|Population||1,763,387 (2013 est.)|
|Electricity||230V/50Hz (Israeli plug)|
The Gaza Strip (Arabic غزة, Ghazzah, Hebrew עזה Azza) is a Palestinian territory in the Middle East. The largest city is Gaza. Portions of this page, written based on experiences over the last 10 years, may be out of date as experiences from before the Hamas takeover in 2007, open military conflict (27 Dec 2008 - 18 Jan 2009), or the Israeli blockade differ from the current situation on the ground. As of July 2014, a return to military conflict has caused substantial harm in the region, with destruction of property and civilian fatalities, although a ceasefire has been attempted.
Positioned between Israel and Egypt, Gaza isn't quite the pure hellhole you might expect given TV coverage, although this birthplace of the intifada and one of the most densely populated parts of the planet isn't exactly paradise on earth, either. It does have reasonably modern infrastructure and architecture despite its troubles, but a UN report as early as 1952 stated that the Strip was too small to support its population of 300,000, and now there are well over 1.7 million inhabitants and the unemployment rate is 22.6% (CIA 2012 estimate).
Most inhabitants are descendants of Palestinian refugees who fled or were expelled from their homes in Israel during the 1948 war and were not allowed to return to their homes and villages after the war. As they were not Egyptian citizens they were not allowed into Egypt, either.
Gaza has been around for a while: the earliest known reference is an inscription in the Temple of Amun at Karnak, Egypt, dated 1500 BC, which states that the town of Gaza is 'flourishing'. And for a long time it did: a staging post on trade routes connecting Asia and Persia with Arabia, Egypt and Africa, even the name means "treasure" in Arabic. Alexander the Great laid siege to the town in 332 BC, executing 10,000 defenders after being held off for two months. Later, the town was held by the Romans, the Crusaders, the Mamluks, the Ottomans and briefly even by the French in 1799, when Napoleon Bonaparte set up camp on his way to defeat in Egypt. The Turks took it back, then lost it to the British in World War I. The Egyptian army grabbed it during the 1948 war that led to Israel's independence, opening camps for Palestinian refugees - and the current situation began when Israel occupied the Strip in 1967.
Spurred by the violence of the 1987-1993 Intifada ("Uprising"), Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization signed a "Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements" in 1993, under which the Palestinian Authority (PA) was created to govern the Gaza Strip and the West Bank for a transitional period "not exceeding five years" as a step towards full independence. Parts of the territories were indeed handed over to the PA between 1994 and 1999, but the peace plans were derailed by the second intifada that broke out in September 2000, unleashing another spiral of violence.
Israel unilaterally disengaged from Gaza in 2005, evacuating Jewish settlements and withdrawing its troops from the territory. It did however retain control of the airspace and the coastline in addition to the fact the entire region is circled by a large armed security fence. The Islamist Hamas won elections in 2006 and violently kicked out the remnants of the Palestinian Authority in 2007. Under Hamas rule, there have been repeated incidents of missile launches from Gaza into Israel and Israeli targeted assassinations of militants in Gaza, bombings, and incursions or invasions of Gaza. Israel has also heavily restricted the movement of trade, aid, and people between Gaza and Israel in response to attacks on border crossing points and the Hamas government's non-recognition of Israel. Relations between Hamas and the Egyptian government have also been tense at times, with the Egyptian government sometimes blaming Hamas for attacks on Egyptian security forces and civilians in the Sinai but also condemning Israeli actions against Gaza. From December 2008 to January 2009, Israel launched a massive coordinated air, naval, and land offensive against the Hamas government and allied militant organizations. Hostilities resumed in 2012, but a short-lived ceasefire was restored with the help of Egyptian mediation.
As of July 2014, Hamas has been launching rockets from Gaza as far as 160km (100 miles) into Israeli territory; Israel has counter-attacked with air strikes and ground invasion, causing large civilian casualties and destroying many buildings including UN schools and hospitals. There is an uneasy ceasefire in place currently, however this can change at a moments notice. It's very unlikely that you will be able to get into Gaza unless you are an accredited journalist, or UN or charity worker, and you will have performed in-depth risk assessments. Do not rely on merely reading a travel guide as part of your risk assessment. If you do manage to get into Gaza, be aware that civilian infrastructure has been hit very hard, and your presence in the strip will divert resources from the needy, and you should most certainly leave as soon as possible.
The Gaza Strip is a narrow, 40-km long slice of land between the Mediterranean to the west and the Negev desert to the east. Egypt lies to the south, the north and east border Israel. The urban sprawl of Gaza City, mostly stretching along and around the 3-km long Omar al-Mukhtar Street, covers much of the north. The other main towns of Khan Yunis and Rafah are near the southern border, with most of the rest covered with agricultural land.
A bit of terminology disentanglement: Gaza Strip refers to the entire 40km by 6km patch of territory. The strip is slightly smaller than Barbados and slightly larger than Malta. Gaza City refers to the town itself, in the northern part of the strip, but due to huge population growth the City now sprawls into many of the surrounding villages and it's a tough task to say what is a part of the City and what isn't. Both city and strip are pretty much interchangeably referred to as Gaza and this guide will follow suit.
Temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers.
Flat to rolling, sand and dune covered coastal plain. Cultivated land.
Highest point: Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Auda) 105 m
Getting into Gaza is both difficult and unwise. In fact, as of around 2003, all would-be visitors were required to apply in advance for Israeli permission to enter the Strip. The application is usually submitted through your embassy in Israel and, in theory takes between 5–10 days. In practice, it can take months, and if you're not either a fully accredited journalist or an aid/human rights worker, you're unlikely to get permission to enter Gaza from Israel.
It is possible to enter Gaza from Egypt through the Rafah crossing. The crossing was reopened for traffic on June 1, 2010 though some restrictions still apply and only large groups on NGO sponsored trips will be admitted. Egyptian authorities control only their side of the crossing with Hamas police operating the other side. However, Palestinians (except for men between 18 and 40) are permitted to cross into Egypt visa-free. Reports exist of Hamas police asking for bribes of up to $5,000 to allow people, including Palestinians, out of Gaza.
Gaza has no functioning airport, as the former Yasser Arafat International Airport (IATA: GZA) has been shut down since 2000. The airport was badly damaged by multiple bombings - the most recent in 2009 - and is unlikely to reopen in the foreseeable future. The Israeli Air Force monitors Gazan airspace with radar, and regularly sends patrols of drone aircraft and fighter jets over Gaza. A surveillance balloon is also tethered at the Erez Crossing. For the time being, the closest airports is El Arish International Airport in Egypt, or Ben Gurion Airport in Tel Aviv.
Entry by land
The main point of entry is through the Erez crossing in the north, on the border with Israel. Getting to Erez is easiest done by taxi, it's also possible to travel by Dan BaDarom bus #20 from Ashkelon to the checkpoint.
You will need a permit from the Israeli Army, or a GPO (press) card. If you have a permit, you need coordination with the Israeli Army, specifying when you are planning to enter and leave Gaza. Journalists with a Government Press Office (GPO) card can come and go as they please. Only vehicles with prior coordination (such as a handful of UN cars) are allowed to drive in and only after a thorough search, which may take months. It's very helpful to travel with someone that's run the gauntlet before the first time via Erez.
At Erez, you have to approach the Israeli soldier in a pillbox. They may ask you to open your bags on the table, and (as at TLV) ask if you have weapons. They'll check your passports and permits for allowed entry. You then wait outside an electronic gate for your turn to be called through. You then enter the terminal, hand your passport and coordination over to another soldier to receive an Israeli exit stamp. who may or may not ask you more questions—usually things like "first time in Gaza", etc.
If everything is satisfactory, take back your documents and follow the signs directing you to Gaza. After exiting the terminal, you end up in a long barren concrete tunnel. Don't bring anything too bulky as you'll have to go through a turnstile gate. Coming through the tunnel, you cross a no-man's-land. This is at least 1000m long, and has lovely views of desolate, and presumably mined, land. Palestinians are allowed in this area so you may be lucky and find a porter, trolley, wheelchair, or similar. Take it. If you take the tuk-tuk, keep your hands inside the vehicle at all times and enjoy the ride. The driver will be very friendly—not everyone in Gaza wants to shoot or kidnap you!
After the gated tunnel you will emerge near a small hut. This is a checkpoint which can be ignored on the way to Gaza (but ignored at your peril on the way back). Since 2012, the only people here will be a few taxi drivers.
Take a taxi to the Palestinian checkpoint, another 800m down the road. The going rate is 3 shekels per person. You will be searched for unlawful items (make sure you are, it's the hut to the right. Also visit the hut to the left to check your Hamas credentials—new since October 2011)
Prohibited goods include alcohol and non-halal food, banned by the Hamas government. If you fail inspection, then at best, your items will be confiscated. At worst, you will be arrested; you are unlikely to see any guns at this point. In a particularly bad situation, retreat to Israel.
Once you are through, you can take another taxi, or more likely be picked up by your local contact.
Another way in is through the Rafah Crossing in the South, on the border with Egypt. Egyptian authorities have built a wall on it, and the only way in is through a road called the Philadelphi Route. The route is controlled by Hamas, and the point of entry and exit is controlled by Egyptian Police. You will need to bring a passport with you, as the Egyptian authorities generally do not let anyone out of the Strip into Egypt, and even getting in may pose a challenge. You may also be stopped by Hamas patrols once you enter.
Exit by land
Entry, though difficult, pales in comparison to exit. After being deposited at the Hamas checkpoint near Hamsa Hamsa, go to the white caravan to your right to get your exit clearance.
Once through, take the taxi (3 shekels/person) to the forward checkpoint (where the wire fence begins). Then, go to the hut on the right. A man will take your passport and call ahead to tell the Israelis you're coming. Ignore this at your own peril.
Once you get your passport back, take the tuk-tuk if possible, or begin the 1 km+ walk to Israel.
When you reach the end of the tunnel, you'll see several doors. Once a handful of people have gathered, one of the doors will open (indicated by a green light on top of the door).
You will then enter a hall with a table at the centre. Open your bags at the table (there are no obvious signs to do this, but look up and there's a camera. They are checking for obvious things like large bombs)
When they've ensured you have no prohibited items in your bags, go through the turnstile when the light flashes green. You will not receive a verbal "OK", but rest assured you will be shouted at in Hebrew if you're not ok.
You will see toilet facilities to your right. Use them. Follow the arrows to Israel. You will then encounter another hall with eight doorways. Wait until one of the lights go green then enter that doorway. Leave your bags with the porter at a large security scanner. You should remove all electronics not just laptops, but things like disk drives, mobile phones, etc.) and place them in the large trays. Remove your belt, watch, etc. too.
Keep your passport and ID on you and enter a series of gates as the lights flash green. When you come to the body scanner (a MMW scanner), put your feet on the markers and place your hands over your head in an "I surrender" pose. Keep your passport in your hands. If you've passed initial screening, you will be allowed out to a hall where it appears as if your bags will emerge on a conveyor belt. There may even be empty trays circling it.
Walk straight through to the departures hall, as your bag will be selected for a hand search. On your left in a row where trays with bags will gather, and you can see the guards searching your bags. Wait paitently. If you haven't passed initial screening, you'll be directed through further scanning. There is a separate section that will reveal itself to you if the guards in the gallery above find the need for a strip search.
Once you collect your belongings, you will finally pass through Israeli entry, and get a new stamp in your passport. You're then free and in Israel. Count yourself lucky you own a western passport.
Exit from Gaza could take from 30 minutes to several hours. The checkpoint closes at 14:00, or even earlier. If you are stuck between Hamas and Israel phone your embassy for assistance, but don't try to re-enter Gaza. If you're using Erez you're probably "western", and you're safer in Israeli hands.
The port of Gaza is non-operational, and Gazan waters, seaports, and the coastline are patrolled by the Israeli Navy. If you attempt to reach the Gaza shoreline by boat, you will be stopped by Israeli naval vessels, and turned back. Only boats with prior permission are allowed in. All boats coming from Gaza are allowed to venture six nautical miles into the sea. Any vessel crossing this line is fired on. In 2010 a six-ship flotilla attempted to reach Gaza by sea, and was intercepted by Israeli warships; ten people were killed by Israeli forces and the ships never reached Gaza. It is strongly recommended not to attempt to visit Gaza in this manner.
There is no public transport in Gaza, but there are numerous service (ser-VEESS) taxis. Navigation is done by landmark, not street address. Stand on the side of the road that is in the desired direction of travel. When a driver stops indicate the destination landmark e.g., "Shifa" and the number of passengers ("wahid" for one, "it-nayn" for two.) If the driver is not headed that way, he may drive on. Travel up and down Omar al-Mukhtar St. will set you back one shekel; trips elsewhere are negotiable. Near al-Shifa hospital is a line of taxis that travel to destinations beyond Gaza city. The drivers yell out their destination and wait until their vehicle is pretty much full before they leave. It is advisable to watch your step if walking, since traffic is chaotic and sidewalks are largely non-existent.
Gaza is not exactly a top tourist destination and most of its attractions have taken quite a beating during the past 50 years. The following are all in Gaza City.
- Grand Omari Mosque ( جامع غزة الكبير, Jāmaʿ Ghazza al-Kabīr). Makes up for its lacklustre appearance with an interesting history: it's a converted Crusader church built on the site of a Hellenic temple with pillars from a 3rd-century Jewish synagogue.
- Church of Saint Porphyrius. Orthodox church, celebrating Saint Porphyrius who was Bishop of Gaza around 395-420 CE. The current church was built around 1150 by crusaders and renovated extensively in 1856.
- More educational might be a UNRWA-arranged visit to one of the refugee camps that dot the strip. The UNRWA office is on al-Azhar St, near the Islamic University, call ahead to see if they can arrange a little tour. Your most probable destination is the optimistically named Beach Camp, a warren of concrete huts and open sewers housing 63,000 people, built next to a sandy beach - and you can walk there on your own, 15 minutes to the north from the intersection of Omar al-Mukhtar St. with the seafront road. UNRWA wisely recommends avoiding military clothing. The Jabaliya refugee camp is also a nearby option. Women visiting the camps should dress more conservatively than they need to in Gaza City - headscarves are certainly recommended.
There's very little to do in Gaza for the average tourist. There is a beach, however the water isn't the cleanest in the area, you'd be better off on a beach further north in Israel. There are nice sunsets though over the Med, which can be seen from hotels like the Al Deira.
- Hamam al-Sumara. Last of the 'Turkish baths' in Gaza. Different hours for men and women, excellent service and a proper scrub down. Between Palestine Square and the Saladin Road.
Despite the intense conflict and rhetoric, Gazans use the Israeli shekel. But bring some boxes of cigarettes into the Strip and everyone will be your friend. However, please note the policemen at the Hamas checkpoint into Gaza are now opening all bags and disposing of any alcohol (since early 2009). Do not bring alcohol into Gaza, it could land you into serious trouble and it is always good to respect local Islamic customs.
- Gaza Mall. This elegant new mall is the place to be to escape the hubbub of Gaza's bustling Rimal district. With a fully-stocked supermarket, fast food restaurant and multiple shops, Gazans have quickly taken to this place. Enjoy the relaxing fountains if you have had enough of shopping or need a break. The Gaza Mall is comparable to most Western-style malls only in structure and comfort, but not even remotely in size. You will usually find it packed to the brim with residents of Rimal in the summer escaping the midday heat and may quickly find you want to escape elsewhere.
- PLO Flag Shop. A bit tough to find (ask around) but unmistakable once you spot it. It's the place to buy Palestinian flags, stickers, badges, and pennants. It was also famous for the legendary inflatable Yasser Arafat - a truly bizarre blow-up tennis racket thingy emblazoned with a map of Palestine on one side and a familiar fuzzy visage on the other - but as of January 2005, they only had one left, and weren't selling at any price.
- Interesting sculptures / lampshades fashioned from old cigarette cartons.
- Foustouk and simsimiya. The former is a sticky peanuty snack. The latter is its sesame cousin. An elderly man in Gaza City with a grey tweed jacket crops up on a different street corner when he has a fresh batch.
Usual Arabic cheap eats are available anywhere. Head to the posh suburb of Rimal for fancier food; the restaurant in the Windmill Hotel is nice. Also keep in mind that if you wish to bring in any food, you should first check which foods are and are not acceptable under Islam. If you are caught with forbidden food, it may lead to trouble with the authorities or the local population. Finally, it is not unheard of to be invited over for dinner.
- Abu Hassera. Fish specialist.
- Aldeira Restaurant. On the seaside terrace, this restaurant serves lovely mezes (small mediterranean-style dishes), including the Gazan speciality Daqqa (a sometimes very spicy chili salad, very nice). They also have some tasty main courses: try the shrimps in tomato sauce, baked in the oven, and served in a clay pot. And don't miss out on the fresh strawberry juice! Enhanced with a scoop of vanilla ice-cream, it is higly enjoyable. Remember that the sale of alcohol in Gaza is restricted and that as of most recently, you cannot bring it in with you when you arrive in the Strip.
- Matouk (Behind the legislative council building). Serves an excellent chicken tawwouk.
- Roots Club, Cairo St, Remal (in the heart of Gaza City), ☎ , fax: , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Fine dining. Offers both high end Arabian/Mediterranean cuisine and cheaper fast food at the Big Bite annex. The restaurant frequently caters for special events, including foreign dignitaries and heads of non-governmental organizations.
- Seafood Restaurant (just north of al-Deira hotel). Very good seafood restaurant.
- Al Mat'haf Resort (Soudnya beach), ☎ . On a small hill overlooking the sea in Gaza stands “Al-Mathaf” (Arabic for “The Museum”, pronounced Al-Mat-Haf), a one-of-a-kind recreation and cultural center that showcases Gaza’s rich historical past and seamlessly blends it into the context of life in modern Gaza. As it’s name suggests, Al-Mathaf is home to Gaza’s finest archaeological museum, which is filled with beautiful artifacts that celebrate Gaza’s rich cultural heritage. Along-side these historical treasures of ancient civilizations, today’s Gazans gathers at Al-Mathaf’s beautiful Restaurant-Café, a center of modern culture and recreation in Gaza. In a time when many in Gaza have forgotten our heritage, Al-Mathaf aims to preserve the regions rich history, provide a venue for modern cultural dialogue, and carry a message for this generation to build a brighter future.
Due to increasingly strong Hamas influences, alcohol is no longer available. Alcohol is forbidden in their interpretation of Islam, and Hamas, as a conservative Islamic group, prohibits it. The last place for a visitor to drink was the UN Club. However, the Club was bombed by unknown attackers on New Year's Eve 2006. If you do manage to find some booze, however, you should not attempt to go out under the influence; you may land in a very bad situation indeed. If you are caught with booze on your person by Hamas authorities, it will probably be confiscated, and you may be detained. Bags are given a quick search on entry to Gaza.
There are several hotels in Gaza. However, it is also possible to stay with locals who might even invite you over for a night.
- Aldeira Hotel, Al Rasheed Street, ☎ , fax: , e-mail: email@example.com. Massive rooms with a view of the sea, breakfast included. Most international journalists and NGOs stay at the Deira, which has a back-up generator, a business centre and WiFi. Pleasant (though by Gaza's standards not superb) restaurant (with Shisha pipes, although not allowed in the fine Oriental bedrooms). Don't be alarmed that the water tastes salty. Rooms include non-alcoholic minibar, hairdryer, towels, soap, shampoo, conditioner, and a little plate of cookies. $100–185USD/night.
- Commodore Hotel. Has a sauna, jacuzzi, massage, multiple restaurants, 24-hour room service, a swimming pool, and reportedly Kosher food.
- Grand Palace Hotel, Al Rasheed Street, ☎ , fax: , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. At the beach side of Gaza city, 3km from city centre, direct beach view, conference, food and beverage facilities.
- Marna House. Gaza's oldest hotel, run by a friendly family.
- Al Mat'haf Hotel, email@example.com (Soudunya beach), ☎ . As a second phase, Al-Mathaf is just completed the construction of a boutique hotel, which will feature traditionally designed rooms with a sea view, as well as multi-purpose halls and facilities to provide business services, as well as health, fitness, and spa facilitie
Realistically, if you are not either an aid worker, journalist or diplomat, there is no work for you in Gaza. There are a number of NGOs offering internships, such as the Al-Dameer Association for Human Rights in Gaza, the Palestinian Center For Human Rights and others, but these will be arranged well before you get to Gaza.
The Gaza Strip is occasionally subject to Israeli military operations (which include aerial and naval bombardment as well as ground incursions) as well as armed confrontations between the Hamas authorities and Fatah factions. While Hamas has managed to curb crime levels in Gaza, some members have been known to beat journalists attempting to cover demonstrations against Hamas. In general, use common sense and avoid these kinds of situations. Consult your embassy for advice and current conditions before setting out. Unlike the West Bank travel documentation does not need to be kept at hand at all times.
It's also worth bearing in mind that Gaza's power station and its substation have been severely damaged by Israeli airstrikes and no longer function at the intended capacity. Power outages are very common since the European Commission handed over control of the fuel obtainment to the Palestinian Authority in 2009 as Hamas has so far failed to pay 20% of the fuel costs. Currently, these outages are countered by large industrial and small commercial diesel generators which combine to create a cacophony that the locals have somehow become desensitised to. Some of these generators are poorly maintained and leak carbon monoxide. Visitors should be wary of this, particularly in enclosed spaces where it has proven fatal.
See also War zone safety.
Tap water in Gaza is not potable and is often dangerously dirty. Some hotels may use filters but if in doubt, just buy bottles.
Israel has blockaded the area since 2007. However, food and medical supplies are generally allowed in after inspection. Any major or routine medical requirements should be sourced in Israel or elsewhere. Anyone visiting gaza is well advised to have a good grounding in first aid, and provide their own first aid kits. Be aware that medical evacuations to Israel can take extensive time getting through the borders.
Women should dress conservatively, especially if entering refugee camps. Conservatively here means, within Gaza City a top with long sleeves and absolutely nothing low cut in the front. Ideally, tops should also be long. Trousers are suitable as long as they are loose and full length, not capri pants.