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Walking in the United Kingdom

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Walking, hiking, or rambling has been a popular past-time in the United Kingdom since the 19th century. In 1935, the Ramblers' Association was formed to promote hiking amongst Britons. There are now 550 Ramblers groups in about 50 areas, and around 350 other affiliated bodies, such as societies especially interested in walking and pedestrianism, including the Footpath Society.

Routes[edit]

The paved surface of the Pennine Way on Black Hill in the Peak District, England

There are many well-trod routes to explore, and even more less-known ones. Here are a few:

Maps[edit]

Most mapping is undertaken by the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain (OSGB) and the Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland, and most maps use this data. There is a widespread use of Ordnance Survey grid references in guide books and other information sources. These are usually presented in the format of two capital letters followed by a 6-digit number (e.g. SU921206) and form a quick way of finding any location on a map. If using a GPS be sure to set it to the British National Grid (BNG) and the OSGB datum.

The Ordnance Survey's 1:50,000 scale maps (Landranger series) or 1:25,000 scale maps (Explorer series) are astonishingly detailed and show contour lines and public rights of way. The 1:25,000 maps also show access land; see Countryside access below. For pursuits such as walking, they are practically indispensable, and in rural areas show individual farm buildings and (on the larger scale) field boundaries. OS maps can be viewed online on Bing maps (select "Ordnance Survey" top right; OS maps appear once zoomed in sufficiently), and also on Streetmap.

Another company, Harvey Maps, produces specialist maps for outdoor activities including walking, climbing and mountain biking. These are surveyed independently of OSGB although they use the same grid reference system. They cover only a selection of popular locations. They have some advantages over the OSGB maps: they are printed on waterproof material, they are scaled according to the requirements of the activity and location (up to 1:12,500 for complex mountain areas), and they contain less distracting detail not relevant to the specific activities for which they are designed.

The UK is also covered by OpenStreetMap with variable coverage.

Countryside access[edit]

England and Wales[edit]

In England and Wales, there is an extensive network of public rights of way crossing what is mostly otherwise private land. You are recommended to use them in conjunction with an OS Landranger or Explorer map (see above). Here is what you may encounter:

Types of countryside access
Designation OS map symbol Waymarking Walking Cycling Horse riding Motor vehicles Notes
Footpath Short dashes Yellow arrows yes no no no Shown in purple on Landranger maps and green on Explorer maps.
Bridleway Long dashes Blue arrows yes yes yes no
Restricted Byway Long dashes with ticks on one-side (Explorer).
Alternating long and short dashes (Landranger).
Purple arrows yes yes yes no
Byway Long dashes with ticks both sides ("+" signs) Red arrows yes yes yes yes
Access Land Orange shaded area on Explorer maps. Not marked on Landranger maps. Usually unmarked. May occasionally be a brown symbol at entry point. yes no no no Typically in upland areas. Gives a "right to roam", but occasional restrictions may apply. Check Natural England and Natural Resources Wales for details.
Permissive path Usually unmarked. Occasionally orange dashes on Explorer maps. Varies, but often white arrow. Varies. Check signage. Permission given by landowner and may be withdrawn.
National Cycle Network Green dots on Landranger maps. Not usually shown on Explorer maps. White cycle on blue background (with white route number on red background) yes yes Varies. Sections may be on road. See Sustrans for more info
Long-distance walking route Series of diamond symbols, used in combination with the symbol for the type of right of way. Route may be named on signage. Acorn symbol if it has National Trail status. Check underlying type of right of way. Sections may be on road. See National Trails guide

Scotland[edit]

In Scotland, there is a general public right of access to land on foot or bicycle (with some common sense exceptions - see Scottish Outdoor Access Code), so maps do not show specific rights of way or access land as such. Access rights generally include the right to camp. Rights are subject to responsible use.

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