There have been hundreds of indigenous nations and tribes. Many exist today, though often greatly reduced in numbers and territory, while others were wiped out by Europeans (in particular the Spanish and Portuguese), either from diseases brought from the Old World, by military conquest or for other reasons. Here are some main categories, based on geographic locations.
- Incan Empire- spanned much of modern-day Peru and Ecuador, and parts of Bolivia, Chile, Argentina and Colombia
- Inca Trail - Peru's most famous trek