat the freshly cured jamon from the recent matanzas. There is often a procession through the cities. Representatives from each of the area villages will follow each other down the streets, playing a percussion rhythm that identifies their town. Children and adults dress in costume for this event. The kind of costume, and the behavior of the character, varies from region to region. These characters usually dance through the crowd hauntingly, trying to scare the bystanders. The characters include the Cigarróns, Pantallas, Peliqueiros, Xenerais, and Correos. The Xenerais are known for their singing, and often go door to door. The Peliqueiros carry whips and are recognizable for their large and ornate masks, representing different animals such as a cow, donkey, or rooster. You can also expect to find different kinds of performances, including satires of things that had happened over the previous year.
Way of St. James - a pilgrimage (with various routes) to Santiago de Compostela, where it is said that Saint James is buried within the cathedral.
If you like eating, maybe you'll never come back from Galicia. You will find seafood and a wide range of products made from pork-- the whole animal is eaten, even the blood. Galicia is definitely the place to go if you like seafood and fish, since Galicia is by itself a world fishing power (for example, almost half the mussels in the world are 'harvested' in Galicia).
- Marisco The best seafood in Spain is served in Galicia. Don't miss the "centollo", "nécoras," and "percebes". The mussels are superb, and various types of shrimp and prawns can be found at any seafood restaurant or seafood market.
- Almeixas a Mariñeira or Almejas a la Marinera - Clams prepared with wine, olive oil, and "pimentón" (paprika).
- Empanada - a mixture between a pizza and a meatcake. Empanadas have a wide variety of fillings from tuna fish to beef to octopus.
- Polbo á feira - octopus prepared with oil, salt and hot paprika - surely the best octopus you'll ever find.
- Caldo galego is a "poor mans stew" from Galicia. It's not extravagant, but extremely satisfying and useful for combating the cool dampness of the region.
- Bacallau ao alvariño is a fabulous cod dish that is worth trying.
- Pimientos de Padrón are green chili peppers, picked early so that only a few in each batch are spicy; these are eaten sautéed with salt (see drink section)
Galicia also has a lot of good desserts. The various bakeries and pastry shops throughout the region have delicious pastries and cookies. Churros are common throughout the region. While in Santiago de Compostela, look out for a tarta de Santiago, an almond cake with the Galician Cross (also known as the Cross of Santiago) drawn into the icing. Also look out for "filloas," which are similar to crepes and often filled with sugar or custard cream.
The main drink is locally produced wine, often homemade, but Licor Café (coffee liquor) is a main choice for those who want something stronger. Be careful, although Galician people are very friendly, severe ingestions of this liquid could cause a problem. Also try Queimada, a drink traditionally made by mixing aguardiente (a strong liquor made from grapes), coffee beans, lemon rinds, and sugar and then setting it on fire. Usually, the person who makes the drink says a spell in the Galician language that wards away evil spirits.
Estrella Galicia is the local beer. It's not bad for the price, but the real "estrella" (star) is their Special 1906 batch. Try it with a plate of "pimientos de padron" (lightly fried peppers...most of them are mild and very flavorful, but even though all look the same, some are extremely hot! It's like Russian Roulette for your taste buds). Keep your drink handy and partake with a few friends.
The most famous wine in Galicia is Albariño, one of the best, if not the best, white wines in Spain. Also readily available are Ribeiro (white), Godello (white), and mencía (red).
Galicia is in general a safe place to visit. Observe the usual caution in larger towns and cities. Of all larger cities, Lugo, Pontevedra and the capital - Santiago de Compostela - are probably the safest. Having said that, you will be perfectly ok in any Galician city just by using your common sense, and you will probably feel safer than in most Western European cities.
Drug trafficking and drug-related activities and crime are not uncommon. However, this seldom transpires beyond some areas and rarely affects the occasional tourist.
For all emergencies (ambulance, fire brigade and police) dial 112.
Galician people are normally welcoming and like to have the occasional chat with visitors but, paradoxically, they also have a reputation for being reserved people. Indeed, their confidence may be hard to earn in the beginning, but if that is achieved, they will be open and honest with you. Address people politely, even in a formal way if necessary, as this will always cause a first good impression and will open many doors. Also, remember that your word is your reputation (especially in rural areas). Do not promise anything or do not 'give your word' if you are not intending to fulfill it. Spoken agreements may be as binding as written ones for everyday issues to the eyes of a Galician (namely, in rural areas).
Galicians often like to exchange stories, where you may find yourself doing most of the talking. Yet, locals will indeed enjoy that with some amusement. Do not expect to master the Galician conversational code in just a few days. There is an intricate combination of idioms, gestures, and silences, too. The fact that you don’t know it, or that you use a different one, is what Galicians often find interesting in visitors.
If offered a gift of similar, you are not to accept it straight away. A polite refusal is expected. Take it, eventually, if insisted upon; you are not necessarily expected to give anything back. Do not decline invitations for food or drink after a first of second polite refusal, especially in rural areas, as this may be considered rude. If you absolutely do not wish to eat or drink what you are offered state medical reasons (a white lie), as that will indeed be respected by your Galician host. If you produce a gift do not expect something in exchange immediately; the 'favour/gift-trade' in Galicia also has its own code and you may be retributed in time, or if you ever go back.
Do not openly discuss financial issues in public gatherings as a general rule. Try to avoid talking about money or ask about money or finances, unless you are conducting a specific business. Avoid talking about politics even if you think you know Spanish politics. Party and personal loyalties in Galicia work in a completely different way. The issue of Galician and Portuguese being one language should also be avoided unless you know very well the person you are talking to and have some background knowledge. The Galician situation is radically different to the one in the Basque Country or Catalonia for that matter; it is full of grey areas.
Respect local customs and traditions; do not mock superstitions regardless how strange they may seem to you. Galicians may tell you it is all "nonsense", but they still will not like you judging them.