Download GPX file for this article

From Wikivoyage
Jump to navigation Jump to search

There are several forms of Frisian, but the most widely spoken of these is West Frisian, or Frysk. It is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands. West Frisian is the name by which this language is usually known outside of the Netherlands, to distinguish it from the closely related Frisian languages of Saterland Frisian and North Frisian, which are spoken in Germany. Within the Netherlands, however, (and often in other countries) the West Frisian language is the language of the province of Fryslân and is virtually always just called Frisian: Fries in Dutch, and Frysk in Frisian. The 'official' name used by linguists in the Netherlands to indicate the West Frisian language is Westerlauwers Fries (West Lauwers Frisian), the Lauwers being a border stream which separates the Dutch provinces of Fryslân and Groningen.

Most speakers of West Frisian live in the province of Fryslân (Friesland in Dutch) in the north of the Netherlands. The province has 643,000 inhabitants (2005); of these, 94% can understand spoken Frisian, 74% can speak Frisian, 65% can read Frisian, and 17% can write it. For over half of the inhabitants of the province of Fryslân, 55% (c. 354,000 people), Frisian is the native tongue as well as Dutch.

West Frisian is similar in both sound and grammar to Dutch, Afrikaans and some northern dialects of German. There are two grammatical genders, common and neuter, although they are nowadays very corroded and usually always the same in the plural.

It is the closest living continental language to English and shares mutual intelligibility with both Dutch and Old English (although Old English is not intelligible to modern English speakers).

Pronunciation guide[edit]

West Frisian vowels are similar to Dutch although there are a few substantial differences; for example, accented vowels like â are considered separate letters in West Frisian, not simply a variation of a. Also, there a few sound differences in consonants.

Vowels[edit]

A a
like 'a' in "scar" (but much shorter and sounds a little different) or "wall" (but shorter)
 â
like 'o' in "more" or like 'a' in "wall"
E e
like 'e' in "let" or like 'e' in unemphasised "the" at word end or like 'ay' as in "day" at vowel end
Ê ê
like 'e' in "bear"
I i
like 'i' in "it" or like 'ee' in "deep" (but much shorter) at vowel end, when nasalised sounds a bit like 'an' in "change"
O o
like 'o' in "hope" at vowel end or as in doll and a sound that sounds a little like 'o' in "hope" again, but is clearly different
Ô ô
like 'o' in "doll" but longer
U u
like 'u' in "burn" or like 'e' as in "the"
Û û
like 'oo' as in "too"
Ú ú
like German 'ü' as in "München"
Y y
is the same as 'i' in Frisian and will be included with words starting with an 'i' in Frisian dictionaries. Can only sound like the short "deep-ee" variant.

Consonants[edit]

The letters 'q' and 'x' do not appear in Frisian except for names; the same applies to the letter 'c' when not part of the combination "ch".

B b
like 'b' in "bat" or like 'p' in "map" at word end
D d
like 'd' in "day" or like 't' in "tap" at word end
F f
like 'f' in "fire"
G g
like 'g' in "green" or sometimes like Dutch G, dragged from the throat
H h
like 'h' in "hot", silent when before j or w
J j
like 'y' in "yes"
K k
like 'k' in "kit"
L l
like 'l' in "lock", silent between â and d or t
M m
like 'm' in "moon"
N n
like 'n' in "now" or like 'm' when before the letter p, nasalises preceding vowels when put before s, z, f, v, w, j, l, r and disappears. 'ins' will sound as one single, strange, vowel.
P p
like 'p' in "pen"
R r
usually silent at the end of the first word in a compound, at the end of a word which is not the last word in the sentence, otherwise usually a single rolled short r, sometimes like in English or French.
'r' is silent when before t, d, n, l, s, z
S s
like 's' in "sit"
T t
like 't' in "tie"
V v
like 'f' in "fire"
W w
like 'v' in "vow"
Z z
like 'z' in "zip"

Common digraphs[edit]

AA aa
like 'a' in "father"
EE ee
like 'ey' in "hey"
EI ei
like 'y' in "why" in Wood Frisian, or 'oi' in Clay Frisian and sometimes like 'ey' in "hey" in Wood Frisian
II ii
like 'ee' in "cheese"
OA oa
like 'o' in "morning"
OI oi
like 'oy' in "boy" (but shorter o)
OU ou
like 'ou' in "loud"
CH ch
like Scottish "loch"
IJ ij
like 'i' in "hi", sometimes like 'ey' in "hey"
KS ks
ks/x
SJ sj
like 'sh' in "shut"
TSJ tsj
like 'ch' in "church"

Phrase list[edit]

Some phrases in this phrasebook still need to be translated. If you know anything about this language, you can help by plunging forward and translating a phrase.

Basics[edit]

Common signs


OPEN
Iepen (Y-pahn)
CLOSED
Slúten (SLOO-tuhn)
ENTRANCE
Yngong (EEHN-gong)
EXIT
Útgong (UYT-gong)
PUSH
Triuwe (TRYUW-e)
PULL
Lûke (LUY-keh)
TOILET
it Húske (it HUYS-keh)
MEN
Manlju (MAEN-lyooh)
WOMEN
Froulju (FROW-lyooh)
FORBIDDEN
Ferbean (FAR-been)
Hello.
Goeie (GOOYA)
Hello. (informal)
Hoi (Oi)
How are you?
Hoe is it mei dy? (HOO iss et mey dee?)
Fine, thank you.
Goed hear, tige tank! (Goot haer, TI-cke taenk!)
What is your name?
Hoe hjitsto? (HOO hyes-to?)
My name is ______ .
Ik hjit _____ (Ick HYET _____)
Nice to meet you.
(Frisians won't ever say this)
Please.
Asjeblyft (ASH-yuh-BLEEFT)
Thank you.
Tige tank (TI-cke taenk)
You're welcome.
Jout neat (YOOT naet)
Yes.
Ja (YAH)
No.
Nee (NAY)
Excuse me. (getting attention)
Hallo (AHL-loh)
Excuse me. (inquiring information)
Mei ik jo wat freegje? (MEY ick jooh waet FREHG-yuh?)
Excuse me. (begging pardon)
Context dependant, Wat seisto? (What did you say?) (WAHT SEYS-too?)
I'm sorry.
It spyt my. (It SPEET mee)
Goodbye. (formal)
Oant sjen (OONT syeen)
Goodbye. (informal)
Oant sjen / do / hoi (OONT syeen / doh / oi)
I can't speak West Frisian [well].
Myn Frysk is net sa goed. (MEEN freesk is neht sae KOOT)
Do you speak English?
Praatsto ek Ingelsk? (PRAHT-stoh ehk INN-hlsk)
Is there someone here who speaks English?
Binne hjir ek minsken dyt Ingelsk praten? (Binne HEEHR ehk MINN-skhen DEET INN-hlsk PRAE-tuhn)
Help!
Help! (HEYLP)
Look out!
Sjoch út! (SOHKT uht)
Good morning.
Goeie moarn (GOO-yuh MAH-rhn)
Good evening.
Goeie jûn (GOO-yuh YUUN)
Good night.
Goeie jûn/Goeie nacht (GOO-yuh YUUN / GOO-yuh NACKT)
Good night (to sleep)
Lekker sliepe/Lekker koese (LEH-kahr SLY-pah / LEH-kahr KOO-suh)
I don't understand.
Ik snap it net. (ICK snaep it neht)
Where is the toilet?
Wêr is it húske? (WEHR iss it HUU-skeh?)

At this point, the fake phoneticizations of English are going to stop, and be replaced by ellipses.

Problems[edit]

Leave me alone.
Flean op! (FLEEN ohp!)
Don't touch me!
Bliuw fan my ôf! (BLEE-oow faen MEE oaf!)
I'll call the police.
Ik belje de plysje, hear! (Ick BEL-yuh deh PLEE-see, haer!)
Police!
Plysje! (PLEE-see)
Stop! Thief!
Stopje! Rôver! (STOHP-yah! ROH-vahr)
I need your help.
Soenen jo my kinne helpe? (SOO-nahn yo mee kee-nah hal-pah?)
It's an emergency.
Dit is in needsituaasje. (DIHT iss ihn need-SY-too-AHS-yuh)
I'm lost.
Ik bin it paad bjuster. (ICK byn it PAAHD byoo-ster)
I lost my bag.
Ik bin myn tas ferlêrn. (ICK byn meen tahs fer-LAER-en)
I lost my wallet.
Ik bin myn beurs ferlêrn. (ICK byn meen beuyhrs fer-LAER-en)
I'm sick.
Ik bin siik. (ICK byn SEEK)
I've been injured.
Ik bin ferwûne. (ICK byn fer-WUE-neh)
I need a doctor.
Ik haw in dokter nedich. (ICK haew en DOHK-tahr NEY-deech)
Can I use your phone?
Kin ik dyn tillefoan efkes brûke? (KIN ick deen TILLAH-fyohn EF-kahs BROO-kah?)

Numbers[edit]

1
ien (EE-en)
2
twa (TWAH)
3
trije (TREE-yuh)
4
fjouwer (FYOH-wer)
5
fiif (FEEF)
6
seis (SEYS)
7
sân (SORN)
8
acht (AHKT)
9
njoggen (NYOG-hen)
10
tsien (TSEEH-en)
11
alve (OL-vuh)
12
tolve (TOL-vuh)
13
trettjin (TRE-chin)
14
fjirtjin (FYIR-chin)
15
fyftjin (FEEF-chin)
16
sechstjin (ZEKS-chin)
17
santjin (SORN-chin)
18
achttjin (AHKT-chin)
19
njoggentjin (NYOG-hen-chin)
20
tweintich (TWYN-tich)
21
ienentweintich (EE-en-an-TWYN-tich)
22
twaentweintich(TWAH-an-TWYN-tich)
23
trijeentweintich (TREE-yahn-TWYN-tich)
30
tritich (TREE-tich)
40
fjirtich (FYIR-tich)
50
fyftich (FEEF-tich)
60
sechstich (ZEKS-tich)
70
santich (SAHN-tich)
80
tachtich (TAHK-tich)
90
njoggentich (NYOG-hen-tich)
100
hûndert (HOON-duhrt)
200
twahûndert (TWAH-hoon-durt)
300
trijehûndert (TREE-yuh-HOON-durt)
1000
tûzend (TUE-zant)
2000
twatûzend (TWAH-tue-zant)
1,000,000
milljoen (MYLL-youhn)
1,000,000,000
miljard (MYLL-yard)
1,000,000,000,000
biljoen (BYLL-yoon)
number _____ (train, bus, etc.)
_____ (trein, bus...)
half
heal (HAEL)
less
minder (MIN-dahr)
more
mear (MEEHR)

Time[edit]

now
no (NOEH)
later
letter (LEH-tahr)
before
foar (FAER)
morning
moarn (MOAHRN)
afternoon
middei (mid-day) (MID-dey)
evening
jun (YUHN)
night
nacht (NAKHT)

Clock time[edit]

one o'clock AM
ien oere (moarns/nachts) (EE-en OOH-rah MOAH-rns/NAHKTS)
two o'clock AM
twa oere (moarns/nachts) (TWAH OOH-rah MOAH-rns/NAHKTS)
noon
tolve oere (middeis) (TOL-vuh OOH-rah MID-ays)
one o'clock PM
ien oere (middeis) (EE-en OOH-rah MID-ays)
two o'clock PM
twa oere (middeis) (TWAH OOH-rah MID-ays)
midnight
tolve oere (nachts) (TOL-vuh OOH-rah NAHCKTS)

Duration[edit]

_____ minute(s)
_____ minút/minuten (MEE-noot / MEE-noo-tahn)
_____ hour(s)
_____ oere(n) (OOHR / OOH-rah)
_____ day(s)
_____ dei/dagen (DEY / DAE-chen)
_____ week(s)
_____ wike(n) (WY-kah(n))
_____ month(s)
_____ moanne(n) (MOAHN-eh(n))
_____ year(s)
_____ jier(ren) (YEER(-ahn))

Days[edit]

today
hjoed (hyood)
yesterday
juster (YOO-stahr)
tomorrow
moarn (MOHRN)
this week
dizze wike (DIZ-zah WY-kah)
last week
ôfrûne wike; foarige wike (o-FROO-nah WY-kah / FYOOR-ick-ah WY-kay)
next week
oare wike (OHR-ae WY-kah)
Sunday
Snein (SNYN)
Monday
Moandei (MOHN-dey)
Tuesday
Tiisdei (TEES-dey)
Wednesday
Woansdei (WOHNS-dey)
Thursday
Tongersdei (TOHNG-ehrs-dey)
Friday
Freed (FREET)
Saturday
Sneon/Saterdei (SNAEN / SAE-tehr-dey)

Months[edit]

January
Jannewaris (YAH-neh-WAH-rihs)
February
Febrewaris (FEH-bre-WAH-rihs)
March
Maart (MAEHRT)
April
April (AH-prihl)
May
Maaie (MAAY-eh)
June
Juny (YOO-ney)
July
July (YOO-ley)
August
Augustus (AHW-khus-tehs)
September
Septimber (SEYHP-tihm-bahr)
October
Oktober (OCK-toh-bahr)
November
Novimber (NOH-fimm-bahr)
December
Desimber (DEY-simm-bahr)

Writing time and date[edit]

Time 24h: 21:02 Date d/m/yy or d/m/'yy: 11-9-2010, 11-09-2010, 11-9-'10, 11-09-'10

Colors[edit]

black
swart (SWAHRT)
white
wyt (WEET)
gray
grys (KREES)
red
read (RAET)
blue
blau (BLAHW)
yellow
giel (KEEL)
green
grien (KREEN)
orange
oranje (OH-rahn-yah)
purple
pears (PAERS)
brown
brún (BROON)

Transportation[edit]

Bus and train[edit]

How much is a ticket to _____?
Wat kostet in kaartsje nei _____? (...)
One ticket to _____, please.
Ien kaartsje nei _____, asjeblyft. (...)
Where does this train/bus go?
Wêr giet dizze trein/bus hinne? (...)
Where is the train/bus to _____?
Wêr is de trein/bus te _____? (...)
Does this train/bus stop in _____?
Stoppet dizze trein/bus yn _____? (...)
When does the train/bus for _____ leave?
Hoe let sil de trein/bus nei _____ (fuort)? (...)
When will this train/bus arrive in _____?
Hoe let is dizze trein/bus yn _____? (...)

Directions[edit]

How do I get to _____ ?
Hoe kom ik by/yn _____? (...)
...the train station?
...by it treinstasjon? (...)
...the bus station?
...by it bushokje?
...the airport?
...by it fleanfjild? (...)
...downtown?
...yn it sintrum? (...)
...the youth hostel?
...by it hotel/by it bêd en brochje? (...)
...the _____ hotel?
...by it _____ hotel? (...)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate?
...de Amerikaanske/de Kanadese/Britske ambassade? (...)
Where are there a lot of...
Wêr kin ik in soad... fine?(...)
...hotels?
...hotels... (...)
...restaurants?
...restaurants... (...)
...bars?
...kroegen... (...)
...sites to see?
...moaie útsjochten... (...)
Can you show me ... on the map?
Kinsto me ... op de kaart sjen litte? (...)
street
strjitte (...)
Turn left.
Loftsôf. (...)
Turn right.
Rjochtsôf. (...)
left
lofts (...)
right
rjochts (...)
straight ahead
rjochttroch (...)
towards the _____
oan de/it _____ (...)
past the _____
foarby de/it _____ (...)
before the _____
foar de/it _____ (...)
Watch for the _____.
Let op de/it _____. (...)
intersection
krusing (...)
north
noard (...)
south
súd (...)
east
east (...)
west
west (...)
uphill
omheech (...)
downhill
del (...)

Taxi[edit]

Taxi!
Taksy! (...)
Take me to _____, please.
Soenen jo my nei (de/it) _____ bringe kinne, asjebleaft. (...)
How much does it cost to get to _____?
Wat kostet in ritsje nei _____? (...)
Take me there, please.
Bring my dêr, asjebleaft. (...)

Lodging[edit]

Do you have any rooms available?
Hast jo enig keamers iepen? (...)
How much is a room for one person/two people?
Wat kosten it foar ien/twa minkse/n? (...)
Does the room come with...
Koms de keamer mei... (...)
...bedsheets?
...laken? (...)
...a bathroom?
...in baaikamer? (...)
...a telephone?
...in telefoan? (...)
...a TV?
...in televyzje? (...)
May I see the room first?
Meije ik de keamer sjen earste? (...)
Do you have anything quieter?
Hawwe jo eat mear stil? (...)
...bigger?
...greater? (...)
...cleaner?
...suverjer? (...)
...cheaper?
...mear in goedkeap? (...)
OK, I'll take it.
Ik sil bruken it. (...)
I will stay for _____ night(s).
Ik sil steit foar _____ nacht(en). (...)
Can you suggest another hotel?
Kin jo inoar hotel namme? (...)
Do you have a safe?
Hast do in safe? (...)
...lockers?
...kammeneten? (...)
Is breakfast/supper included?
Is moarniten/junmiel in part fan de diel? (...)
What time is breakfast/supper?
Wannear is moarnsiten/junmiel? (...)
Please clean my room.
As jo wolle, myn kamer suverje. (...)
Can you wake me at _____? | Kin jo wake my at _____? (...)
I want to check out.
Ik sil ferlitte. (...)

Money[edit]

Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars/British pounds?
Don't ask for it, foreign money is accepted nowhere in the Netherlands. (...)
Do you accept credit cards?
Kin ik mei in kredytkaart betelje? (...)
Can you change money for me?
Kinne jo jild wikselje? (...)
Where can I get money changed?
Wêr kin ik jild wikselje? (...)
Can you change a traveler's check for me?
Kin ik hjir reissjeks ynwikselje? (...)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed?
Wêr kin ik reissjeks ynwikselje? (...)
What is the exchange rate?
Wat is de wikselkoers? (...)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)?
Wêr kin ik in PIN-automaat/jildautomaat fine? (...)

Eating[edit]

A table for one person/two people, please.
(...)
Can I look at the menu, please?
(...)
Can I look in the kitchen?
(...)
Is there a house specialty?
(...)
Is there a local specialty?
(...)
I'm a vegetarian.
Ik ite net fleis. (...)
I don't eat pork.
Ik ite net swynfleis. (...)
I don't eat beef.
Ik ite net kowfleis. (...)
I only eat kosher food.
Ik ite mar kosher fied. (...)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard)
(...)
fixed-price meal
(...)
a la carte
a la carte (...)
breakfast
brea-iten (...)
lunch
middei miel (...)
tea (meal)
tea (...)
supper
junmiel (...)
I want _____.
(...)
I want a dish containing _____.
(...)
chicken
hinfleis (...)
beef
kowfleis (...)
fish
fisk (...)
ham
skon (...)
sausage
wurst (...)
cheese
tsiis (...)
eggs
eggen (...)
salad
salaad (...)
(fresh) vegetables
(farsk) grientes (...)
(fresh) fruit
(farsk) fruit (...)
bread
brea (...)
toast
toast (...)
noodles
noodles (...)
rice
rys (...)
beans
beans (...)
May I have a glass of _____?
Meije ik ha in gles fol _____? (...)
May I have a cup of _____?
Meije ik ha in kop fol _____? (...)
May I have a bottle of _____?
Meije ik ha in flask mei _____? (...)
coffee
koffje (...)
tea (drink)
tee (...)
juice
sap (...)
(bubbly) water
wettter (...)
water
wetter (...)
beer
bier (...)
red/white wine
read/wyt wyn (...)
May I have some _____?
(...)
salt
salt (...)
black pepper
swart pipper (...)
butter
buter (...)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
(...)
I'm finished.
(...)
It was delicious.
(...)
Please clear the plates.
(...)
The check, please.
(...)

Bars[edit]

Do you serve alcohol?
(...)
Is there table service?
(...)
A beer/two beers, please.
(...)
A glass of red/white wine, please.
(...)
A pint, please.
(...)
A bottle, please.
(...)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please.
(...)
whiskey
(...)
vodka
(...)
rum
(...)
water
(...)
club soda
(...)
tonic water
(...)
orange juice
(...)
Coke (soda)
Coke (...)
Do you have any bar snacks?
(...)
One more, please.
(...)
Another round, please.
(...)
When is closing time?
(...)
Cheers!
(...)

Shopping[edit]

Do you have this in my size?
Hast dou it in myn gratens? (...)
How much is this?
What kosten it? (...)
That's too expensive.
Dat is ek djoer. (...)
Would you take _____?
(...)
expensive
djoer (...)
cheap
goedkeap (...)
I can't afford it.
'Tis ek djoer. (...)
I don't want it.
(...)
You're cheating me.
(...)
I'm not interested.
(...)
OK, I'll take it.
(...)
Can I have a bag?
Meije ik in sek hawwe? (...)
Do you ship (overseas)?
(...)
I need...
... (...)
...toothpaste.
...tosk "paste". (...)
...a toothbrush.
...in toskboarstel. (...)
...tampons.
...tampons. (...)
...soap.
...sjippe. (...)
...shampoo.
...sjampo. (...)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen)
.... (...)
...cold medicine.
.... (...)
...stomach medicine.
.... (...)
...a razor.
.... (...)
...an umbrella.
.... (...)
...sunblock lotion.
.... (...)
...a postcard.
.... (...)
...postage stamps.
.... (...)
...batteries.
.... (...)
...writing paper.
.... (...)
...a pen.
.... (...)
...English-language books.
.... (...)
...English-language magazines.
.... (...)
...an English-language newspaper.
.... (...)
...an English-English dictionary.
.... (...)

Driving[edit]

I want to rent a car.
(...)
Can I get insurance?
(...)
stop (on a street sign)
(...)
one way
(...)
yield
(...)
no parking
(...)
speed limit
(...)
gas (petrol) station
(...)
petrol
(...)
diesel
(...)

Authority[edit]

I haven't done anything wrong.
Ik haw neat ferkeard dien. (...)
It was a misunderstanding.
It wie in misferstân. (...)
Where are you taking me?
Wêr bringe jo my hinne? (...)
Am I under arrest?
Wurd ik oppakt? (...)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen.
Ik bin Amerikaansk/Australysk/Britsk/Kanadeesk. (...)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate.
Ik wol mei de Amerikaanske/Australyske/Britske/Kanadeeske ambassadeur prate. (...)
I want to talk to a lawyer.
I wol mei in advokaat prate. (...)
Can I just pay a fine now?
Kin ik no net in boete betelje? (...)


This West Frisian phrasebook is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!