Maori phrasebook

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The Māori language (commonly: te reo) is cherished by the indigenous people of New Zealand, the Māori, as a treasure (taonga) and many Pākehā (New Zealanders of "European" descent) are now trying to learn it. Although it is an official language of New Zealand, along with English and New Zealand Sign Language, few New Zealanders (and only a minority of Māori) can conduct a conversation in the Māori language. All indigenous Māori speakers are bilingual and converse in English at least equally competently.

A number of Māori words have been adopted into everyday New Zealand conversation, even while speaking English, and many place names are of Māori origin. Being able to correctly pronounce Māori words is a valued skill since incorrectly pronounced Māori sounds like fingernails scratching on a blackboard and will immediately identify you as a visitor to the country (or a culturally ignorant local). Many New Zealanders have trouble with some Māori place names. Even a tolerable and halting attempt at the correct pronunciation is better than a poor guess – your effort to get it right will be appreciated and accepted.

As you might expect, one hundred and fifty years ago accents, vocabularies and word constructions were as variegated as the differences between Glaswegian and Cockney Englishes are today. With many people now having lost their localisations as well as their fluency, new learners are learning less localised and more homogeneous versions.

An exception to this process is the native language of the Cook Islands, a completely self governing, tropical outlier of the Realm of New Zealand. Here the language is almost as different from the registers spoken in the North and South islands of New Zealand as Chaucerian English is from Californian. That said, Cook Islanders seem to find it easier to understand "mainland" Te Reo Māori than the other way around.

Pronunciation guide[edit]

The New Zealand Māori language (Maori: Te Reo Māori) is relatively simple to pronounce.

Vowels[edit]

Each of the vowels has a long and short form:

short a 
a as u in strut
long a 
ā as a in palm
short e 
e as e in dress
long e 
ē as ea in pear
short i 
i as y in happy
long i 
ī as ee in feet
short o 
o as o in north
long o 
ō as ou in thought
short u 
a shorter version of the long u sound, like the u in put
long u 
ū as oo in goose. Never yoo as in many English words.

There are several vowel blends: ae, ai (as ie in pie), ao (as ou in mouth), au (as oa in goat), ei (as a in face), oi (as oi in choice), oe, and ou

Macron usage[edit]

In written Māori, the long vowels are often denoted by macrons (bars over the letters) or whatever similar characters were available to the typesetter. Sometimes you will see words where a vowel letter is repeated, e.g. the Maori name for Inland Revenue is Te Tari Taake (you can probably guess why they don't spell it Te Tari Tāke). This may indicate that the vowel is pronounced "long", but modern usage is to use the macron when possible.

Thus Māori, Maaori and Maori would all represent the same word; although you will rarely see it spelled "Maaori". You may occasionally see long vowels with a diaeresis ("Mäori") instead of a macron; either because the person typing the document can't find the macron letter (it's right after ÿ), or because the document was written on a pre-2001 computer.

Macrons have tended not to be written when a Māori word has been a commonly used word by people speaking English (including with the word Māori), and macrons have generally not appeared on direction signs or maps; however, as more people become aware of the correct pronunciation of various Māori words and place names, and of the instructive guidance that macrons provide by indicating how words should be pronounced, the use of macrons is increasing in New Zealand society, including in official documents. Some road direction signs for Taupō (both the town and the lake) are now written as Taupō; whereas, prior to 2008, the macron was always missing.

Consonants[edit]

There are ten consonants in te reo Māori: h, k, m, n, p, r, t, w, wh and ng. The first eight are pronounced as in English, although the r is said with a flap, like the beginning of a roll. It's not a long roll like the 'r's in Spanish. If you imagine a roll is like a machine gun burst, then the flap is like a single shot from the same firearm. It starts like a roll does, but quickly moves on to the rest of the word.

ng is pronounced as the ng in sing; it does not contain a hard g sound.

In most parts of the country, wh is pronounced like an English f (as in feel or font or fin); however, there are dialectical differences. For some words, the Whanganui Iwi (tribe) pronounce wh (as you would for whale or where, with minimal breath expelled, so almost like the same sound as a w). The f sound is the usual pronunciation in most regions of the country, so stick with that unless you're told otherwise.

Syllables[edit]

Māori words are broken into syllables which end with a vowel. Place names often consist of morphemes, or words which are combined to give a larger word, e.g. wai (water) and roa (long) are combined to give Wairoa. Try to recognise these morphemes (see the list of geographic expressions below) and pronounce the name by breaking it into its components.

For example:

Akatarawa 
is said A ka ta ra wa
Māori 
is said Maao-ri (Remember to have your tongue forward when you say the r, so that you make the flap sound).
Paraparaumu 
is said Pa-ra-pa-rau-mu (commonly mispronounced Pa-ra-pa-ra-u-mu)
Whangarei 
is said Fa nga rei (Fa nga ray)

Semantics[edit]

Māori word root combinations tend to have a major root subject followed by qualifier suffixes. This means a literal translation from Māori to English produces a lot of transposed word combinations.

For example:

  • Rotoruarotolake and ruatwo = two lakes (or perhaps second lake, as Ihenga discovered Rotoiti first).
  • Kaimoanakaifood and moanasea = seafood.

Māori has a verb-subject-object word order ("speak I Māori").

Phrase list[edit]

An ordinary traveller will not need to resort to speaking Māori to make themselves understood. However an understanding of Māori words and their meanings will lead to an appreciation of the culture and enhance the travel experience.

Māori take meetings and greetings seriously. Visitors and honoured guests will often be welcomed in a formal ceremony known as a pōwhiri. While such ceremonies generally take place on a marae, it has become accepted practice that such ceremonies may also take place at conferences, important meetings, and similar ceremonial occasions. On such formal occasions, protocol will normally mean that a representative or adviser who can speak Māori will be assigned to the visitors' party to assist and explain what is happening and may formally speak (whaikorero) to introduce the visitors.

Donation 
Koha

Basics[edit]

Hello (to one person) 
Tēnā koe (Teh-NAH kweh)
Hello (to two people) 
Tēnā kōrua (Teh-NAH KAW-roo-ah)
Hello (to a group of three or more) 
Tēnā koutou (Teh-NAH koh-toh)
Hello (informal) 
Kia ora (KEE aw-rah)
Welcome 
Haere mai (is literally, an invitation to: Come towards the speaker) (HIGH-reh MIGH)
How are you? 
Kei te pēhea koe?
Fine, thank you 
Kei te pai ahau
What is your name? 
Ko wai tō ingoa?
My name is ______ 
Ko ______ tōku ingoa
Please 
koa (Homai koa he kaputi = Give me a cup of tea, please )
Thank you 
kia ora (is pronounced kee-a o-ra) (Literally, be well.)
Yes 
āe
No 
kāore
Goodbye (to the person staying) 
E noho rā (Eh naw-haw RAH)
Goodbye (to the person going) 
Haere rā (HIGH-reh RAH)
Goodbye (informal) 
Hei konā rā
Good morning. 
Ata mārie
Good afternoon. 
Ahiahi mārie
Good night. 
Pō mārie
Where is the toilet? 
Kei hea te wharepaku?

Numbers[edit]

tahi (tah-hee)
rua (roo-ah)
toru (taw-roo)
whā (fah)
rima (ree-ma)
ono (o-naw)
whitu (fih-too)
waru (wah-roo)
iwa (ee-wah)
10 
tekau (teh-koh)
11 
tekau ma tahi
12 
tekau ma rua
13 
tekau ma toru
14 
tekau ma whā
15 
tekau ma rima
16 
tekau ma ono
17 
tekau ma whitu
18 
tekau ma waru
19 
tekau ma iwa
20 
rua tekau
21 
rua tekau ma taki
22 
rua tekau ma rua
23 
rua tekau ma toru
30 
toru tekau
40 
whā tekau
50 
rima tekau
60 
ono tekau
70 
whitu tekau
80 
waru tekau
90 
iwa tekau
100 
kotahi rau
200 
rua rau
300 
toru rau
1000 
kotahi mano
2000 
rua mano
1,000,000 
kotahi miriona
1,000,000,000 
Kotahi piriona

Time[edit]

Days[edit]

Sunday 
Rātapu
Monday 
Rāhina / Mane
Tuesday 
Rātū / Turei
Wednesday 
Rāapa / Wenerei
Thursday 
Rāpare / Taite
Friday 
Rāmere / Paraire
Saturday 
Rāhoroi / Hatarei

Months[edit]

January 
Kohitātea / Hanuere
February 
Hui-tanguru / Pēpuere
March 
Poutū-te-rangi / Maehe
April 
Pāenga-whāwhā / Āperira
May 
Haratua / Mei
June 
Pīpiri / Hune
July 
Hōngongoi / Hūrae
August 
Here-turi-kōkā / Ākuhata
September 
Mahuru / Hepetema
October 
Whiringa-ā-nuku / Ōketopa
November 
Whiringa-ā-rangi / Noema
December 
Hakihea / Tīhema

Colours[edit]

black 
pango / mangu
White 
red 
whero
blue 
kikorangi
yellow 
kōwhai
green 
kākāriki
orange
parakaraka
brown 
pākākā

Glossary of Māori geographical terms translated into English[edit]

Knowing a little about these terms will help you to both pronounce the name and understand what it means.

of (e.g. Taupōnui-a-Tia: the full name for Taupo = great cloak of Tia)
ana 
cave
awa 
river, channel
hau 
wind
iti 
small
manga 
stream (e.g. Mangawhio: in South Taranaki = blue duck stream)
maunga 
mountain
moana 
sea, large lake (e.g. Waikaremoana: in the western Hawke's Bay region = sea of rippling water)
motu 
island
nga 
the (plural form)
nui 
big, great
ō 
of
one 
beach, sand, soil
kohatu 
rock
papa 
flat
poto 
short
puke 
hill (e.g. Te Puke: in the Bay of Plenty region = the hill)
raki 
north (e.g. Maungaraki: a suburb of Lower Hutt = northern mountain)
rangi 
sky, heavens
rawhiti 
east
roa 
long
roto 
lake (e.g. Rotoiti: in the Bay of Plenty region = small lake)
tai 
tide, sea
tapu 
sacred
tara 
peak, ray of sunshine
te 
the (singular form)
toka 
rock
tonga 
south
uru 
west (e.g. Waiōuru: in the Central North Island = water of the west')
wai 
water (e.g. Wairoa: in Taranaki = long water)
wera 
burning, burnt
whanga 
bay, harbour (e.g. Whanganui = big harbour)
whenua 
land

Many place names have been made tautological by Europeans adding a word which is already contained in the Māori name (example: Mount Maunganui = "Mount big mountain"). However, in recent years, there has been a trend for New Zealand English speakers to drop the English geographic qualifier and refer to many geographic features by their Māori names alone. Thus, Mount Ruapehu is often referred to simply as Ruapehu. In some cases, there has been a reversion to Māori names and outdated travel information may only use the old name. For example, Mount Egmont is now almost universally called Taranaki or Mount Taranaki and Mount Cook is now officially called Aoraki/Mount Cook; these are the original Māori names. In other cases the Māori name is followed by a pluralising s where the omitted English geographic term was plural. So the Rimutakas is used in place of the Rimutaka ranges. In conversation you may hear phrases like the Waikato or the Manawatu. In these cases the speaker is talking about either the river of that name or a district or region. For example, the Waikato will refer to either the the Waikato river or the Waikato region, while Waikato (without the) would probably refer to the region, though this may need to be inferred from the context.

Learning more[edit]

Maori is taught in many places around New Zealand, often as a night class. Ask at the local information centre or citizens advice bureau. The Maori Language Commission also has a list of course providers.

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