- Kashkadarya — The northern region on the western slopes of the Pamir-Alay mountains.
- Surkhandarya — The southern region. It embraces the valleys of the Sherabad and Surkhan rivers which flow into the Amu-darya from the north
The Hissar (Gissar) Mountain Range marks an ancient frontier between the two regions: Kashkadarya was part of Sogdiana while Surkhandarya was part of Bactria.
- 1 Boysun — In 2001 the city of Boysun was proclaimed as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO along with its surrounding countryside.
- 2 Denov — rural town with a circular fortress and a Kushan archaeological site dated to the mid-1st century BC.
- 3 Derbent — Archaeological excavations in the area have revealed the existence of defensive system consisted of fortresses and massive walls.
- 4 Qarshi — meaning "Palace" in Uzbek, the city is famous for its production of woven carpets.
- 5 Sairob — picturesque village in a narrow valley
- 6 Shakhrizabz —Timur birthplace and a UNESCO World Heritage site
- 7 Termez — The southernmost city of Uzbekistan and an important border crossing between Uzbekistan and Afghanistan
- 1 Airtam — ruins of an important caravan resting place on the Great Silk Road.
- 2 Dalverzin Tepe — ruins of an ancient city of the Kushan Empire developed around an earlier Hellenistic fortress.
- 3 Gora Karakamar — cave complex carved into the Sherabad ridge on the border with Turkmenistan.
- 4 Iron Gates (Timur Darvaza) — in ancient times this narrow valley across the Hissar Mountain Range was used as a strategic passage between Bactria and Sogdia and was of great importance to any power in the region.
- 5 Kampyrtepa — ruins of an ancient city on the steep bank of the Amu Darya.
- 6 Kurganzol Fortress — ruins of a round fortress dated to the time of Alexander the Great.
Winters are the mildest in southern Uzbekistan, spring and autumn are bearable and summer are unbearable. In May-Augustus temperatures can reach an extreme 50 °C (122 °F)
- Termez Airport (TMJ IATA) is linked with Moscow-Domodedovo, St Petersburg and Tashkent by direct flights of Uzbekistan Airways and VIM Airlines [formerly dead link].
- Karshi Airport (KSQ IATA) from Moscow and Saint Petersburg
Women travelling seem to face more harrassment in southern Uzbekistan than in other parts of the country, whether due to cultural differences or the fact that the region sees fewer tourists. Dress conservatively and be careful.