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Madagascar is sometimes called "the eighth continent" for its distinct biogeography.

Major wildlife regions
North AmericaCentral & South AmericaAfricaMadagascarEurasiaSouth & Southeast AsiaAustralasiaArcticSouthern Ocean


Map of Wildlife of Madagascar

As Madagascar has been an isolated landmass for 88 million years, many species are unique to the island. New species are continuously found even in the 21st century.

Similar to Australasian wildlife, the Madagascar wildlife is a case study of convergent evolution, in which animal species (in particular mammals) have evolved body shapes and behaviors similar to unrelated species on other continents.


Lemurs are a superfamily of primates with around 100 species, endemic to Madagascar.

The fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) is a cat-like carnivore.

Tenrecs, also called otter shrews, are a family of mammals which resemble moles, hedgehogs and other small mammals on other continents.


Madagascar has nearly 15,000 known plant species, of which 80 per cent are only found on the island. The Madagascar orchids are particularly famous.


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