East Jerusalem represents the eastern half of the once-divided city of Jerusalem.
Politically, the Old City is part of East Jerusalem. The area within the city walls is discussed in the Old City article, while many important sites just outside the city walls are discussed in this article. These sites are concentrated in the City of David, Mount Zion, and the Mount of Olives. There are also some sites of interest in more distant parts of East Jerusalem.
The ancient city of Jerusalem was located in today's East Jerusalem. The city began in a small area now known as the "City of David", just south of the current Old City walls, which were built by the Ottoman Turks in 1538. When Jerusalem began to spread outside the Old City in the late 19th century, Jews mostly settled west of the Old City while Arabs mostly settled to the north and south. The 1948 war left Jerusalem divided, with the western neighborhoods under Jewish control, while the Old City and eastern neighborhoods were under Arab control. This forms the basis for the current division between "East" and "West" Jerusalem.
In 1967, after capturing East Jerusalem, Israel decided to annex a large area surrounding the city, to provide room for the city's future growth. This large area included what were the Arab parts of Jerusalem at the time, as well as a number of nearby Arab villages, and large open spaces. Since 1967, the villages have grown into large suburbs, while Jewish neighbourhoods have been built in the open spaces. In this time, East Jerusalem's population of 66,000 Arabs has grown to a total of approximately 260,000 Arabs and 200,000 Jews.
East Jerusalem is also the location of the first campus of the Hebrew University on Mt Scopus, established in 1925. From 1948-1967 the campus was an island of Israeli control in East Jerusalem, though it did not function as a university. After 1967, the university was re-established on the site.
East Jerusalem remains a major point of contention in Arab-Israeli relations, as Israel has annexed it, but Palestinians claim it as their capital. Peace negotiations typically envision Jewish and Arab neighborhoods in East Jerusalem becoming part of Israel and a Palestinian state respectively. The status of the Temple Mount/Noble Sanctuary in the Old City has been harder to negotiate, as both sides have deep theological and historic links to the same location.
There has been periodic violence between Arabs and Jews in East Jerusalem (and on the boundary between the East and West), most recently the current (2015-2016) "Intifada of the Knives".
East Jerusalem has three central stations for Arab urban and intercity buses. All are close to each other, just north of the Old City. Listed in geographical order, from west to east:
- 1 HaNeviim station. Buses to Bethlehem, Hebron, and southern Arab neighborhoods of Jerusalem. Adjacent to the Damascus Gate light rail station.
- 2 Nablus Road station. Buses to Ramallah and northern Arab neighborhoods of Jerusalem
- 3 Sultan Suleiman station. Buses to Bethany, Jericho, and eastern Arab neighborhoods of Jerusalem
Here the stations are named after the street they are on. If you are asking for directions, it may be more useful to tell people your bus destination.
For a listing of routes and destinations, see here.
By light rail
Coming from West Jerusalem, the light rail first stops at Damascus Gate next to the Old City. It then turns north, paralleling the boundary between East and West Jerusalem, before continuing north into additional East Jerusalem neighborhoods.
Close to the Old City, the streets are limited and crowded, and you are best off walking.
If you are visiting the Mount of Olives, keep in mind that it is quite steep. You might want to take a very short cab ride to the top to save you the climbing, particularly in hot weather. It should be easy to flag down a cab near the Old City.
For the few East Jerusalem sites that are far from the Old City, there are buses (separate but overlapping Jewish and Arab networks), as well as the light rail line.
This hill is located next to the Old City, just south of the Armenian Quarter. "Zion" is an old name for Jerusalem. "Mount Zion" received its name in the Middle Ages, when it was thought that the original location of Jerusalem was on this hill. However, that is wrong, the original location is the "City of David" which is located east of Mount Zion. Mount Zion is relatively unique among Jerusalem historic areas in that it was under Israeli control from 1948-1967.
- 1 Church of the Dormition. 9AM–noon and 12:30PM–6PM Monday through Thursday; 9AM–noon and 2–6PM on Friday; 10:30AM–6PM on Sunday. Adorned by a conical dome and a tall bell tower, this Mount Zion church is the traditional site of the Virgin Mary's death. Several churches have been built on the site. The present-day structure was built in the early 20th century for the visit of Kaiser Wilhelm II. The main part of the church contains a mosaic floor featuring the signs of the zodiac and the names of various saints and prophets. A statue of the Virgin Mary rests in the crypt surrounded by images of various women listed in the Old Testament.
- 2 King David's Tomb. Summer hours: Sat-Thu 8AM-8PM, Fri 8AM-2PM. Winter hours: Sun-Thu 8AM-sunset, Fri 8AM-1PM. Adjoining the Church of the Dormition and located on the lower floor of the Crusader building is a small chamber venerated as King David's Tomb. The chamber—divided for separate viewing by men and women—contains a sarcophagus covered by a drape. From 1948-1967, when the Old City was under Jordanian control and there was no access to the Western Wall, Jews would come here to pray. Today the entrance hall is still used as a synagogue. Admission is free.
- 3 Chamber of the Holocaust, ☎ , fax: . Sun-Thu 8AM-5PM, Fri 8AM-1PM. Located directly opposite the Tomb of David on Mount Zion, this small museum is maintained by the Diaspora Yeshiva. The collection includes Holocaust artifacts, artwork inspired by the Holocaust, an exhibit of anti-Semitic publications throughout history, and memorials to individuals and communities that perished. It differs from Yad Vashem in that it puts the Holocaust in more of a Jewish-religious context. NIS 12.
- St Peter in Gallicantu. 8:30AM–5PM Monday through Saturday. Located to the east of Mount Zion and overlooking the Kidron Valley, this church commemorates the traditional site of St Peter's denial of Christ. In the crypt below the church are ancient caves, purported to be the place where Christ spent the night at the hand of Caiphas before being presented to Pontius Pilate. A large wooden model of an 18th-century Old City is on display in the courtyard, although it pales in comparison to the more elaborate model on display at the Citadel (see Armenian Quarter). 7 NIS for adults and 5 NIS for students. Children under 13 are free. Parking is available at a charge of 10 NIS.
- 4 Schindler's Tomb, ☎ A phone number has been hastily painted on the upper gate and can be called if desiring entrance. Hours are not set and more often than not, the gate to the cemetery is closed and locked. Down the hill from the Zion Gate is a small Christian cemetery. It is here that the grave of Moravian-born German Oskar Schindler is located. Schindler, an industrialist during World War II, went out of his way to hire Jews as laborers in his factory. By doing so, he saved 1,200 people from the Nazi death camps. The story was memorialized in Stephen Spielberg's Academy Award-winning movie, Schindler's List.
City of David
Located south of the Temple Mount, this area is the oldest inhabited part of Jerusalem. When King David conquered Jerusalem from the Jebusites (around 1000 BCE) and made it his capital, the city was limited to this area. David's son Solomon began the process of expanding the city to the north and west, so since then, the original city has been known as the "City of David".
- 5 City of David and Jerusalem water system. 8AM–7PM Su–Th, 8AM–5PM, Fr (from October to March, till 5PM and 1PM, respectively); last entrance two hours before the closing time. To get here, exit the Old City through Dung Gate (by the Kotel), turn left, and then take the first street on your right. The site comprises two archeological findings. The City of David is the oldest part of Jerusalem with remains of buildings up to the city's capture by the Babylonians in 586 BC. The ruins include 13th century BC walls, as well as fortifications and fragments of a palace attributed to David, the second king of Israel.
- The second thing is the Warren’s Shaft, the underground water system named after Charles Warren, its 19th-century discoverer. The system was originally built by the Jebusites to ensure a water supply during sieges. In the 10th century BC a tunnel (presently known as a Canaanite tunnel) was dug to take water from the Gihon Spring to the fields of the Kidron valley. King Hezekiah had a new tunnel built to bring the spring water right into the city. Hezekiah's Tunnel ran 533 m (1,750 ft) from the spring to the Pool of Siloam in the southern end of the city. Now, the visitors have two options. You can either walk through the Hezekiah's (wet) tunnel or take the shorter Canaanite (dry) tunnel. In the wet tunnel, you will have to wade in thigh-deep water (flashlight and proper shoes are required). It takes about half an hour to pass through, and the ceiling is high in most places. The dry tunnel is really dry and quite narrow (in fact, it is a crack in the rock). Admission is 25 NIS.
- In front of the ticket office is a metal staircase leading down underneath the metal mesh floor. This takes you down to the "Large Stone Structure", which is claimed to be part of the building work undertaken by either David or Solomon, perhaps even being King David's palace. This claim, which is not without controversy, makes the site popular with earnest young Zionists. A building above this site houses a free film outlining Jewish history in the area. From the terrace behind the building an excellent view of Silwan and the ancient rock-cut tombs can be obtained.
- 6 Tomb of Absalom. An impressive burial monument, approximately 20 meters tall, that is mistakenly attributed to King David's rebellious son Absalom. It is in the valley between the Old City and the Mount of Olives. Just to the south is the so-called Tomb of Zechariah which is also impressive. Between these is Tomb of Bnei Hezir which is cave cut into the cliff, rather than a free-standing monument. All of these date to the Hasmonean period (2nd-1st century BCE).
Mount of Olives / Garden of Gethsemane
It is recommended that one explore the Mount of Olives from the top down, as the uphill climb is fairly steep. The best ways to travel to the top of the Mount of Olives are by sherut (shared taxi), which will cost 20 shekels, or by bus (275 from the bus station in front of Herod's gate), both of which are easily accessible from the Damascus Gate.
If you decide to walk, the best route is to go up the lane beside the Garden of Gethsemane (Church of All Nations) and turn right, then follow the tarmac road up past the Dominus Flevit church and the Tombs of Zachariah and Malachi to the short flight of stairs which brings you out at the viewing point overlooking the Old City. Be aware that pickpockets are a real menace at this spot and make sure that your valuables are safely stowed away and that you are aware of anyone coming close to you. Photographs and engravings dating back to the late 1700s show three paths leading up over the Mount of Olives which correspond to the two paths and one road in existence today. As the right-hand path is the shortest route to Bethany, it is possible that Jesus really did follow this path on Palm Sunday, as tradition claims.
Steimatzky’s bookstore in West Jerusalem carries a very good pamphlet called "The Mount of Olives" that includes an account of the history of each church, in addition to readings from the Gospels and notes from pilgrims to the area. It also covers Bethphage and the Church of St. Lazarus in Bethany.
The following points of interest are listed from the top of the Mount to the bottom. Once you have finished on the Mount of Olives, it is a short climb to the Old City's Lion's Gate.
- Mosque of the Ascension. The courtyard and chapel are open daily (if closed, ring the bell). Sacred to Muslims and Christians, this medieval chapel—now part of a mosque—is on the supposed site of Christ's ascension. The chapel was built around AD 380 around a venerated imprint, now set in stone, of Christ's right foot. The chapel became a Muslim shrine after Saladin's conquest in 1187. If given a "tour" by the guard, he will expect a gratuity for his services. 5 NIS.
- Church of the Pater Noster. 9–11:30AM and 3–5PM Monday through Saturday. Built over Constantine-era ruins, this church sits atop a grotto where Christ is believed to have taught the Paternoster (meaning "Our Father"), or Lord's Prayer. The church is famous for its tiled panels inscribed with the Lord's Prayer in more than 130 languages. The Seven Arches Hotel is a short walk from the church.
- Tombs of the Prophets. Mon-Fri 9AM-3:30PM. At the top of the Jewish Cemetery, which spans the southwestern slope of the Mount of Olives, lies a large catacomb complex containing oven-shaped graves (kokhim). The Palestinian family which discovered the catacomb claims that the tombs belonged to the 5th century BCE prophets Haggai, Malachi and Zechariah. In reality, the catacombs date from a much later period, the 1st century AD. There is an admission charge.
- Dominus Flevit Chapel. 8–11:45AM and 2:30–5PM daily. Its name meaning "The Lord Wept", this chapel was identified by medieval pilgrims as the place where Jesus wept over the fate of Jerusalem. The chapel's west window frames a breathtaking view of the Old City. A small collection of stone artifacts from nearby excavations are on display.
- Church of St. Mary Magdalene, ☎ . 10AM–noon, Tuesday and Thursday (call to double check the times). This Russian Orthodox Church, with its gilded onion domes, was built by Tsar Alexander III in 1885 in memory of his mother, Maria Alexandrovna, whose patron saint was Mary Magdalene. Tsar Alexander III's sister-in-law, Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, was buried here after her murder during the Russian Revolution in 1920.
- Church of All Nations / Garden of Gethsemane. 8AM–noon and 2:30–5PM (summer: 6PM) daily. Also known as the Church of Agony because it is built over the rock where Jesus agonized about his death, this 4th-century church has been rebuilt many times, the most recent structure being the result of financial contributions from 12 nations. To commemorate the benefactors, the church was designed with 12 domes adorned with each country's coat of arms. The rock in the center of the nave is the remnant of the ruined Byzantine church. The plan of the Byzantine church is outlined on the floor in black marble. Next to the church is the surviving part of the Garden of Gethsemane with its centuries-old olive trees.
- Tomb of the Virgin / Cave of Gethsemane. Hours for the Tomb of the Virgin are 8AM–noon and 2:30–5PM daily. Hours for the Cave of Gethsemane are 8:30AM–noon and 2:30–5PM daily. Directly across from the Church of All Nations, the Tomb of the Virgin is believed to be where the Disciples entombed Mary, the mother of Jesus. Forty-seven steps lead past side niches and down to crypt, which contains the burial place of Queen Melisande of Jerusalem, St. Anne and St. Joachim (Mary's parents) and the Virgin Mary. Outside, to the right of the entrance, is the Cave of Gethsemane, also known as the Cave of Betrayal, the traditional place of Judas's betrayal of Jesus.
North of the Old City
- 7 Rockefeller Archaeological Museum (Just outside the northeastern corner of the Old City). 10AM–3PM Sunday through Thursday and 10AM–2PM on Saturday. the Rockefeller Museum was made possible by a substantial contribution by American oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller. The museum houses an impressive collection of antiquities, including a number of the Dead Sea Scrolls. There is an admission fee.
- Garden Tomb. 8:30AM–noon and 2–5:30PM Monday through Saturday. Disputed to be an alternative to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre as the location of the death, burial and resurrection of Christ, the Garden Tomb is located a block north of the Damascus Gate. British general, Charles Gordon, popularized the view that the skull shaped hill just north of the city was the Golgotha referred to in the New Testament. Excavations have revealed an ancient tomb along with ruins of a cistern system and winepress—evidences that the site was once the location of a garden. Regardless of its authenticity, the lovely garden is worth a visit. Admission is free; donations are accepted.
- 8 Ammunition Hill (Givat HaTachmoshet). This was the main Jordanian fortification in East Jerusalem. Israel overran it in a bloody battle in 1967, leading to the capture of all of Jerusalem. Now the IDF runs a museum here commemorating the battle.
- 9 Hebrew University - Mount Scopus. The humanities faculties of Hebrew University, Israel's top-ranked university, are located here. The campus is quiet and leafy, but confusing to navigate. There are impressive lookouts on the Old City to the south west and the Judaean Desert to the east.
- Tomb of Lazarus (Bethany). This Christian site is located in Al Eizariya village, an eastern suburb of Jerusalem in the West Bank.
- 10 Tell el-Ful (Short walk from Beit Hanina light rail stop). Archaeological digs have shown that this hill is the Biblical city of Gibeah, which was King Saul's capital before David came to the throne. The ancient ruins are not visible, but you can see a large ruined modern building. King Hussein of Jordan started building a palace here in the 1960s, but the 1967 war interrupted this and the palace was never finished. Be careful around the palace ruins, as they are not in good repair. There is a good view from here of the surroundings.
- 11 Tomb of Simon the Just (Kever Shimon HaTzadik), 'Uthman Ibn 'Affan Street. An ancient cave tomb, traditionally the burial site of Simeon the Just, a Jewish leader and high priest in the 3rd or 4th century BCE. If you cannot get to Meron for the annual Lag BaOmer festivities, there is also a celebration here.
- 12 Cave of the Minor Sanhedrin. An ancient underground tomb with 23 niches, matching the 23 members of the "Minor Sanhedrin" (an ancient Jewish court).
- 13 Tombs of the Kings. The burial site of Queen Helena of Adiabene, a 1st-century Jewish monarch. The site is owned by the State of France, and unfortunately cannot be visited except on rare occasions.
- 1 Temple Mount Sifting Project, Tzurim Valley National Park (Enter from Derech E-Tur Shmuel Ben Adaya), ☎ . 9-17. Participate in salvaging antiquities from debris that was dumped out of the Temple Mount during construction by Muslim authorities there. The basic program is two hours long. At the beginning, you get instructions on how to sift through the archaeological debris. At the end, the guide explains the significance of the artifacts that each of the participants have found. 15nis.
- Kan Zman Jerusalem Hotel, Nablus Road, telephone 6283282. Middle Eastern specialities plus pasta and salads. Main courses start at about 30 NIS, and there are 50 NIS buffets on Thursday and Saturday nights. 7AM-12AM. Not kosher.
- American Colony Hotel, One Louis Vincent St., telephone 6279777. French and Middle Eastern cuisine. Three course meals from $25; summer bar. 12PM–3PM and 7PM-11:45PM. Reservations advised. Not kosher.
- [dead link]Shababeek Restaurant, 7 Shimon Hatsidik St (Sheek Jarah), ☎ . noon-11PM. Lovely old style restaurant serving selected Mediterranean food.
- Gossip. Great Palestinian beer, nice atmosphere, and their Gossip Special Argila (shisha) is amazing.
Most, but not all, East Jerusalem hotels are located a short walk north of the Old City.
- 1 Ramsis Hostel (firstname.lastname@example.org), 20 Haneviim St (outside Damascus gate), ☎ . No curfew. Check-in: 12:00, check-out: 10:00. Very friendly. Located in a historic building on the border between East and West Jerusalem, with the West Jerusalem bars a 5 minute walk away. Wireless internet included in price. The Owner and manager is Mike Mushasha, a very friendly and experienced man who speaks fluent English, Hebrew, and Romanian. dormbed $10, private $15, free tea or coffee.
- Golden Gate Inn, Khan al-Zeit St. Breakfast included in the price and has free WiFi. Very near Damascus Gate and about a 8 minute walk to Jaffa Gate. Rooms are clean but tiny as you would expect for the price. 150 NIS or so for a private single.
- 2 Mount of Olives Hotel, 53 Mount of Olives Rd, fax: 626-4427, e-mail: email@example.com. Affordable family-run hotel situated at the summit of the Mount of Olives, next door to the Chapel of Ascension. Surrounded by famous churches and holy sites. Commands a dramatic view of the Old City and the Dome of the Rock. Accessible by bus #75 from Damascus Gate. 30-80 USD.
- 3 Jerusalem Hotel, Nablus Rd, ☎ , fax: , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- 4 Capitol Hotel, Salah Eddin St. 54 guest rooms. From US$99.
- Jerusalem Panorama, Ras el-Amud St (Hill of Gethsemane), ☎ , fax: . This hotel offers good service and facilities for the price. Most rooms are air conditioned and children's facilities are available. Rooms offer fine views but those overlooking the street can be noisy. This area is not serviced well by public transportation. ₪448-784.
- Seven Arches, Main Rd (Mount of Olives near the Church of the Paternoster), ☎ , fax: . This large, modern hotel is on the summit of the Mount of Olives and offers spectacular views. ₪448-784.
- 5 American Colony Hotel, 1 Louis Vincent St, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. Luxury, historic boutique hotel in East Jerusalem. Popular with visiting dignitaries and diplomats. Ten minutes walk north of Damascus Gate. Has 86 unique rooms and suites, outdoor pool, spa treatments, breakfast buffet, free internet access and complimentary parking.
- [dead link]Novotel Jerusalem, 9 Saint George St. Not one of Novotel's finest hotels - some refurbishment is needed. Located a very short walk from the Old City. Starting at $115/night with breakfast.
- 6 Grand Court Jerusalem Hotel, 15 Saint George St, ☎ . 442 rooms including family rooms and some especially designed for handicapped guests.