Travel topics > Transportation > Rail travel > Rail travel in Japan
Rail travel in Japan is perhaps the most efficient way to travel across the country with an extensive network of over 27,000 kilometers of train tracks covering all the 4 main islands of Japan, served primarily by Japan Railways (JR) in addition to other smaller private and municipal operators. As stations are usually placed at the city center and trains are punctual up to the second, traveling by train can be significantly faster than taking an airplane. It's no wonder that more than 7 billion passengers traveled by train in 2013 and 2014, signifying the paramount importance of rail travel to the Japanese.
Japan's railways are fast, highly efficient and cover the majority of the country, making this the transport mode of choice for most visitors. The first and most confusing aspect of Japan's railway system (especially within large cities like Tokyo) that you will encounter is the overlap of several private railway networks with the JR network. A given station can host several companies (JR and/or private), or the stations of distinct companies can be located next to the others. Tokyo also has two separate metro systems to add to the confusion. Being aware of this one fact will substantially reduce the confusion you experience trying to understand railway maps and find your way around.
Visitors are usually astounded to find that Japanese trains, like other forms of mass transit, nearly always leave and arrive promptly on time, following the published schedule to the second. If you are late, you will surely miss the train! Delays are uncommon but can still happen especially if there's a suicide attempt on the train track.
Note that most trains do not operate 24 hours, for example in Tokyo they do not run in the early morning 01:00-05:00, and the Shinkansen system never runs overnight. If you are planning to be out late and are relying on the train to get home, be sure to find out when the last train is leaving. Many bars and clubs are open until the first train runs again in the morning so keep this in mind as another option or tuck in at Internet cafes that are open 24 hours.
One of the first things any visitor to Japan should do is pick up a public transport smart card, also called an IC card. The main brands are Pasmo and Suica in the Kanto area around Tokyo and ICOCA in the Kansai area around Osaka, but all the major ones are fully interchangeable, meaning you can pick up a card in any major city and use it in virtually the entire country. Fares are calculated automatically no matter how complicated your journey or how often you transfer, just tap on and tap off at both ends. In addition to rail travel (not valid for Shinkansen), it can also be used for payments in vending machines, convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and renting lockers in stations; look for the sticker that looks just like the picture on the right.
These cards can be purchased and topped up from any station ticket counter, including those in airports, and many vending machines for a base deposit of ¥500 plus the amount you wish to load. The deposit and any remaining value can be refunded when you leave Japan, or you can keep the card for your next visit as they stay valid for 10 years.
You cannot use smart cards themselves to travel between two different regions on regular train services. For example, if you were to start your journey in Tokyo and travel west to Atami using the JR Tokaido Line, you can use a smart card as these stations are within the boundaries of the East Japan Railway (JR East). However, if you continue west of Atami towards Shizuoka you would then enter an area operated by a different company - in this case, Central Japan Railway (JR Central) - and your card would not be accepted when you try to tap out of the system. Traveling between two regions requires a paper ticket, but even smart cards can be accepted at ticket vending machines as payment (your paper ticket would have the letters IC printed on it).
As of September 2017, smart cards are being accepted for travel on the Tokaido and San'yo Shinkansen in lieu of paper tickets. Bullet train tickets can be purchased online with a credit card and tied to a smart card, which can be used to tap in and out of the ticket barriers. Currently, the service is only available in Japanese.
Buying a short-distance ticket
Over short distances (such as in major cities like Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, etc.) you can use a smart card to cover your entire journey. Fares will be calculated based on your start and end stations. If for some reason you don't want a smart card, you can still buy paper train tickets the way everyone used to.
Most train tickets in Japan are priced by distance, so there will be a map above the ticket machines. Near the center, the current station is usually marked in red with 当駅 (tōeki). Around it will be all other stations you can get to with a price below them. The nearer stations have the smaller numbers (e.g. the closest stations will probably be about ¥140, more distant ones rising to perhaps ¥2,000). As long as you stay on the same rail system, you can take any route and transfer between trains for free.
To buy a ticket, insert coins or cash into the ticket machine. As you do, options will light up for the tickets you can buy with that amount of money. Usually you just need a regular ticket for the correct amount, but for some journeys you may need to purchase a transfer fare or some other special option.
The coin slot is large so that you can insert multiple coins at once. They never accept ¥1 or ¥5 coins as payment, but will pass them through without complaint. One trick is to dump your whole change purse in; whatever change you get back will be in the largest coins possible, reducing the amount of small change you're carrying.
Insert the ticket at the fare gate and don't forget to pick it up once you are through. Don't throw away the ticket yet; you have to insert it again when exiting the fare gates at the end of your journey.
If you cannot figure out the price, buy a minimum fare ticket and pay when you arrive at your destination. You can either present your ticket to the staff at the gate, or pay the balance at the "Fare Adjustment" machine. Look for a small ticket vending kiosk before the exit fare gate. Insert your minimum fare ticket and pay the balance indicated on the screen.
The JR network is extensive as one would expect from what used to be the national rail system. The JR group operates the Shinkansen lines, as well as a multitude of regional and urban mass transit lines. In the countryside the group companies also run bus services to connect places that don't have a rail service. However, the JR network is not a monopoly and particularly within major conurbations there are other private rail networks.
Interestingly, people refer to JR in Japanese by its English initials, "Jay-Arru." Hopefully even non-English speakers can help you find a station if you ask.
Japan Rail Pass
By far the best option for visitors who plan to do a lot of travelling is the Japan Rail Pass, which allows unlimited travel on almost all JR trains, including the Shinkansen, for a fixed period of 7, 14 or 21 days (map of Japan Rail Pass coverage). The 7-day Rail Pass in Ordinary (Standard) Class is ¥29,110; by comparison a round-trip between Tokyo and Osaka on the bullet train costs ¥27,240. The 14-day and 21-day ordinary passes cost ¥46,390 and ¥59,350, respectively. Green Car Rail Passes cost ¥38,880, ¥62,950 and ¥81,870 for 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively, and include unlimited travel in Green Car seating (See "Green Cars" below). Note that arriving to an airport and leaving from another (e.g. arriving in Tokyo and leaving from Osaka) can save you from making a round-trip or a loop, and can make these passes less attractive.
The pass can only be purchased outside of Japan from specific vendors listed on the official website which includes Japanese airlines JAL and ANA if you are travelling with them. Additionally there are many vendors who will purchase one for you for a markup or fee. Although the price is in Japanese Yen, you will generally pay in your local currency with the local price altered usually monthly or weekly depending on the exchange rate and the vendor. Upon purchase, you are given a paper Exchange Order, which can be exchanged at most major JR stations in Japan, including all of the stations nearest to airports, for the Rail Pass itself. At the time of exchange, you will need to have your passport with you, and know the date upon which you will want the Rail Pass to start. Dedicated counters specifically for Rail Pass exchanges are available at Tokyo, Shinjuku and Nagoya stations; wait times are little and as soon as you receive the pass you can start making free seat reservations immediately at the counter (recommended if you're travelling on less-popular routes that might fill up, or if you are travelling with a large group).
There is an experiment of selling the Japan Rail Pass at major stations and airports across Japan for one year beginning March 8, 2017, for a slightly inflated price.
The rail pass does have a few exceptions:
- If you travel on the Tokaido, San'yo, or Kyushu Shinkansen you are not allowed to travel on the faster Nozomi or Mizuho services - the full fare has to be paid.
- Most trains on the Tohoku/Hokkaido Shinkansen (Tokyo-Sendai-Aomori-Hakodate) and Hokuriku Shinkansen (Tokyo-Nagano-Kanazawa) have a premium first class cabin known as "GranClass". You cannot use the GranClass cabin with any Japan Rail Pass unless you pay the limited express fare and GranClass fare (i.e. about ¥27,000 on the Hayabusa if going from Tokyo all the way to Hakodate).
- You must pay extra surcharges for JR trains that travel on tracks not owned by JR. Some examples include:
- If you stay in a private compartment - available on overnight trains and a small number of Shinkansen trains between Osaka and Fukuoka - you must pay the limited express and accommodation charges.
Regional Rail Passes
Regional JR companies also sell their own passes that cover only parts of the country. They are generally poorer value and you'll have to plan pretty carefully to make them pay off. From north to south:
- Hokkaido: JR Hokkaido Rail Pass
- Kantō: JR East Tokyo Wide Pass (also covers some private rail lines)
- JR East/JR West Hokuriku Arch Pass covers travel between Tokyo and Kansai via the Hokuriku region, and also covers some private rail lines)
- JR East Rail Pass - Nagano/Niigata Area (also covers Kanto and some private rail lines)
- Chugoku: JR West sells several, including:
- Kansai-Hiroshima Area Pass
- San'yo-San'in Area Pass
- Kansai Wide Area Pass
- Shikoku: All Shikoku Rail Pass (also covers private rail lines and trams), Shikoku Saihakken Kippu
- Kyushu: All Kyushu Area Pass, Northern Kyushu Area Pass (covers areas north of Kumamoto and Oita)
Many JR East and JR West rail passes can be purchased online in advance at a discount of between ¥500-¥1,000, while other passes must be purchased when inside the country.
When you make any rail journey (even if you obtained a ticket using your Rail Pass), you will need to show the Rail Pass at the manned ticket barrier. This is inconvenient if there is a queue, but it is usually acceptable to flash your pass at the ticket-taker as you slip past the other customers transacting business with JR.
Seishun 18 Ticket
The Seishun 18 Ticket (青春18きっぷ Seishun jūhachi kippu) is the most economic deal for travel in Japan, offering five days of unlimited train travel for just ¥11,850. Better yet, unlike the Rail Pass, the days do not have to be consecutive. You can even split a ticket so that (for example) one person uses it for two days and another for three days. The main catches are that tickets are only valid on local trains and that tickets are valid only during school holidays (March–April, July–September, December–January), so you need good timing and plenty of time on your hands to use it.
See also: Seishun 18 Ticket
Buying a long-distance ticket
Standard JR tickets are usually split into two categories:
- Basic Ticket or joshaken (乗車券): These tickets cover the basic fare for trains operating between two stations/areas. Stopovers are permitted on long trips, though you must stay on the ticketed route and cannot backtrack. Tickets are valid for 2 days for journeys over 100km, 3 days for journeys over 200km, and then one day for each additional 200km.
- Limited Express Ticket or tokkyuken (特急券): With a few variants on the name, limited express tickets are purchased for premium long-distance trains, including the Shinkansen. Generally, unreserved (自由席, jiyuuseki) tickets are valid for unreserved seats on any service, while reserved (指定席, shiteiseki) tickets are valid for a specific train.
At major stations there will be an obvious travel section where you can buy your ticket from a human being (look for the little green sign of a figure relaxing in a chair or ask for the midori no madoguchi みどりの窓口, literally "green window"). Since you probably need to know the train times and may want to reserve a seat as well this is a good thing. Generally speaking you can make your desires known by means of hand waving and pointing at destinations if the staff are unable to speak English. Writing down information helps as most Japanese have a much easier time reading English than hearing it.
For express trains that require a surcharge and seating reservation, you will usually be able to find a staffed window. However, some trains have their own specific machines to do this. First, buy a regular train ticket to your destination. On the touchscreen machines, there will usually be a button for express services. Choose the name of the service you wish to travel on, your destination, preferred departure time and seating preferences, and then insert the surcharge amount. You will be issued a reservation card showing the departure time and your seat number. You must also have either a travel ticket, pass or smartcard to get through the ticket gates: a surcharge on its own is not valid for travel.
For unreserved local trains, just use your smart card. If the fare happens to cost more than you had left on the card, you can pay the difference at a ticket counter or fare adjustment machine at the destination station.
JR pioneered the famous Bullet Train, known in Japanese as Shinkansen (新幹線), and with speeds nudging 320 kilometers per hour (360 km/h in the near future), these remain the fastest way to travel around the country. Note that the Shinkansen does not run overnight. The Shinkansen is also known for its enviable safety record, with not a single accident resulting in a passenger fatality since it began operation in 1964.
On the newer and refurbished bullet trains, smoking is not permitted except in a designated smoking room located between cars. Also, some bullet trains are not equipped with vending machines. Food and beverage services for most trains are generally available through an at-seat wagon cart service, although some slower services (like the Kodama below) do not have food or beverage service at all, which means you will have to purchase items for consumption before boarding.
The most important, most-travelled shinkansen route in the country is the Tokaido Shinkansen, which links Tokyo with Nagoya, Kyoto and Osaka. This line continues from Osaka to Okayama, Hiroshima and Fukuoka (Hakata station) as the San'yo Shinkansen, then to Kumamoto and Kagoshima as the Kyushu Shinkansen.
There are a total of six different types of services operating on the Tokaido, San'yo and Kyushu Shinkansen lines. These can all be grouped into three types, reflecting the number of stops made:
- Nozomi (のぞみ), Mizuho (みずほ)
- These two services are the fastest, making stops only at major cities. The Nozomi is the primary service that runs through both the Tokaido and San'yo Shinkansen lines, though some other Nozomi trains run only between Tokyo and Osaka. This train type has a frequent service of up to every 10 minutes on weekdays and runs with 16 cars. A one-seat journey on the Nozomi from Tokyo to Osaka takes 2 hours 30 minutes, while trips from Tokyo to Fukuoka take 5 hours. Seamless transfers can be made at Fukuoka between the Nozomi and Kyushu Shinkansen trains: Tokyo to Kumamoto is 6 hours, and the full run from Tokyo to Kagoshima is about 7 hours.
- The Mizuho, on the other hand, is limited to services on the San'yo and Kyushu Shinkansen between Osaka and Kagoshima, with trips operating in the morning and evening "peak" hours. Mizuho trains run from Osaka to Kumamoto in 3 hours, and to Kagoshima in 3 hours, 45 minutes. Mizuho trains only runs with 8 cars and has a shared reserved and green seats on car 6.
- A small surcharge on top of the Shinkansen fare is required, and seat reservations are mandatory for all but three cars on the train. Most importantly for tourists, the Japan Rail Pass is NOT valid on Nozomi or Mizuho trains.
- Hikari (ひかり), Sakura (さくら)
- These are the fastest services valid with the Japan Rail Pass, making a few more stops than the Nozomi or Mizuho. On the Tokaido Shinkansen, there are usually two Hikari trains per hour that depart from Tokyo: One train terminates in Osaka, and the other continues on the San'yo Shinkansen, terminating in Okayama. West of Osaka there is generally one Sakura train per hour (two during commuting hours) that runs from Osaka to Fukuoka and on to Kagoshima. Other Sakura services run only between Fukuoka, Kumamoto and Kagoshima on the Kyushu Shinkansen.
- If you use the Hikari or Sakura with a Japan Rail Pass you will typically need to transfer at least once for long journeys. For trips on the Tokaido and San'yo Shinkansen, Shin-Osaka is the best location to transfer between services, with Shin-Kobe, Okayama, and maybe Himeji as alternatives for some connections.
- Departing Tokyo with these services you can reach Osaka in 3 hours, Fukuoka in 6 hours, Kumamoto in 7 hours and Kagoshima in 8 hours. From Osaka you can get to Fukuoka in less than 3 hours, Kumamoto in 3 hours 30 minutes and Kagoshima in 4 hours 15 minutes.
- Kodama (こだま), Tsubame (つばめ)
- Also valid with the Japan Rail Pass, these are the all-stations services stopping at every shinkansen station on the route. Tokaido Shinkansen Kodama services generally run from Tokyo to Osaka and Tokyo to Nagoya. Separate all-station Kodama services run on the San'yo Shinkansen, and Tsubame trains run only on the Kyushu Shinkansen between Fukuoka, Kumamoto and Kagoshima. While Tokaido Kodama trains operates 16 cars, San'yo Kodama and Kyushu Tsubame services may operate with fewer cars, so be sure to check the signs on the platform for your proper boarding location.
Other Shinkansen Routes
Japan's other bullet train routes are operated primarily by JR East and radiate north of Tokyo station. These include:
- Tohoku Shinkansen to Sendai, Morioka and Aomori, continuing to Hakodate as the Hokkaido Shinkansen
- Akita Shinkansen to Akita, coupled with Tohoku Shinkansen trains as far as Morioka
- Yamagata Shinkansen to Yamagata and Shinjo, coupled with Tohoku Shinkansen trains as far as Fukushima
- Joetsu Shinkansen to Yuzawa and Niigata
- Hokuriku Shinkansen to Nagano, Toyama and Kanazawa
The Japan Rail Pass is valid for all of these services, except for the GranClass cabin operating on certain routes (additional fare is required).
Other JR Train Types
Other JR services, particularly suburban ones, use the following generic labels:
- Regular (普通 futsū, 各停 kakutei or 各駅 kakueki) - local service, stops at every station
- Rapid (快速 kaisoku) - skips approximately 2 out of 3 stops, no surcharge
- Express (急行 kyūkō) - skips approximately 2 out of 3 stops, requires a surcharge
- Liner (ライナー rainaa) - skips approximately 2 out of 3 kyuko stops, requires a surcharge
- Limited Express (特急 tokkyū) - skips approximately 2 out of 3 kyuko stops, requires a surcharge and usually a reserved seat as well
Express services may offer first-class Green Car seats. Given that the surcharge of almost 50% gets you little more than a bit of extra leg room, most passengers opt for regular seats. However, if you really need to ride a particular train for which the regular seats are full, the Green Car is an alternative. The JR pass is available in two types: "Ordinary", which requires paying the surcharge to use the Green Car, and "Green", which includes Green Car seats at no additional charge.
Depending on where you travel in Japan, Green Cars do have some little perks. On the premium Nozomi and Mizuho (not valid with the rail pass) you are greeted by a female attendant who will bow to you as you enter the train and check your tickets in place of the train conductor. Depending on the day and time that you travel, Green Cars can be less crowded and quieter than the regular cars, but, of course, during Golden Week and other high-peak travel periods, all bets are off.
Most trains operating on the Tohoku, Hokkaido and Hokuriku Shinkansen offer a premium Green Class experience known as GranClass (グランクラス). The service can be equated to international business class on an airline and features 18 wide, power-reclining "shell seats" in a 2+1 configuration.
GranClass on the fastest services offer a personal in-cabin attendant, an increased selection of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages, and premium quality food items made with local ingredients. GranClass may also be offered on slower, stopping services during the morning and evening peak periods, but food and attendant services will not be available.
A special GranClass fare structure is in place for these services. Holders of the Japan Rail Pass and JR East Rail Pass will need to pay the limited express fare *and* the GranClass fare to travel in GranClass. Even if you have a Green Car pass, it will still cover just the basic fare - however, trains with GranClass also offer regular Green Car seating which can be used for no extra charge with the Green Car pass.
Many of Japan's rail companies have moved towards smoking restrictions and bans in recent years, both on platforms and on trains. JR East, for example, banned smoking on the platforms of all of their stations in Tokyo in 2009.
Up to the early/mid 2000's almost all of the long-distance services and bullet trains had segregated carriages for smokers; these days only a very small number remain, including on some of the older bullet trains that are in service. Most others - including the new and refurbished bullet trains - restrict smokers to small ventilated rooms, known as "smoking corners", in between certain cars. All suburban and commuter services, as well as many long-distance trains, do not permit smoking at all.
Usually non-smoking trains are marked in timetables with the universal no-smoking sign, or with the Japanese kanji for no smoking (禁煙; kin'en).
Making a reservation
On Shinkansen and tokkyū trains, some of the carriages require passengers to have reserved their seats in advance (指定席 shiteiseki). For example, on the 16-carriage Hikari service on the Tokaido Shinkansen, only five of the carriages permit non-reserved seating, all of which are non-smoking (禁煙車 kin'ensha). On a busy train, making a reservation in advance can ensure a comfortable journey. Especially consider it if you're travelling in a group, as you're unlikely to find 2 seats together, let alone more, on a busy train.
Making a reservation is surprisingly easy, and is strongly advised for popular journeys (such as travelling from Tokyo to Kyoto on a Friday evening, or taking a train from Nagoya to Takayama). Look out for the JR Office at the train station, which bears a little green logo of a figure relaxing in a chair - and ask to make a reservation when you buy your ticket. The reservation can be made anywhere from a month in advance to literally minutes before the train leaves. Note that the opening hours of these offices (dedicated to long distance travels) are more limited than the ones for local trains: they may be closed early in the morning or late in the evening.
If you are a Japan Rail Pass holder, reservations are free: simply go to the JR Office, and present your Rail Pass when requesting a reservation for your journey. The ticket that you are given will not allow you to pass through the automated barriers though - you'll still need to present your Japan Rail Pass at the manned barrier to get to the train.
Without a pass a small fee will be charged, so a non-reserved ticket may be preferable to a reserved ticket, particularly if you are boarding at Tokyo or another originating station where all the seats will be open anyway.
Foreigners can make advanced reservations for many JR trains on the internet, in English, at the JR East Train Reservation website. This website allows regular travelers and Rail Pass holders alike to reserve seats on the following services:
- All Shinkansen trains EXCEPT Tokaido, San'yo and Kyushu Shinkansen services, since they are not operated by JR East (i.e. services between Tokyo and Kyoto, Osaka, Hiroshima, Fukuoka and Kagoshima cannot be reserved with this system)
- Key JR East Limited Express trains to and from Tokyo, including the Narita Express
- All JR Hokkaido Limited Express trains
- Airport Rapid trains to and from New Chitose Airport in Sapporo
Seat reservations may be made anywhere from one month up to three days before the date of travel, and your ticket must be picked up at a JR East ticket counter any time up to 21:00 on the day prior to departure. Also, the basic fare is *not* included in the seat reservation cost, unless you have a valid rail pass.
If you are in Tokyo, you can also take advantage of the JR East Travel Service Center for foreigners at Tokyo, Shinjuku and Ikebukuro stations. You can easily exchange rail pass vouchers, purchase tickets or make seat reservations with staff that speak multiple languages.
On all bullet trains and limited express services, there is an overhead rack where personal items and small luggage can be stored. There is also a limited amount of space at the rear of each car for a few large suitcases, though bringing large luggage is generally discouraged for personal space and comfort considerations, both for yourself and other passengers. As an alternative to bringing large luggage on the train, you may wish to look into a luggage delivery service which in Japan is a highly efficient and economical way to transport your luggage. For example, a 20 kg (44 lb.) suitcase measuring not more than 140 cm (55 in.) total in length, width and height costs around ¥1700 to transport between Tokyo and Kyoto on Yamato's Ta-Q-Bin (宅急便 takkyūbin) service with next day delivery. Long distance deliveries (i.e. Tokyo-Fukuoka) can take two days, and one extra day must be added for deliveries to an airport. Most hotels and convenience stores will be able to make the necessary arrangements for you and accept payment.
A small number of bullet trains are installing luggage racks in response to travel from overseas visitors: Most Hokuriku Shinkansen trains operating between Tokyo and Toyama/Kanazawa have luggage racks installed in even-numbered standard class cars and in the green car.
If the option is there, the private railways are often cheaper than JR for an equivalent journey. However this is not always the case as changing from one network to another generally increases the price. Most private railways are connected to department store chains of the same name (e.g. Tokyu in Tokyo) and do an excellent job of filling in the gaps in the suburbs of the major cities. Private railways may interpret the service classes above differently, with some providing express services at no additional charge.
Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Fukuoka, Tokyo and Yokohama also have subway (underground) services. For seeing the sights within a particular city, many offer a one day pass, often between ¥500 and ¥1000 for an adult. Tokyo has several types of day passes, which cover some subway lines but not others. The full Tokyo subway pass (which does not include the JR Yamanote Line) is ¥1000.
A few private railways operate premium trains for travel between major cities and tourist/leisure destinations. With distinctive exteriors, these trains usually feature comfortable, all-reserved seating and make limited stops. Some offer food and beverage service, either through vending machines, at-seat wagon sales or an on-board cafe. All of these premium services require a surcharge on top of the normal fare, like the tokkyu-ken for JR trains.
Such premium services include Odakyu Railway's Romancecar from Shinjuku to Hakone, Tobu Railway's SPACIA from Asakusa to Nikko and Kinugawa, and Seibu's Red Arrow from Ikebukuro to Chichibu and from Shinjuku to Kawagoe. In central Japan, Kintetsu runs a plethora of limited express services such as the Shimakaze, Urban Liner, Vista Car and other services from Nagoya, Kyoto and Osaka to such destinations as Ise, Toba, Shima, Nara and Kashihara.
Keihan, a private railway operator in the Kyoto-Osaka market, will adopt a premium seating concept in August 2017 with the introduction of one reserved car on their fastest commuter trains. The Premium Car service will be available at 10-minute frequencies for most of the day.
To provide a sense of safety and security for female passengers, many of the JR and private commuter rail lines in Japan reserve a car for women only during the morning and evening rush hour. These cars are identified by special placards and stickers on the train and platform, which also designate the times that women-only cars are in effect. Also, some limited express trains operated by JR West to and from the Kansai region have reserved seats specifically for women and their children. You will find men sitting in "women-only" seats, but they will make way if requested to do so. Normally, the first and last carriages are designated "women-only" during the morning rush time.
Overnight by train
- See also: sleeper train
Overnight trains in Japan, containing the prefix shindai (寝台) but more commonly known as Blue Trains because of the blue color of the sleeping cars, were once an icon of the entire country. Numerous services would run regularly, bringing the Japanese to different parts of the country in a timely, efficient manner. These days, however, with ageing train equipment and other modes of transportation becoming easier and sometimes cheaper (e.g. Shinkansen trains and overnight buses), overnight trains have slowly been discontinued.
Only one set of overnight trains remain in daily service today: The Sunrise Izumo and the Sunrise Seto. These services run coupled together between Tokyo and Okayama. In Okayama the cars divide, with the Sunrise Izumo continuing to Kurashiki and Izumo, and the Sunrise Seto heading south to Takamatsu on the island of Shikoku. The same is true in reverse, with the trains combining in Okayama before continuing east to Tokyo.
When using these services, separate fares will have to be paid. The basic fare and limited express surcharge are both based on distance, and the accommodation charge is fixed over the entire journey. Lodging ranges from carpet spaces - where you literally sleep on the floor - to bunk bed-type compartments, to private rooms with a shower and toilet.
The Japan Rail Pass will cover only the basic fare. If you sleep in a bunk bed or a private room, then the limited express and accommodation charges will have to be paid. On the other hand, if you sleep in the carpet space, this is considered a "reserved seat" and there is no additional charge to use it.
Some additional overnight services are added during periods of high demand, such as Golden Week, New Year's and the summer months. Among these is the very popular Moonlight Nagara service between Tokyo and Ogaki (located between Nagoya and Kyoto). The Moonlight Nagara, and certain other extra services, are classified as Rapid trains with regular seating. As such, these trains can be used with the Seishun 18 Ticket - and tend to get crowded when they run.
There are a few drawbacks to overnight train travel. In most cases you cannot book the train until you arrive in Japan, by which point the train might be sold out (unless a helpful Japan resident purchases the tickets for you in advance of your arrival). Some overnight trains are also subject to cancellation on the day of departure if inclement weather is expected along the route.
The alternative to travelling overnight by train is to travel by bus - but if you have a Japan Rail Pass, there is another way that you can go about travelling by night - and it can be relatively easy. The key is to split up your journey, stopping at an intermediate station en route to your destination and resting at a nearby (and preferably cheap) hotel. In the morning, take another train toward your destination to complete the trip. The Rail Pass will cover your train journey: your only responsibility is paying for the hotel room. If you can find accommodations in a smaller city, the chances are good that you will pay less for it compared to lodging in bigger cities such as Tokyo... not to mention you will have your own bed, bathroom and toilet. Toyoko Inn business hotels are sprouting up all over Japan - most of them near train stations - and are just one example.
If you have some extra money, consider forwarding some of your luggage to your destination using a luggage delivery service.
Deluxe Excursion Train
- See also: tourist trains
In recent years, the various Japan Railway companies have announced brand new sleeper trains with deluxe accommodations. The first such train, Seven Stars in Kyushu, was unveiled in 2013 by JR Kyushu, who coined the phrase cruise train due to its long and various itineraries. The Seven Stars in Kyushu appropriately operates in Kyushu and contains 14 deluxe suites, a lounge car and a dining car.
Fares start from ¥210,000 for a one night journey and ¥480,000 for a three night journey that includes one night at a ryokan (per person, double occupancy). Despite the high cost, the excursion train has proven to be so popular that JR Kyushu holds a ticket lottery to determine who can order tickets. For example, there were over 6,800 applications for the 210 suites available for train runs between October 2015 and February 2016. Travel agencies have begun selling these itineraries at a mark-up for those who miss out on the lottery.
Due to the success of Seven Stars in Kyushu, other JR companies are following suit with their own excursion trains. In 2017, JR East will introduce the Train Suite Shiki-shima and JR West will introduce the Twilight Express Mizukaze.