Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument is a United States National Monument in southwest Washington State that was the site of a massive volcanic eruption on 18 May 1980. In 1982, the President and Congress created the 110,000-acre (445-km²) National Volcanic Monument, within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, for research, recreation, and education.
On 20 March 1980, Mount St. Helens awakened from over 100 years of dormancy with a magnitude 4.1 earthquake which began a series of events leading to eruption. Steam and ash eruption started on 27 March and over the next two months the north side of the mountain started bulging at the rate of about 5 to 6 feet a day.
Then on May 18, 1980, at 8:32AM, a magnitude 5.1 earthquake caused the bulging north face to collapse in one of the largest landslides in recorded history. The highly pressurized magma burst forth in an explosive eruption, sending super-heated volcanic gas and ash across a large portion of the United States, destroying hundreds of square miles of forest, and killing 57 people in what was the most destructive volcanic eruption in the United States.
By 2005, life was starting to return to the barren landscape surrounding the mountain. However, as the steam eruptions starting in October 2004 illustrated, the danger of another catastrophic eruption is ever present. Visiting Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument is to simultaneously witness the result of catastrophic destruction and see the result of rebirth.
Mount St. Helens is a typical "stratovolcano," the volcanic form most familiar from photographs of their typically conical profiles. The great 1980 eruption destroyed most of the volcanic cone, leaving a huge amphitheater on the north side that is well seen from the Johnston Ridge observatory and visitor center. Volcanic activity in 2004-05 built a new lava dome within this amphitheater, visible from the "VolcanoCam" at the observatory but not yet large enough to replace the destroyed cone.
St. Helens is still glaciated to some extent, despite its reduced altitude. One unexpected and remarkable bit of landscape on the mountain is the astonishing Loowit Falls, a waterfall that emerges directly from the amphitheater bearing meltwater from a glacier within the crater. This falls can be seen (use binoculars) from the observatory, but to get the best feeling for the incongruity of the falls -- it seems to emerge as though from the surface of the moon -- requires a hike on a trail that is closed during volcanic activity.
Flora and fauna
As you explore the monument it's easy to see the results of ecosystem recovery since the eruption. Plants that sprouted from buried soil and late lying snow banks have gradually spread, transforming a gray-brown landscape to green. Over time, these survivors have been joined by legions of colonizers as wind-blown seeds of weedy plants like fireweed and pearly everlasting have taken root on shattered hillsides. In spring the monument glows with the purple blossoms of penstemon and lupine. By late summer, magenta fireweed and patches of cream-colored pearly everlasting frame the blown down forest. In autumn, monument breezes will dance with cotton-covered seeds as life continues its march across the blast zone. Watch for animals that have taken up residence in the developing forest. The once silent blast zone is punctuated by the calls of killdeer and red-winged blackbirds that have made their homes in lush shoreline vegetation. Red-tailed hawks can be spotted hunting for abundant mouse populations while osprey dive for trout in blast zone lakes. The open valleys and hillsides are a favorite feeding ground for North American elk. If you listen you can sometimes catch the echo of a whistling elk or maybe the howl of a lonely coyote.
Most viewpoints on the monument's north, east, and south sides can be reached from Memorial Day until snow closes the roads, usually in late October. Trails are generally open from June through October, although some lower elevation trails can be hiked all year. The Mount St. Helens Visitor Center (Highway 504 milepost 5) now operated by Washington State Parks is open during the winter, except winter holidays.
The most popular tourist route into the Mount St. Helens area is via Washington state route 504. It can be reached at Castle Rock (exit #49) off Interstate 5 in Washington, about 2 hr 15 min north of Portland and two hours south of Seattle. If going north on the return route (Seattle/Tacoma), State Route 505 can be used as a short cut back to I-5 (turn right a few miles east of Toutle). This is not recommended for the initial trip up the mountain, as it bypasses the main visitor center near Castle Rock. If you are coming from Portland or anywhere south, Mount St Helens can be accessed from Woodland (exit 21 from I-5) along State Route (SR) 503. SR-503 becomes Forest Road (FR) 90 past Cougar and goes along the south side of Mount St Helens to (FR) 25, which goes north and south along the east side of Mt. St. Helens.
From the east, there are three main routes. If using GPS or computer routing, be sure it doesn't send you on unpaved, one-lane forest service roads unless that's what you want. From Spokane, all three take roughly the same amount of time.
- US Hwy 12 West from Yakima to SR-131 in Randle (89 mi (143 km)), halfway between Yakima and I-5. SR-131 become FR-25 south of the US-Hwy 12 intersection. US HWy 12 is a two-lane highway beyond Yakima, with lower speed limits than the freeways. You also risk getting stuck behind slow-moving vehicles, especially when going uphill.
- I-84/WA-14 West to Hood River/White Salmon along the Columbia River. If coming from Oregon cross over the Hood River/White Salmon Bridge to SR-14 (Exit 64 at I-84). Go west on SR-14 to Wind River Rd 18 mi (29 km) in Carson from White Salmon. Wind River Rd becomes FR-30/Meadow Creek Rd in Gifford Pinchot NF to Curly Creek Rd (FR-90) 29.5 mi (47.5 km) (north of Carson). Go west on Curly Creek Rd (FR-90) to FR-25 6 mi (9.7 km).
- SR-131/Forest Rd (FR) 25 goes 45 mi (72 km) between US-HWy 12 in Randle and Jct FR-90 through Gifford Mt St Helens. FR-99 connects FR-25 to Windy Ridge, opposite the volcanic crater from Johnston Ridge. There are no roads connecting Johnston Ridge to Windy Ridge or to Spirit Lake. During the winters FR-25 is closed to due to standing snow accumulation (no plowing through there) in high altitudes.
- I-90 West to WA Hwy 18 (exit #25) via Maple Valley and Auburn, then I-5 South for 93 miles. (Drive with caution on the older sections of WA Hwy 18, and watch for large trucks.) Though further, I-405 South (exit #10) from Bellevue is also an option
Fees and permits
Monument passes are sold for single-day admission to the visitor centers along Washington 504 (Mar 2018):
- 16 years or older: US $8
- 15 years or below: Free.
There are several passes for groups traveling together in a private vehicle or individuals on foot/bike that provide free entry to Mount St. Helens and all national parks, as well as some national monuments, national wildlife refuges, and national forests:
- The $80 Annual Pass (valid for twelve months from date of issue) can be purchased by anyone. Military personnel can obtain a free pass by showing a Common Access Card (CAC) or Military ID.
- The $80 Senior Pass (valid for the life of the holder) is available to U.S. citizens or permanent residents age 62 or over. Applicants must provide documentation of citizenship and age. This pass also provides a fifty percent discount on some park amenities. Seniors can also obtain a $20 annual pass.
- The free Access Pass (valid for the life of the holder) is available to U.S. citizens or permanent residents with permanent disabilities. Applicants must provide documentation of citizenship and permanent disability. This pass also provides a fifty percent discount on some park amenities.
- The free Volunteer Pass is available to individuals who have volunteered 250 or more hours with federal agencies that participate in the Interagency Pass Program.
- The free Annual 4th Grade Pass (valid for September-August of the 4th grade school year) allows entry to the bearer and any accompanying passengers in a private non-commercial vehicle. Registration at the Every Kid Outdoors website is required.
The National Park Service offers free admission to all national parks on five days every year:
- Martin Luther King Jr. Day (third Monday in January); next observance is January 17, 2022
- The first day of National Park Week (third Saturday in April); next observance is April 16, 2022
- The National Park Service Birthday (August 25)
- National Public Lands Day (fourth Saturday in September); next observance is September 24, 2022
- Veterans Day (November 11)
Along Washington Hwy 504 are three visitor centers operated by Cowlitz County, the State of Washington, and the U.S. federal government. (Mount St. Helens and Spirit Lake are actually in Skamania County, but all the land near the mountain is federally owned.) A fourth center at Coldwater Ridge is semi-permanently closed now, and may be sold. The centers include video presentations, exhibits, and information desks. In addition, there are numerous viewpoints and turnoffs for taking photos along the highway.
- 1 Mount St. Helens Visitor Center at Silver Lake, 3029 Spirit Lake Hwy, Castle Rock, WA, ☏ . Open daily, 9AM-4PM, closed New Years, Thanksgiving, and Christmas days. This visitor center, operated by Washington State Parks, is about 5 miles east of Castle Rock, and across the highway from Seaquest State Park. It provides visitors with an introduction to the history of the area.
- 2 Johnston Ridge Observatory. Open daily, mid-May through October. About 52 miles east of Castle Rock, well within the blast zone, this observatory provides good views of the north face of the volcano. There's also a large indoor visitor center with an auditorium and gift shop. Interpretive talks available. This is as close to the mountain as you can get by car, as it's only five horizontal miles (8 km) from the summit. Do not walk onto the observation deck without first going inside the center and obtaining a wrist band, or you will be cited. (Admission includes both the visitor center and its outside deck.) Annual and senior citizen National Park and Forest Service passes are accepted. $8. Interagency recreation passes accepted.
- 1 Climb the Summit. The summit of St. Helens is re-opened for climbing on a reservation and permit basis. Everyone must have a climbing permit to be above 4,800 feet elevation on Mount St. Helens.
Mount St. Helens climbing permits are administered by Mount St. Helens Institute (MSHI) through an online vendor that accepts all major credit and debit cards. Climbers will be emailed a permit purchase confirmation receipt at the time of purchase.
From April 1 to October 31 climbing permits are available online by advance purchase only. Do not wait until the day of your climb to purchase your permit. Unsold permits may be purchased online until 24-hours before the date of the climb. The total permit fee is $22 (Mar 2018).
There are no restaurants available within the park, but options are available outside of the park in the town of Toutle.
Water is available within the park. If scooping water from the lakes, rivers or streams be sure to boil or treat the water before drinking. Water is typically cleaner when taken from moving water in rivers and streams than from standing water such as ponds or puddles.
There are no hotels located within the park, but the town of Toutle, located to the west of the park, and along US Hwy 12 between Packwood & Morton, offer numerous options.
Camping near I-5 exits to Mount St. Helens along Route 504 is available at Seaquest State Park or south of Hwy 12 at Lewis & Clark State Park. There are also National Forest Service campsites south of Randle (NE of MSH access forest road 99) and along the Lewis River east of Cougar.
Volcano safety is, to put it mildly, a controversial subject; see the article on Volcanoes (and, particularly, its discussion page) for some of the issues. Compared to many other active volcanoes, Mount St. Helens has been studied extensively, and therefore has a relatively well-defined "safety envelope" that allows informed decision making as regards trail closures, etc. Even St. Helens, however, is prone to bouts of unexpectedly violent behavior, as for example on 8 March 2005 when an explosive event sent ash and steam to elevations above 35,000 feet (10 km) essentially without warning. The monument, therefore, has established a policy regarding road and trail closures that at first glance appears unnecessarily conservative -- but it is not. Believe it. The closures aren't there simply to inconvenience and irritate you. If a trail is closed due to eruptive hazard, stay off the trail.
Other than the volcanic activity, St. Helens poses basically the usual set of hazards associated with mountainous country -- changeable weather, potential for road closures due to snow in the winter, etc. One extra thing to be aware of is that much of the area on the north side of the mountain, particularly the northeast, does not yet have many travel services, even things as basic as gas stations. When leaving the main roads to head for the observatory, or particularly the Windy Ridge viewpoint and trailhead, it's wise to have a full gas tank.
- Toutle is the closest town to the park along the Spirit Lake Highway, offering amenities such as hotels and restaurants.
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