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Korean phrasebook

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Korean (한국어 hangugeo in South Korea, 조선말 chosŏnmal in North Korea, or 우리말 urimal (our language) as a neutral denomination) is spoken in South and North Korea, as well as Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in Jilin, China. It may be distantly related to Japanese, but is certainly entirely distinct from Chinese, although it uses large amounts of imported Chinese vocabulary.

Depending on which part of Korea you go to different dialects of Korean are spoken. The standard in South Korea is based on the Seoul dialect, which is spoken in Seoul and Gyeonggi province as well as the city of Kaesong in North Korea, while the standard in North Korea is based on the Pyongan dialect, which is spoken in Pyongyang as well as North and South Pyongan provinces. Other dialects include the Gyeongsang dialect spoken in Busan, Daegu, Ulsan and the provinces of North and South Gyeongsang, the Jeju dialect spoken on the island of Jeju, and the Hamgyong dialect spoken in North and South Hamgyong provinces, as well as by most of the ethnic Korean minority in China. This guide is based on the standard in South Korea.

The Korean language is fundamentally the same in North and South Korea, and speakers from both sides of the border are, for the most part able to understand each other. The main differences lie in the loan words used to represent modern concepts, where South Koreans typically use English words, and North Koreans typically use the corresponding Russian words or create new words instead. The standard from of Korean used by the ethnic Korean minority in China follows the North Korean standard, though due to the popularity of South Korean dramas, most people also understand South Korean terms.

Handwritten hangeul in an advertisement

Grammar[edit]

Korean sentence structure is very similar to that of Japanese, so speakers of Japanese will find many aspects of Korean grammar familiar, and Korean speakers likewise with Japanese. But there are similar but slight differences to the standardized pronunciations, and the Korean language, even after its simplification in the past century, has a wider library of vowels and consonants than Japanese, hence Japanese speakers may find it difficult to pronounce various words, let alone transcribe them.

Korean word order is subject-object-verb: "I-subject him-object see-verb." Subjects (especially I and you) are often omitted if these are clear from the context. This may seem awkward from an English perspective, but English too has colloquial 1st-person/2nd-person subject omissions, such as "[Are you] Done yet?" or "[I'm] Done." It is a matter of whether sentences are common enough that such lack of subjects doesn't confuse the listener. In turn, some English colloquial sentences without subjects may be confusing from a Korean standpoint.

There are no articles, genders, or declensions. It has extensive verb conjugations indicating tense and honorific level. There is a handy, universal plural form, but it is very often omitted.

Korean has postpositions instead of prepositions: jip mite, "house below" instead of "below the house."

Koreans refer to each other rather in terms like elder brother, elder sister, younger sibling, uncle, aunt, grandmother, grandfather, manager, teacher etc. (like Nepalese or Chinese) than by using the word you. Additionally, it's not uncommon to refer to yourself by using such an expression ( example: "[I] Father will cook you a nice dinner." Which feels like saying "This father will..."). You can also call somebody an aunt, uncle or brother even if this person is actually not. Many Korean girls call even their boyfriend "oppa" (older brother).

Depending on the relation to the person you have conversation with, it's necessary to find the correct level of formality and politeness. If the person is considered to be higher in the hierarchy, a very polite and formal form has to be used, while this person will use a more "vernacular" form to address you as a lower person. Koreans often ask very personal questions (about your age, occupation, family status etc.) in order to find out in which form they should use when talking to you. This phrasebook assumes the highest formality level in most cases. Not only are words conjugated according to 6 existing levels of formality (but 2 are becoming unused), but a few words will also be replaced with different words altogether. Extremely formal places will often use some Chinese postal words as well.

Pronunciation guide[edit]

The good news is unlike Chinese, Korean is not tonal, so you don't need to worry about changing your pitch to get the meaning right. The bad news is that Korean has a few too many vowels for comfort and small distinctions between many consonants, so pronouncing things exactly right is still a bit of a challenge.

This phrasebook uses the Revised Romanization of Korean, which is overwhelmingly the most popular system in South Korea. The McCune-Reischauer romanization, used in North Korea and older South Korean texts, is noted in parentheses when different.

Vowels[edit]

Korean vowels can be short or long, but this is not indicated in writing and the distinction rarely if ever affects meaning. (example: 밤 bam, pronounced short means "night", pronounced long means "chestnut")

a ㅏ 
like 'a' in "father"
o ㅗ 
like 'o' in "tone"
eo (ŏ) ㅓ 
like the "uh" in "lust"
u ㅜ 
A low sound of "oo" as in "hoop". "woo" (Korean does not distinguish between "oo" and "woo").
eu (ŭ) ㅡ 
like 'i' in "cousin", "dozen". Like the Turkish "ı" or Russian "ы". Kind of similar to the french "eu", but as a clearer, purer vowel sound.
i ㅣ 
like the 'i' in "ship" (short) OR the 'ee' in "sheep" (long)
e ㅔ 
like the 'e' in "bed"
ae ㅐ 
similar to the "a" in "hand", "valve", "gas", and "can"
  • note: ㅐ ae is now virtually identically pronounced as ㅔ e. Only rare words are unconsciously pronounced differently like they were half a century ago ("애", or "child" is one such remnant).

Common diphthongs[edit]

Korean has two standalone diphthongs:

oe ㅚ 
like 'we' in 'west' (it used to be a different sound, now prounounced the same as ㅞ shown below)
ui ㅢ 
like 'ŭ' + 'i'

In addition, most vowels can be modified by prefixing them with 'y' or 'w':

wa ㅘ 
like 'wa' sound in "suave"
wae ㅙ 
like 'wa' in "wagon". Some would argue there is virtually no difference anymore to ㅞ.
wo ㅝ 
like 'wuh' sound in "wonder"
wi ㅟ 
like "we" or 'e' in "she" with rounded lips
we ㅞ 
like 'we' in "west"
ya ㅑ 
like 'ya' in "yard"
yo ㅛ 
like 'yo' in "yosemite" or "New York". Not like "yaw" or "yoke".
yeo (yŏ) ㅕ 
like 'you' in "young"
yu ㅠ 
like "you"
ye ㅖ 
like 'ye' in "yes"
yae ㅒ 
like 'ye' in "yes"; its virtually assimiliated to be the same as 'ㅖ'
  • to summarize the assimiliated vowel diphthongs mentioned above,

ㅙ = ㅚ = ㅞ = 'we' in "west" ㅖ = ㅒ = 'ye' in "yes"

Consonants[edit]

Most Korean consonants come in three versions, namely unaspirated (without a puff of air), aspirated (with a puff of air) and tensed (stressed). Unaspirated consonants exist in English too, but never alone: compare the sound of 'p' in "pot" (aspirated) and "spot" (unaspirated). Many English speakers find it helpful to pronounce an imperceptible little "m" in front to 'stop' the puff. Tensing isn't really found in English, but pronouncing the consonant quick and hard is a reasonable substitute.

b (p) ㅂ 
like 'p' in "spit" (unaspirated)
p (p', ph) ㅍ 
like 'p' in "pig" (aspirated)
pp ㅃ 
tensed 'p', like 'p' in "petit" in French
d (t) ㄷ
like 't' in "stab" (unaspirated)
t (t', th) ㅌ 
like 't' in "top" (aspirated)
tt ㄸ 
tensed 't'
g (k) ㄱ 
like 'k' in "skate" (unaspirated)
k (k', k) ㅋ 
like 'c' in "cat" (aspirated)
kk ㄲ 
tensed 'k'
j (ch) ㅈ 
like 'g' in "gin" (unaspirated)
ch (ch') ㅊ 
like 'ch' in "chin" (aspirated). Usually pronounced as a light aspiratd 't' as a final consonant
jj ㅉ 
tensed 'j'
s ㅅ 
like 's' in "soon", 'sh' before i or any "y" diphthong. Usually pronounced as a very light 't' as a final consonant
ss ㅆ 
tensed 's', 's' in 'sea', never 'sh'

Standalone consonants:

n ㄴ 
like 'n' in "nice"
m ㅁ 
like 'm' in "mother"
l ㄹ 
somewhere between 'l', 'r' and 'n', original sound is 'r' or 'l'. and 'n' sound occurs through initial consonant mutation.
h ㅎ 
like 'h' in "help"
ng ㅇ 
like 'ng' in "sing". Unpronounced (placeholder) when at the start of a syllable.

While the rules above are usually correct for the first consonant, those in the middle of a word are usually (but not always) voiced, which means that ㅂㄷㅈㄱ turn into English "b", "d", "j" and "k". The best rule of thumb is to concentrate on remembering that the first consonant is "special" and the rest are more or less as in English: bibimbap (비빔밥) is pronounced "pee-bim-bap", not "bee-bim-bap" or "p'ee-bim-bap".

The aspirated spellings with "h" are used only in the official North Korean orthography.

Loanwords[edit]

Native Korean words can end only in vowels or the consonants k, l, m, n, ng, p or t, and any words imported into Korean are shoehorned to fit this pattern, usually by padding any errant consonants with the vowel eu (ㅡ). For example, any English word ending in "t" will be pronounced as teu (트) in Korean, eg. Baeteumaen (배트맨) for "Batman". In addition, the English sound "f" is turned into p and has that vowel tacked on, so "golf" becomes golpeu (골프).

Written language[edit]

A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; a stupid man can learn them in the space of ten days. --King Sejong on hangul

Useful Hanja


Hangul is the main script used in modern Korea, although the legacy of Hanja from the past remains relevant and most Koreans learn at least a few hundred hanja in school. You will often see hanja in South Korea, for example at Buddhist temples or in newspapers:

男 (남 nam
Men
女 (녀/여 nyeo/yeo
Women
大 (대 dae
large
中 (중 jung
center
小 (소 so
small
水 (수 su
water
山 (산 san
mountain
寺 (사 sa
Buddhist temple
街 (가 ga
street
美國 (미국 miguk
United States.

Korean is generally written using a native alphabet known as hangul (chosongul in North Korea and China). Designed by a committee and rather scary-looking at first, it's in fact a very logical alphabetic writing system far simpler than Chinese characters or even the Japanese kana syllabary, and it's well worth putting in the time to learn them if staying in Korea for more than a day or two.

The basic idea is simple: hangul consists of letters called jamo combined into square blocks, where each block represents a syllable. The block is always in the order (consonant)-vowel-(consonant), stacked from top to bottom, where ㅇ is used as the first jamo if the first consonant is missing, and the space for the last consonant can be left empty is missing. For example, the word Seoul (서울) consists of the syllables seo (ㅅ s plus ㅓ eo, no final consonant) and ul (ㅇ plus ㅜ u plus ㄹ l). Tensed consonants are created by doubling the jamo (ㅅ s → ㅆ ss) and y-vowel diphthongs have an extra dash tacked on (ㅏ a → ㅑ ya). And that's pretty much it!

Many Korean words can also be written using Chinese characters, known as hanja in Korean. These are still occasionally seen in newspapers, formal documents and official signs, but are in general rarely used and have even been completely abolished in North Korea. While they remain official in South Korea, their use is largely restricted to the elderly, and many youths are unable to recognize anything more than own names written in hanja. The few times when they still show up is in brackets next to the hangul to describe an unfamiliar term or distinguish a term from another similar word, or sometimes as a form of boldface for proper names in official documents.

It is worth noting that while Chinese characters are seldom written, many words themselves are Chinese words simply written as how they are pronounced -- not according to the Mandarin pronunciation, but according to the standardized Korean pronunciation of those same Chinese characters used in China. Like the position of Latin in English and French, Chinese words are often found in the more formal and less vernacular sciences, and even more so with 19th-century new Chinese words coined by the Japanese, and used in both Korea and China. Japanese, Vietnamese, and Chinese speakers may find some familiarity with some of these overlapping Chinese terms, although pronunciations are slightly different and Koreans only write out sounds and not the original Chinese characters. Although not nearly as much as Cantonese, Korean pronunciation of Chinese words retain more medieval Chinese pronunciations of the Tang dynasty some 1300 years ago, than the Manchurian-influenced modern Mandarin.

Due to American influences since the end of World War II, many loan words from English can also be found in modern Korean as spoken in South Korea. The Korean words for many modern concepts are essentially the same as the English ones (eg. hotel (호텔), taxi (택시), computer (컴퓨터)), but will be written in hangul. If you can learn how to read hangul, as an English speaker, you will find it surprisingly easy to read many signs.

Phrase list[edit]

Common signs


열림 (yeollim
Open
닫힘 (dadchim
Closed
입구 (ipgu
Entrance
출구 (chulgu
Exit
미시오 (mishio
Push
당기시오 (dangishio
Pull
화장실 (hwajangshil
Toilet
남/男 (nam
Men
여/女 (yeo
Women
금지 (geumji
Forbidden

Basics[edit]

Hello. (formal
안녕하십니까. (annyeong hashimnikka) Common in North Korea, provincial South Korea.
Hello. 
안녕하세요. (annyeonghaseyo) Common in South Korea. to older people or to the people to meet first
Hello. (informal
안녕. (annyeong) to your friend or younger people
Hello. (on the phone
여보세요. (yeoboseyo) when you answer the phone.
How are you? 
어떻게 지내십니까? (eotteoke jinaeshimnikka?)
Fine, thank you. 
잘 지냅니다, 감사합니다. (jal jinaemnida, gamsahamnida)
What is your name? 
성함이 어떻게 되세요? (seonghami eotteoke doeseyo?)
My name is ______ . 
제 이름은 ______입니다. (je ireumeun ____ imnida)
Nice to meet you. 
만나서 반갑습니다. (mannaseo bangapseumnida)
Please. 
부탁합니다. (butakamnida)
Thank you. 
감사합니다. (gamsahamnida)
You're welcome. 
천만입니다. (cheonmanimnida)
Yes. 
예/네. (ye/ne)
No. 
아니오. (anio)
Excuse me. (getting attention
실례합니다. (shill(y)e hamnida)
I'm sorry. 
죄송합니다. (joesonghamnida)
Goodbye 
안녕히 가십시오/계십시오. (annyeonghi gashipshio/gyeshipshio). The former expression is used by the person staying (e.g. the host), the latter by the person leaving (e.g. a guest).
Goodbye (informal
안녕. (annyeong)
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
여기에 영어를 하시는 분 계십니까? (yeogie yeong-eoreul hasineun bun gyesimnikka?)
Please speak slowly. 
천천히 말해 주십시오. (cheoncheonhi malhae jusipsio)
Please say it again. 
다시 한번 말해 주십시오. (dasi hanbeon malhae jusipsio)
I can't speak {language} [well]. 
저는 {언어를} [잘] 못합니다. (jeoneun {eon-eoreul} [jal] motamnida)
I can't speak English [well]. 
저는 영어를 [잘] 못합니다. (jeoneun yeong-eoreul [jal] motamnida)
Do you speak {language}? 
____를 하십니까? (____reul hasimnikka?)
English 
영어 (yeong-eo)
German 
독일어 (tog-ireo)
French 
프랑스어 (peurangseueo)
Korean 
한국어 (hangugeo)
Chinese 
중국어 (junggugeo)
Japanese 
일본어 (ilboneo)
Yes, a little. 
네, 조금만요. (ne, jogeummanyo)
Help! 
도와주십시오! (dowajusipsio!), 도와주세요! (dowajuseyo!)
Look out! 
조심하십시오! (josimhasipsio!), 조심하세요! (Josimhaseyo!)
Good morning. 
좋은 아침입니다. (jo-eun achimimnida)
Good evening. 
좋은 저녁입니다. (jo-eun jeonyeogimnida)
Good night. 
좋은 밤입니다. (jo-eun bamimnida)
Good night (to sleep
안녕히 주무십시오. (annyeonghi jumusipsio)
I don't understand. 
이해가 안 갑니다. (ihaega an gamnida)
Where is the toilet? 
화장실이 어디에 있습니까? (hwajangsiri eodi-e isseumnikka?)
What? 
무엇입니까? (mu-eosimnikka?)
Where? 
어디입니까? (eodiimnikka?)
Who? 
누구입니까? (nuguimnikka?)
When? 
언제입니까? (eonjeimnikka?)
Which? 
무슨입니까? (museun imnikka?)
How much? 
얼마나요? (eolmanayo?)
How do you say _____ in Korean? 
_____은 한국말로 어떻게 말합니까 ? (____eun hangungmallo eotteoke malhamnikka?)
What is this/that called? 
이것은/저것은 무엇이라고 부릅니까? (igeoseun/jeogeoseun mu-eosirago bureumnikka?)

Problems[edit]

Leave me alone. 
혼자 내버려 두십시오. (honja naebeoryeo dusipsio)
Don't touch me! 
만지지 마십시오! (manjiji masipsio!), 만지지 마! (manjiji ma!, informal)
I'll call the police. 
경찰을 부르겠습니다! (gyeongchareul bureukesseumnida!)
Police! 
경찰! (gyeongchal!)
Stop! Thief! 
서라! 도둑이야! (seora! dodukiya!)
I need your help. 
당신의 도움이 필요합니다. (dangshin-ui doumi pilyohamnida)
It's an emergency. 
응급 상황입니다. (eungkeup sanghwang-imnida)
I'm lost. 
길을 잃었습니다. (gireul ireosseumnida)
I lost my bag. 
가방을 잃었습니다. (gabang-eul ireosseumnida)
I lost my wallet. 
지갑을 잃었습니다. (jikabeul ireosseumnida)
I'm sick. 
아픕니다. (apeumnida)
I've been injured. 
상처를 입었습니다. (sangcheoreul ibeosseumnida)
I need a doctor. 
의사가 필요합니다. (uisaga piryohamnida)
Can I use your phone? 
당신의 전화기를 사용해도 되겠습니까? (dangshin-ui jeonhwagireul sayonghaedo doegesseumnikka?)

Numbers[edit]

Korean has two sets of numbers, namely native Korean numbers and Sino-Korean numbers (which are borrowed from Chinese). Both come in handy, but in a pinch, the Sino-Korean series is more important to learn.

Sino-Korean numbers[edit]

Sino-Korean numbers are used for amounts of currency, telephone numbers, the 24-hour clock and counting minutes.

KRW50,000
0
공 (gong) / 영 (yeong)
일 (il)
이 (i)
삼 (sam)
사 (sa)
오 (o)
육 (yuk)
칠 (chil)
팔 (pal)
구 (gu)
10 
십 (sip)
11 
십일 (sibil)
12 
십이 (sibi)
13 
십삼 (sipsam)
14 
십사 (sipsa)
15 
십오 (sibo)
16 
십육 (simyuk)
17 
십칠 (sipchil)
18 
십팔 (sippal)
19 
십구 (sipgu)
20 
이십 (isip)
21 
이십일 (isibil)
22 
이십이 (isibi)
23 
이십삼 (isipsam)
30 
삼십 (samsip)
40 
사십 (sasip)
50 
오십 (osip)
60 
육십 (yuksip)
70 
칠십 (chilsip)
80 
팔십 (palsip)
90 
구십 (gusip)
100 
백 (baek)
200 
이백 (ibaek)
300 
삼백 (sambaek)
1,000 
천 (cheon)
2,000 
이천 (icheon)
10,000 
만 (man)
100,000 
십만 (simman)
1,000,000 (one million) 
백만 (baengman)
10,000,000 
천만 (cheonman)
100,000,000 
억 (eok)
1,000,000,000 (one billion) 
십억 (sibeok)
10,000,000,000 
백억 (baegeok)
100,000,000,000 
천억 (cheoneok)
1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) 
조 (jo)
10,000,000,000,000 
십조 (sipjo)
100,000,000,000,000 
백조 (baekjo)
1,000,000,000,000,000 
천조 (chunjo)
10,000,000,000,000,000 
경 (gyeong)
number _____ (train, bus, etc.) 
_____ 번 (열차, 버스, etc.) (beon (yeolcha, beoseu, etc.))
half 
반 (ban)
less 
덜 (deol)
more 
더 (deo)

Native Korean numbers[edit]

Native Korean numbers are used for hours and with counting words.

Counting words

When counting objects, Korean uses special counter words. For example, "two beers" is maekju dubyeong (맥주 2병), where du is "two" and -byeong means "bottles". There are many counters, but the most useful ones are myeong (명) for people, jang (장) for papers including tickets, and gae (개) for pretty much anything else (which is not always strictly correct, but will usually be understood and is growing in colloquial usage).

objects (apples, sweets) 
-gae
people 
-myeong, 분 -bun (polite)
flat paper-like objects (papers, tickets, pages) 
-jang
bottles (or other glass or ceramic containers for liquid with a narrow mouth) 
-byeong
cups, glasses
-jan
animals 
마리 -mari
times 
-beon
machines (cars, computers) 
-dae
long objects (pens, rifles) 
자루 -jaru
books 
-gwon
small boxes (cigarettes, etc.) 
-gap
large boxes 
상자 -sangja
trees 
그루 -geuru
letters, telegrams, phone calls, e-mails 
-tong
boats 
-cheok
bunches of things such as flowers 
송이 -song-i

Note that when combined with a counting word, the last letter of numbers 1 through 4 as well as 20 is dropped: one person is hanmyeong (hana+myeong), two tickets is dujang (dul+jang), three things is segae (set+gae), four things is negae (net+gae), twenty things is seumugae (seumul+gae).

하나 (hana)
둘 (dul)
셋 (set)
넷 (net)
다섯 (daseot)
여섯 (yeoseot)
일곱 (ilgop)
여덟 (yeodeol)
아홉 (ahop)
10 
열 (yeol)
11 
열하나 (yeolhana)
20 
스물 (seumul)
30 
서른 (seoreun)
40 
마흔 (maheun)
50 
쉰 (swin)
60 
예순 (yesun)
70 
일흔 (ilheun)
80 
여든 (yeodeun)
90 
아흔 (aheun)

Numbers above 100 are always counted with Sino-Korean numbers.

Time[edit]

now 
지금 (jigeum)
later 
나중에 (najung-e)
before 
전에 (jeone)
after 
후에 (hu-e)
morning 
아침 (achim)
afternoon 
오후 (ohu)
evening 
저녁 (jeonyeok)
night 
밤 (bam)
dawn 
새벽 (saebyeok)

Clock time[edit]

one o'clock AM 
오전 한 시 (ojeon hansi)
two o'clock AM 
오전 두 시 (ojeon dusi)
noon 
정오 (jeong-o)
one o'clock PM 
오후 한 시 (ohu hansi)
two o'clock PM 
오후 두 시 (ohu dusi)
midnight 
자정 (jajeong)

Duration[edit]

_____ minute(s) 
_____ 분 (___ bun)
_____ hour(s) 
_____ 시간 (___ sigan)
_____ day(s) 
_____ 일 (___ il)
_____ week(s) 
_____ 주 (___ ju)
_____ month(s) 
_____ 달 (___ dal)
_____ year(s) 
_____ 년 (___ nyeon)

Days[edit]

today 
오늘 (oneul)
yesterday 
어제 (eoje)
tomorrow 
내일 (nae-il)
the day before yesterday 
그저께 (geujeogge)
the day after tomorrow 
모레 (more)
this week 
이번 주 (ibeon ju)
last week 
지난 주 (jinan ju)
next week 
다음 주 (da-eum ju)
Sunday 
일요일 (ilyoil)
Monday 
월요일 (wolyoil)
Tuesday 
화요일 (hwayoil)
Wednesday 
수요일 (suyoil)
Thursday 
목요일 (mogyoil)
Friday 
금요일 (geumyoil)
Saturday 
토요일 (toyoil)

Months[edit]

The names of the months in Korean are simply the Sino-Korean numbers 1 through 12 followed by the word 월 (month).

January 
1월 (일월) irol
February 
2월 (이월) iwol
March 
3월 (삼월) samwol
April 
4월 (사월) sawol
May 
5월 (오월) owol
June* 
6월 (유월) yuwol
July 
7월 (칠월) chirol
August 
8월 (팔월) parol
September 
9월 (구월) guwol
October* 
10월 (시월) siwol
November 
11월 (십일월) sibirol
December 
12월 (십이월) sibiwol
  • The number component of 6월 and 10월 drop the final consonant for purposes of liaison.

Writing time and date[edit]

Koreans generally write the date in yyyy.mm.dd format (e.g. 2006.12.25 for December 25th, 2006).

March 1st, 2005 

2005년 3월 1일 (이천오년 삼월 일일) icheon-onyeon samwol il-il (____year, _____month, ____day)

Colors[edit]

black 
검은색 (geomeunsaek)
white 
흰색 (huinsaek)
gray 
회색 (hoesaek)
red 
빨간색 (ppalgansaek)
blue 
파란색 (paransaek)
yellow 
노란색 (noransaek)
green 
초록색 (choroksaek)
orange 
주황색 (juhwangsaek)
purple 
자주색 (jajusaek)
brown 
갈색 (galsaek)
gold 
금색 (geumsaek)
silver 
은색 (eunsaek)

Transportation[edit]

Old downtown, Yongin

Bus and train[edit]

How much is a ticket to _____? 
_____로 가는 표가 얼마입니까? (_____ro ganeun pyoga eolmaimnikka?)
One ticket to _____, please. 
_____로 가는 표 한 장이요. (_____ro ganeun pyo han jang-iyo)
Where does this train/bus go? 
이 기차/버스는 어디로 갑니까? (i gicha/beoseu-neun eodiro gamnikka?)
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
_____에 가는 기차/버스는 어디에 있습니까? (_____e ganeun gicha/beoseuneun eodi-e isseumnikka?)
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
이 기차/버스는 _____에 섭니까? (i gicha/beoseu-neun _____e seomnikka?)
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
_____에 가는 기차/버스는 언제 출발합니까? (_____e ganeun gicha/beoseu-neun eonje chulbalhamnikka?)
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
이 기차/버스는 _____에 언제 도착합니까? (i gicha/beoseu-neun _____e eonje dochakamnikka?)

Directions[edit]

Gas station with Korean roof, Gyeongju
How do I get to _____ ? 
_____에 가려면 어떻게 해야 합니까 ? (____e garyeomyeon eotteoke haeya hamnikka?)
...the train station? 
기차역...? (gichayeok...?)
...the bus station? 
버스 정류장...? (beoseu jeongnyujang...?)
...the airport? 
공항...? (gonghang...?)
...downtown? 
시내...? (shinae...?)
...the youth hostel? 
유스 호스텔...? (yuseu hoseutel...?)
...the _____ hotel? 
_____ 호텔...? (____ hotel...?)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
미국/캐나다/호주/영국 영사관...? (miguk/kaenada/hoju/yeongguk yeongsagwan...?)
Where are there a lot of... 
...이 많은 곳은 어디에 있습니까? (...i manheun gosun eodi-e issumnikka?)
...hotels? 
호텔...? (hotel...?)
...restaurants? 
식당...? (sikdang...?)
...bars? 
술집...? (suljip...?)
...sites to see? 
볼거리들...? (bolgeorideul...?)
Is it far from here? 
여기서 멉니까? (yeogiseo meomnikka?)
Can you show me on the map? 
지도에 보여 주시겠습니까? (...jidoe boyeo jusigessumnikka?)
street 
길 (gil)
Turn left. 
왼쪽으로 도십시오. (oenjjogeuro dosipsio)
Turn right. 
오른쪽으로 도십시오. (oreunjjogeuro dosipsio)
left 
왼쪽 (oenjjok)
right 
오른쪽 (oreunjjok)
straight ahead 
곧장 가십시오. (gojjang gasipsio)
towards the _____ 
_____를 향해. (_____reul hyanghae)
past the _____ 
_____를 지나. (_____reul jina)
before the _____ 
_____ 전에. (_____ jeonae)
Watch for the _____. 
_____를 기다리십시오. (_____reul gidarisipsio)
intersection 
교차로 (gyocharo)
highway 
고속도로 (gosokdoro)
3-way crossing 
삼거리 (samgeori)
4-way crossing 
사거리 (sageori)
5-way crossing 
오거리 (ouegeori)
north 
북 (buk)
south 
남 (nam)
east 
동 (dong)
west 
서 (seo)
uphill 
오르막길 (oreumakgil)
downhill 
내리막길(naerimakgil)

Taxi[edit]

Taxi! 
택시! (taeksi!)
Take me to _____, please. 
_____로 데려가 주십시오. (____ro deryeoga jusipsio), _____로 가 주세요. (____ro ga juseyo.)
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
_____까지는 (요금이) 얼마입니까? (____kkajineun (yogeumi) eolmaimnikka?)
Take me there, please. 
저기에 데려가 주십시오. (jeogi-e deryeoga jusipsio'.')

Lodging[edit]

Do you have any rooms available? 
방 있습니까? (bang isseumnikka?)
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
한 사람/두 사람당 방이 얼마입니까? (han saram/du saram-dang bang-i eolmaimnikka?)
Does the room come with... 
그 방에는 ...이 있습니까? (geu bang-eneun ...i isseumnikka?)
...bedsheets? 
침대보 (chimdaebo), 침대 시트 (chimdae siteu)
...a bathroom? 
화장실 (hwajangsil)
...a telephone? 
전화기 (jeonhwagi)
...a TV? 
티비 (tibi)
May I see the room first? 
방을 먼저 봐도 되겠습니까? (bang-eul meonjeo bwado doegesseumnikka?)
Do you have anything... 
... 방 있습니까? (...bang isseumnikka?)
...quieter? 
더 조용한... (deo joyonghan...)
...bigger? 
더 큰... (deo keun...)
...larger? 
더 넓은... ()
...cleaner? 
더 깨끗한... (deo kkaekkeutan...)
...cheaper? 
더 싼... (deo ssan...)
OK, I'll take it. 
좋습니다, 그것으로 하겠습니다. (choseumnida, geugeoseuro hagesseumnida)
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
_____ 밤 묵겠습니다. (_____ bam mukgesseumnida)
Can you suggest another hotel? 
다른 호텔을 권해 주시겠습니까? (dareun hoteleul gwonhae jusigesseumnikka?)
Do you have a safe? 
금고 있습니까? (geumgo isseumnikka?)
...lockers? 
...자물쇠? (...jamulsoe?)
Is breakfast/supper included? 
아침식사/저녁식사 가 됩니까? (achimsiksa/jeonyeoksiksa ga doepnika?)
What time is breakfast/supper? 
아침식사/저녁식사 는 몇시입니까? (achimsiksa/jeonyeoksiksa neun myeossimnikka?)
Please clean my room. 
방을 청소해 주십시오. (bang-eul cheongsohe jusipsio)
Can you wake me at _____? 
_____ 시에 깨워주시겠습니까? (_____ si-e kkewojusigeseumnikka?)
I want to check out. 
체크 아웃하고 싶습니다. (chekeu autago sipsumnida)

Money[edit]

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
미국/오스트레일리아/캐나다 달러 받으십니까? (miguk/oseuteureillia/kaenada dareo badeusimnikka?)
Do you accept British pounds? 
영국 파운드 받으십니까? (yeongguk paundeu badeusimnikka?)
Do you accept credit cards? 
신용 카드 받으십니까? (sin-yong kadeu badeusimnikka?)
Can you change money for me? 
환전 해주시겠습니까? (hwanjeon haejusigesseumnikka?)
Where can I get money changed? 
어디에서 환전할 수 있습니까? (eodi-eseo hwanjeonhal su oiseumnikka?)
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
여행자 수표를 현금으로 바꿔주시겠습니까? (yeohaengja supyoreul hyeon-gumeuro bakkwojusigesseumnikka?)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
어디에서 여행자 수표를 현금으로 바꿀 수 있습니까? (eodi-eseo yeohaengja supyoreul hyeon-gumeuro bakkul su isseumnikka?)
What is the exchange rate? 
환율이 얼마입니까? (hwan-yuri oelma-imnikka?)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
현금 자동 지급기가 어디에 있습니까? (hyeon-gum jadong jigeupgiga oedi-e isseumnikka?)

Eating[edit]

Galbijjim
A table for one person/two people, please. 
한 사람/두 사람 테이블 부탁합니다. (han saram/du saram teibeul butakamnida)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
메뉴를 봐도 되겠습니까? (menyureul bwado doegesseumnikka?)
Can I look in the kitchen? 
부엌을 봐도 되겠습니까? (bu-eokkeul bwado doegesseumnikka?)
Is there a house specialty? 
이 집의 추천 요리가 있습니까? (i jibui chucheon yeoriga isseumnikka?)
Is there a local specialty? 
이 지역의 대표 요리가 있습니까? (i jiyeogui daepyo yeoriga isseumnikka?)
I'm a vegetarian. 
저는 채식주의자입니다. (jeoneun chaesikjuuijaimnida)
Because of this, I don't eat the following. 
저는 그래서 이런 것이 들어간 음식을 먹지 않습니다. (jeoneun keraeseo ireon geosi deureogan eumsikeul meokji anseumnida)
I don't eat pork. 
저는 돼지고기를 먹지 않습니다. (jeoneun dwaejigogireul meokji anseumnida)
I don't eat beef. 
저는 소고기를 먹지 않습니다. (jeoneun sogogireul meokji anseumnida)
I only eat kosher food. 
저는 코셔 음식만 먹습니다. (jeoneun Kosyeo eumsingman mokseumnida)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
... (..)
fixed-price meal 
정가 음식 (jeongga eumsik)
à la carte 
... (..)
breakfast 
아침 식사 (achim siksa)
lunch 
점심 식사 (jeomsim siksa)
tea (meal
차 (cha)
supper 
저녁 식사 (jeonyeok siksa)
I want _____. 
저는 _____을 원합니다. (jeoneun _____eul wonhamnida)
I want a dish containing _____. 
저는 _____[이/가] 들어간 요리를 먹고 싶습니다. (jeoneun ____[i/ga] deureogan yorireul meokgo sipsumnida)
meat 
고기 (gogi)
beef 
소고기 (sogogi)
pork 
돼지고기 (doaejigogi)
ham/spam 
햄 (haem)
bacon 
베이컨/삼겹살[(baeikeon/samgyeopsal)
sausage 
소세지 (soseji)
chicken 
닭고기/치킨 (dalgogi/chikin)
eggs 
달걀/계란 (dalgyal/gyeran)
seafood 
해물 (haemul)
fish 
생선 (saengseon)
shrimp/prawn 
새우 (sae-u)
clam/shellfish 
조개 (jogae)
crab meat 
게살 (gaesal)
squid/cuttlefish 
오징어 (o-jing-eo)
baby octopus 
꼴뚜기 (ggolddugi)
dairy products 
유제품 (yujepum)
milk 
우유 (u-yu)
cream 
크림 (keurim)
cheese 
치즈 (chijeu)
butter 
버터 (beoteo)
yogurt 
요구르트 (yogureuteu)
mayonnaise 
마요네즈 (ma-yo-nae-jeu)
broth 
국물 (gukmul)
(fresh) vegetables 
(신선한) 야채 ((sinseonhan) yachae)
(fresh) fruit 
(신선한) 과일 ((sinseonhan) gwa-il)
salad 
샐러드 (saelleodeu)
bread 
빵 (ppang)
toast 
토스트 (toseuteu)
noodles 
국수 (guksu)
rice 
밥 (bap)
beans 
콩 (kong)
May I have a glass of _____? 
_____ 한 잔 주시겠습니까? (____ han jan jusigesseumnikka?)
May I have a cup of _____? 
_____ 한 컵 주시겠습니까? (____ han keob jusigesseumnikka?)
May I have a bottle of _____? 
_____ 한 병 주시겠습니까? (____ han byeong jusigesseumnikka?)
coffee 
커피 (keopi)
tea (drink
차 (cha)
juice 
주스 (joseu)
(sparkling) water 
탄산수 (tansansu)
water 
물 (mul)
beer 
맥주 (maekju)
red/white wine 
레드/화이트 와인 (redeu/hwaiteu wain), 적/백 포도주 (jeok/baek podoju)
May I have some _____? 
_____을/를 좀 주시겠습니까? (____eul/reul jom jusigesseumnikka?)
salt 
소금 (sogeum)
black pepper 
후추 (huchu)
seasoning/sauce 
양념/소스 (yangneyom/soseu)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
여기요? (Literally, this means "Here." (yeogiyo?))
I'm finished. 
다 먹었습니다. (da meokeosseumnida)
It was delicious. 
맛있었습니다. (masisseosseumnida)
Please clear the plates. 
접시를 치워주십시오. (jeopsireul chiwojusipsiyo)
The check, please. 
계산서 부탁합니다. (gyesanseo butakamnida)

Bars[edit]

Do you serve alcohol? 
술 팝니까? (sul pamnikka?)
Is there table service? 
테이블로 갖다줍니까? (teibeul-ro gattajumnikka?)
A beer/two beers, please. 
맥주 한/두 병 부탁합니다. (maekju han/du byeong butakamnida)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
적/백 포도주 한 잔 부탁합니다. (jeok/baek podoju han jan butakamnida)
One litter, please. 
일 리터 부탁합니다. (il-riteo butakamnida.)
A bottle, please. 
한 병 부탁합니다. (han byeong butakamnida)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
... (..)
whiskey 
위스키 (wiseuki)
vodka 
보드카 (bodeuka)
rum 
럼 (reom)
water 
물 (mul)
club soda 
탄산수 (tansansu)
tonic water 
탄산 음료 (tansan eumryo)
orange juice 
오렌지 주스 (orenji juseu)
Coke (soda
콜라 (kolla)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
안주 있습니까? (anju isseumnikka?)
One more, please. 
한 개 더 부탁합니다. (han gae deo butakamnida)
Another round, please. 
한 잔 더 주세요. (hanjan deo juseyo)
When is closing time? 
언제 닫습니까? (eonje dasseumnikka?)

Shopping[edit]

Namdaemun Market in Seoul is Korea's largest street market
Do you have this in my size? 
이것으로 제 사이즈와 맞는 것 있습니까? (i geoseuro je saijeuwa manneun geot isseumnikka?)
How much is this? 
이것은 얼마입니까? (igeoseun eolmaimnikka?)
That's too expensive. 
너무 비쌉니다. (neomu bissamnida)
Would you take _____? 
_____ 받으십니까? (_____ badeusimnikka?), _____도 됩니까? (_____do doemnikka?)
expensive 
비싼 (bissan)
cheap 
싼 (ssan)
I can't afford it. 
그것을 살 여유가 없습니다. (geugeoseul sal yeoyuga opsseumnida)
I don't want it. 
그것을 원하지 않습니다. (geugeoseul wonhaji anseumnida)
You're cheating me. 
속이지 마세요. (sogiji maseyo)
I'm not interested. 
관심 없습니다. (gwansim opsseumnida.)
OK, I'll take it. 
좋습니다, 사겠습니다. (jossueumnida, sagesseumnida)
Can I have a bag? 
가방을 살 수 있습니까? (gabang-eul sal su isseumnikka?)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
(해외로) 발송합니까? ((haewiro) balsonghamnikka?)
I need... 
저는 ...이 필요합니다 (jeoneun ...i pilyohamnida)
...toothpaste. 
...치약. (...chiyak)
...a toothbrush. 
...칫솔. (...chissol)
...tampons. 
...탐폰. (...tampon)
...soap. 
...비누. (...binu)
...shampoo. 
...샴푸. (...syampu)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
...진통제. (아스피린 or 항 염증제) (...jintongje. (aseupirin or hang yeomjeungje))
...cold medicine. 
...감기약. (...gamgiyak)
...stomach medicine. 
...위약. (...wiyak)
...a razor. 
...면도기. (...myeondogi)
...an umbrella. 
...우산. (...usan)
...sunblock lotion. 
...햇볕 차단 로션. (...haeppyeot chadan rosyeon)
...a postcard. 
...우편엽서. (...upyeon-yeopseo)
...postage stamps. 
...우표. (...upyo)
...batteries. 
...건전지. (...geonjeonji)
...writing paper. 
...편지지. (...pyonjiji)
...a pen. 
...펜. (...pen)
...English-language books. 
...영자 책. (...yeongja chaek), ...영어로 된 책. (...yeong-eoro doen chaek)
...English-language magazines. 
...영자 잡지. (...yeongja japji), ...영어 잡지. (...yeong-eo sinmun)
...an English-language newspaper. 
...영자 신문. (...yeongja sinmun), ...영어 신문. (...yeong-eo sinmun)
...an English-English dictionary. 
...영영 사전. (...yeong-yeong sajeon)

Driving[edit]

I want to rent a car. 
차를 빌리고 싶습니다. (chareul billigo sipseumnida)
Can I get insurance? 
보험을 들 수 있습니까? (boheomeul deul su isseumnikka?)
stop (on a street sign
정지 (jeongchi)
one way 
일방 통행 (ilbang tonghaeng)
yield 
양보 (yangbo)
danger 
위험 (wiheom)
no parking 
주차 금지 (jucha geumji)
speed limit 
속도 제한 (sokdo jehan)
Children Protection Zone 
어린이 보호구역 (eorini bohoguyeok), 어린이보호 (eoriniboho, usually on signs)
___ kilometers per hour 
시속 ___킬로미터 (sisok ___kilromiteo)
gas (petrol) station 
주유소 (juyuso)
petrol 
휘발유 (hwibalyu)
diesel 
디젤유 (dijelyu)

Authorities[edit]

North Korean border guards, Panmunjeom
I haven't done anything wrong. 
저는 잘못한 것이 없습니다. (jeoneun jalmotan geosi eopsseumnida)
It was a misunderstanding. 
그것은 오해였습니다. (geugeoseun ohaeyeosseumnida)
Where are you taking me? 
저를 어디로 데려가십니까? (jeoreul eodiro deryeogasimnikka?)
Am I under arrest? 
저는 체포됩니까? (jeoneun chepodoemnikka?)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
저는 미국/호주/영국/캐나다 국민입니다. (jeoneun miguk/hoju/yeongguk/kaenada gungminimnida)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
미국/호주/영국/캐나다 대사관/영사관 에 이야기하고 싶습니다. (miguk/hoju/yeongguk/kaenada daesagwan/yeongsagwan e iyagihago sipseumnida)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
변호사에게 이야기하고 싶습니다. (byeonhosa-ege iyagihago sipseumnida)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
지금 벌금을 내도 되겠습니까? (jigeum beolgeumeul naedo doegesseumnikka?)

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