Nuclear tourism is travel to places connected with nuclear research and technology, places where there have been atomic explosions, or places related to peaceful or wartime use of nuclear energy. They include:
- Sites of nuclear explosions (bombed cities, weapon test sites, sites related to peaceful use of nuclear explosions)
- Sites of nuclear accidents and accidents of nuclear weapon carrying aircraft
- Atomic museums
- Otherwise remarkable sites of projects in nuclear technology
Although in many of the nuclear tourism sites only background radiation can be detected, in some other visitors are confronted with levels above natural background. These include mainly sites related to nuclear accidents and weapons testing. When visiting places with increased radiation, it is reasonable to be equipped with a radiation monitor in order to have a control over radiation exposure. The most common devices in a reasonable price range usually contain a Geiger-Müller counter. They are suitable for detection of gamma, x-ray, alpha and beta radiation, typically expressed as counts per second. In other devices the registered gamma radiation is converted in units of dose rate or absorbed dose. These basic counters can not provide information about individual isotopes, natural or man-made, but simply sum up all registered radiation.
In order to be able to use the radiation monitor it is essential to get familiar with the units and ranges of the measured values to evaluate the information obtained from the counter. Also one has to be aware of a strong variation of natural background radiation, which depends mainly on local geology.
Sites of nuclear explosions
Hiroshima, Japan, was a target of the first nuclear attack ever on 6 August 1945. Nowadays the event with 90,000–166,000 civilian victims is commemorated in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, including the iconic A-Bomb Dome or Children's Peace Monument covered by colorful paper cranes for bomb victim, Sadako Sasaki.
Another nuclear bomb was dropped three days later on the industrial town of Nagasaki, Japan, with more than 60,000-80,000 victims. Visitors can learn about the tragic piece of history in the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum or the Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims, both located near ground zero.
As of 2014, both of the aircraft which dropped nuclear weapons on Japanese civilians are in US museums. Enola Gay (the plane which bombed Hiroshima) is displayed at the Udvar-Hazy Center (part of Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum) in Chantilly, Virginia ; Bockscar (which bombed Nagasaki) is on display at the U.S. Air Force Museum near Dayton, Ohio.
See the Pacific War article for the events leading up to the bombs.
Weapon test sites
In total, eight countries carried out nuclear weapon tests to determine the capability of their weapons, mostly in their own respective territories. The United States conducted the first and the most numerous tests, mostly in Nevada. Others carrying out tests included Russia (then Soviet Union), UK, India, France, and China. Pakistan followed by North Korea conducted the last nuclear weapon tests. Sites where weapon tests were conducted can be visited in these countries for adventure.
- Trinity site, New Mexico - the site of the world's first nuclear explosion on July 16, 1945, which started the Atomic age. The site, which was declared a National Historic Landmark district, is open for tours once in a year (first Saturday in April). The ground zero, where the plutonium bomb was detonated from a tower, is marked with a plain stone monument. Careful visitors can spot glassy greeny pieces in the dirt. It is "Trinitite", sand fused by the enormous heat of the explosion into a crusty surface. Most of Trinitite was cleared away in the years after the test with a small piece of original surface preserved in a shelter. The small fractions of Trinitite left at the site do not pose any health hazard to the visitors from the external exposure point of view, but it is not allowed to take away any Trinitite from the inner fenced area. During the Trinity site open house days it is also possible to view Schmidt/McDonald ranch house, where the plutonium core to the bomb was assembled shortly before the test.
- Nevada test site (near Las Vegas, Nevada). Tours to the site start from Atomic Testing Museum in Las Vegas and cover several areas of the test site. They take place approximately once in a month, but must be booked many months in advance.
- Semipalatinsk test site , Kazakhstan can be visited from city of Semey by own means (taxi). The National Nuclear Center in nearby Kurchatov organizes official tours to the test area.
- Atolls Bikini and Enewetak are former US test sites at Marshall Islands. Being located in the middle of the Pacific, far away from any mainland, they are difficult to visit. Bikini atoll is open for tourism from late April to November and welcomes divers participating in organized tours. These tours that start at Kwajalein atoll are only availabe to experienced divers and the main attraction is the U.S. fleet sunk by the nuclear tests at Bikini. In 1970's the US army performed a clean up of contamination at Enewetak. As a result, radioactive materials from Enewetak and other contaminated atolls were dumped into the Cactus test crater at a tiny island Runit within the Enewetak atoll and covered by a concrete structure, known as Cactus dome.
- Maralinga test site (Near Woomera in South Australia). A former British nuclear test site is located in land belonging to Maralinga Tjarutja people. It is in princliple possible to see the nuclear test site, but the visitors must apply for access permission with Maralinga Tjarutja Council. Maralinga can only be toured with the local caretaker, which has to be arranged in advance.
- Montebello Isands (Off the Pilbara coast in Western Australia, 135 km W of Karratha). A former British nuclear test site. It is possible to take nuclear safari tour. Another option for experienced sailors is chartering a boat and discovering the place by own means. Remains of the testing activities in 1950's (e.g., bunkers) can be found at some islands (Trimouille Island), as well as elevated radiation. Therefore the authorities recommend to limit your stay to 1 hour per day in these zones. The area is a part of Montebello Islands Marine Park, where special conditions for protecting marine life apply.
Peaceful use of nuclear explosions
In the USA, 27 peaceful nuclear explosions were conducted within Operation Plowshare to test the use of nuclear explosions for various civilian purposes, such as excavating channels or harbors and stimulating natural gas production from sediment layers. Most of the shots were performed at the Nevada test site, however some of the test sites in Colorado and New Mexico are accessible for the public.
- Gusbuggy test site (25 miles SW of Dulce, NM). A small monument with a plaque containing a brief description of the event at the surface round zero. The site is in Carson National Forest and open to public access.
- Rulison test site (9 miles from Hw. 70, Parachute, CO, along a gravel road, Garfield County Route 338.). A small monument with a plaque containing a brief description of the event at the surface ground zero.
Sites of nuclear accidents
Some might find it unethical or at least controversial for tourists to visit sites where many people suffered following an accident, especially if local guides are repeatedly exposed to radiation when leading tour groups through exclusion zones too "hot" for residents to return.
Conversely, some welcome tourism as an alternative means to support local economies.
Accidents in nuclear power plants or nuclear materials production sites
- Pripyat, Chornobyl Oblast, Ukraine. The Chernobyl disaster of 26 April 1986 is an event classified at level 7 (the highest) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Pripyat and Chornobyl are now radioactive ghost towns, which can be visited as part of organized tours. Although the Chernobyl sarcophagus was constructed with lots of concrete and by 500k workers the structure has since deteriorated and crumbled. There are plans to fix the containment by 2015.
- Sellafield, United Kingdom, is site of a number of accidents including the 1957 fire of the former nuclear reactor Windscale. During those accidents a lot of radioactive waste ended up in the Irish sea, near Whitehaven. Also during the reactor fire radioactivity was released through the chimney, however the major portion of particles was contained by the high-capacity filters mounted on the chimney. They were known "Cockcroft's Folly" after a Nobel prize winning physicist sir Cockcroft, who insisted on having them mounted at great expense, although they haven't been included in the original project. Due to their specific shape, they contributed to the iconic silouhete of the nuclear complex. However, in 2014 the remaining one of originally two chimneys has been decomissioned and is no longer part of the Sellafield skyline.
- The nuclear site has been hosting a number of nuclear reprocessing operations. There used to be a Visitors' Centre, but it is no longer open.
- When spending time on nearby beaches (for example the one in Seascale), you might be lucky enough to spot the Sellafield environmental monitoring workers beachcombing for "hot particles" using a special all-terrain vehicle.
- Three Mile Island, near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States of America was the worst commercial nuclear power plant accident in the USA on March 28, 1979. During the reactor core meltdown radioactivity, mainly in form of radioiodine and noble gasses, was released to the surrounding environment. There is no visitors' center commemorating the event, only a historic marker (at the given coordinates in Middletown) with a fine view across the Susquehanna river towards the power station.
- Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan was seriously damaged by a tsunami following a magnitude 9 earthquake on March 11, 2011. Large areas of Fukushima prefecture coast are currently being decontaminated, while some 80,000 inhabitants had to be resettled.
Accidents of nuclear weapon carrying aircraft
During the Cold war there were several accidents involving thermonuclear weapons, and some of them led to local environment contamination. These are a few of them.
- In Faro near Goldsboro (North Carolina), USA a B-52 crash dropped a hydrogen bomb which failed to detonate in 1961. The event is commemorated by a historical road marker in the town of Eureka, 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the crash site.
- A crater about 23 m wide and 11 m deep was left after another accident, in which a B-47 "Stratojet" crew mistakenly released a Mark 6 bomb while flying over Mars Bluff, South Carolina, on March 11, 1958 afternoon. The bomb went off by a conventional explosion at the property of local family Gregg and injured several family members. The crater can be visited from SC Highway 76 (East Palmetto Street) via a marked trail. There is an informational board and mock up of the bomb's size at the site. Nearby museum in Florence has the story to tell including some historical artifacts connected to the event.
- In 1966 after an unsuccessful inflight refueling operation an US bomber B-52 carrying four hydrogen bombs crashed in Palomares between Almería and Cartagena, Spain. Nowadays, after cleanup operations, the area is used extensively for agricultural production. Two of the "hot areas" are closed to the public by a fence.
- Another accident occurred in 1968, when B-52 "Stratofortress" with four hydrogen bombs on board crashed onto the sea ice near the Thule Air Base, Greenland. The nearest civilian settlement is Qaanaaq, some 100 km to the north.
"Manhattan Project", named for the Manhattan Engineering District of the US Army Corps of Engineers, is a cover name for a war-time US military effort to develop an atomic weapon. Geographically, the project was spread over about 30 sites across the United States (and Canada). The best known are the secret laboratory in Los Alamos and factories to supply the fissile materials by enriching uranium and producing plutonium in reactors in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford site near Richland, Washington.
- Chicago Pile-1 site, South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. A monument at a site of the first fission reactor constructed by team of Enrico Fermi (originally under the stands of Stagg Field, the University's abandoned football stadium) was successfully tested.
- Site A/ Plot M Disposal Site, Illinois (Red Gate Woods). Radioactive waste disposal sites at former grounds of Argonne National Laboratory. At site A Chicago Pile-1 reactor along with other radioactive waste was buried. Monuments commemorate the event.
- Hanford Site, Washington (Red Gate Woods). Location of the B Reactor (U.S. National Historic Landmark since 2008) which produced some of the plutonium for the Trinity test and the Fat Man bomb. The tours to the B Reactor building connected to a bus tour through the Hanford site (Apr-Sep) must be booked in advance.
- American Museum of Science and Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 300 South Tulane Ave, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Mo-Sa 9 am-5 pm, Su 1-5 pm. History of the Manhattan Project and the role of Oak Ridge plant within the project. There are bomb casings on display. A three hour long guided bus tour departs from the museum on some working days in summer season (March to November, for detailed schedule check the AMSE webpage). The tour takes visitors to the U.S. Department of Energy facilities: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Graphite Reactor (the world’s oldest nuclear reactor, now national historic landmark) or Y-12 Visitor Center. Only U.S. citizens can join the tour. $5 (Adults), $3 (Children).
- Bradbury Science Museum, Los Alamos, 1350 Central Avenue, Los Alamos, NM, ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. Tu-Sa 10 am–5 pm, Su Mo: 1–5 pm. The museum is devoted to the history and the current research in the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Great part of the exposition covers the history of the Manhattan Project. Admission free.
- Experimental Breeder Reactor I, Arco, Idaho - first nuclear reactor to produce electrical power, first breeder reactor, and first reactor to use plutonium as fuel
- George Herbert Jones Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois - where plutonium was first isolated and characterized
- Los Alamos Historical Museum, 1050 Bathtub Row, Los Alamos, New Mexico (just north of Fuller Lodge), ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Summer: Mo-Fr 9:30 am-4:30 pm, Sa 11am-4 pm, Su 1-4 pm; Winter: Mo-Fr 10am-4 pm, Sa 11am-4 pm, Su 1-4pm. History of life in the Secret City during the Manhattan Project. Admission free.
- National Atomic Testing Museum, 755 E Flamingo Road, Las Vegas, ☎ . Mo-Sa 10AM-5PM, Su 12PM-5PM. Artifacts, pictures, maps and video footage presenting nuclear weapons testing and development in the southwestern US. If you're interested in science and history it's definitely worth visiting, and it's also a great break if you've become tired of the Strip. Videography requires special permission. Museum $14, Museum and Area 51 exhibit $20.
- National Museum of Nuclear Science & History (National Atomic Museum), 601 Eubank at Southern Blvd Albuquerque, New Mexico, ☎ . daily 9:00am-5:00pm, closed on vacation days. The museum serves as America's resource for nuclear history and science. The Museum exhibits and educational programs convey the diversity of individuals and events that shaped the historical and technical context of the nuclear age. $8.
- Savannah River Site, South Carolina - production site of plutonium and tritium
- X-10 Graphite Reactor, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - first nuclear reactor to produce Plutonium 239
Several sites operate nuclear reactors for either nuclear reactor safety training or for nuclear science experiments using them as neutron sources. Neutron scattering is an effective ways to obtain information on the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. These days accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source based in Oakridge allow more intense neutron beams. Nevertheless several reactors are in on-going operations. Fundamental and solid state physics, chemistry, materials science, biology, medicine and environmental science pose scientific questions that are investigated with neutrons.
In contrast to nuclear fission, where unstable atoms decay into smaller atoms, there exists also an attempt of nuclear fusion, where energy would be gained by processes similarly to what happens in the core of stars by the fusion of two light elements in a heavier one. ITER is an international nuclear research and engineering project to build the first the world's largest experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor.
- CROCUS, EPFL
- Forschungsreaktor München II (FRM II), Lichtenbergstraße 1, 85748 Garching bei München (U6 to Garching-Forschungszentrum), ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. The reactor is an optimised neutron source. Almost 50% of experiments are performed using cold neutrons. The compact construction of the fuel element means that more than 70% of the neutrons leave the uranium zone and build up to a maximum thermal neutron flux density at a distance of 12cm from the surface of the fuel element. From where they are distributed to the experiments. Please register early in advance your visit either by email or phone. The visitor needs to be older than 16 years, not pregnant and no phones or cameras are allowed inside.
- Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics (Atominstitut), Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna, Austria, ☎ , e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. The 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor in the Viennese Prater started operation in 1962. The reactor is a training ground for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors and neighbouring countries. The Atominstitut offers guided tours for groups upon previous registration. €4/person.
- ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor or the way (Latin)), Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon 13115, St. Paul-lez-Durance (CPA bus line 150 (Aix-en-Provence--St Paul lez Durance)), ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. The ITER project aims to make the transition from experimental studies of plasma physics to an electricity-producing fusion power plants. ITER is designed to produce 500 megawatts of output power. Visitors are welcome year round on the first Friday of every month at the ITER site. General public visits include a stop at the Visitor's Centre for a presentation of the project followed by guided tour of the ITER platform where the ITER scientific facilities are currently under construction. Visit requests should be made at least four weeks in advance via on-line tool. Free of charge, groups > 8 need to book a bus.
- Wendelstein 7-X fusion device (Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik), Wendelsteinstraße 1, Greifswald, Germany, ☎ +49 (0) 3834 88-1203 or -1800, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. In Greifswald the large Wendelstein 7-X fusion reactor (stellarator) is under construction. The device as well as technology and workshops can be toured upon previous booking.
- Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin. The 10MW research reactor BER II delivers neutron beams for a wide range of scientific investigations. On open house day, interested visitors are allowed to take guided tours through the experimental halls around the research reactor. Scientists and reactor experts will be there on these days to answer questions about the facility and the safety measures.
- Swiss Spallation Neutron Source (SINQ), Paul Scherrer Institut bldg. WHGA/147, 5232 Villigen PSI, Swiss. SINQ is designed as a neutron source mainly for research with extracted beams of thermal and cold neutrons, but hosts also facilities for isotope production and neutron activation analysis.
- TRIGA Mark I at the University of California, Irvine, in Irvine, California, US
- PLUTO reactor (DIDO, 26MW, 1957–1990) in Harwell, Oxfordshire, England
- ZEEP (1945–1973) of the Chalk River Laboratories in Deep River, Ontario, Canada
Nuclear power plant building sites never finished
Some nuclear power plants never had a nuclear fission reaction happening on their site, as they were not turned on.
- Bataan Nuclear Power Plant. The Philippine's only attempt to build a nuclear power plant, this US$2.3 billion plant was completed in 1984, at which point testing of systems began. In 1986, the authoritarian government behind the project was overthrown and following the Chernobyl disaster later that year, the new government decided to mothball the plant. The Bataan Nuclear Power Plant is complete and has been maintained since then, but was never fueled to operate. All uranium was removed by 1997. Due to the high cost of maintaining the plant, the Philippine government announced in 2011 that the plant would be turned into a tourist attraction. The tour admission fee also includes use of the adjacent private beach, WestNuk Cove, which also has some accommodation and recreation facilities (Westnuk Beach Resort, ). 150 pesos (2012).
- Kalkar, Griether Straße (Germany). Originally intended as a prototype fast breeder reactor, nowadays an amusement park. One can climb on the outside of the big concrete cooling tower
- Stendal, Germany
- Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant, Zwentendorf, Austria (Small town in Lower Austria between Krems and Tulln next to the Danube river). The boiling-water reactor rated at 692 megawatts electric power output got fully built, but never turned on due to missing approval on public vote. There are tours showing the interior, when not reserved for training.
- Żarnowiec, Poland
- Ruins of the Crimean Atomic Energy Station, Russia
- Haigerloch, Germany: A site of a former research reactor during WWII called Atomkeller (Atomic cellar), which never went critical. The museum tells the story of the Uranverein (Uranium society), a German attempt to develop a nuclear weapon, and shows the Haigerloch nuclear reactor replica.
- Vemork, Norway: Heavy water production site and location of war-time heavy water sabotage .
Nuclear bunkers were meant to protect in the case of nuclear weapon explosions. During the cold war this threat was considered imminent, hence many key figures would need access to such bunkers. While nothing was likely to withstand a direct hit, bunkers were built far underground to survive a nuclear strike which landed as close as one mile (1.6km) away.
Fallout shelters were intended to shelter populations in areas far from the targets of a nuclear strike; these communities were likely to be spared direct blast damage but still become dangerously radioactive in the initial days or weeks after an attack. Often, civil defence authorities would make provision for a posted fallout shelter in the basement of a library, post office, school or other large public building. In some countries building regulations even pushed for bunkers in the cellars of small domestic buildings.
- Dienststelle Marienthal (Government bunker), Ahrweiler near Bonn, Germany. Apr-Oct W,Sa,Su 10:00-17:00, last guided tour 16:30 for individual visitors.. Nuclear bunker built in the 60s to house the West German federal government in case of nuclear war. Constructed inside two railway tunnels beneath 110m of slate rock. After the end of Cold War the bunker was dismantled and today only 203m of the original bunker exists near Ahrweiler. This existing part was converted into the Government Bunker Documentation Site Museum. €8.
- Atombunker Harnekop (Nuclear governmental shelter) (65 km NE from Berlin), ☎ , e-mail: email@example.com. Regular guided tours (in German) Mar-Oct: Sa,Su & public holidays 10:00, 12:00 & 14:00. One of the East German shabby relics of the Cold War located within 1 hour's drive from Berlin at an area of a former military barracks. The bunker in Harnekop was prepared for a possible war as the underground command post of the Ministry of National Defence of the GDR. Nowadays it's possible to join a guided tour in the bunker after an e-mail or phone registration.
- Object 825 GTS (Balaklava submarine base), Balaklava Bay, Crimea. Top-secret military facility during the Cold War built inside a mountain, today part of the Naval museum complex in Balaklava.
- F4 Object (Rákosi bunker), Budapest, Hungary. Several kilometres long, formerly secret nuclear shelter, 45-50m below central Budapest. Exact number of entrances is unknown. It is presently owned by the state and controlled by the BKV (Budapest Transport Company).
- D-0 ARK, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Konjic. 611m² bunker secretly built between 1953 and 1979 in Konjic, 50km southwest from Sarajevo, to house Josip Tito and other members of the Yugoslav elite. Dug 300m into a mountain, since 2011 houses D-0 ARK Underground Biennial of Contemporary Art
- Diefenbunker, 3911 Carp Rd, Carp, Ontario, ☎ , toll-free: . Atomic bomb shelter built in 1959-61 (during the cold war Diefenbaker era) at the now-closed Canada Forces Station Carp as an Emergency Government Headquarters to house Canadian leaders during a nuclear attack. Now open as Canada's Cold War Museum, the Diefenbunker appears in one scene in the 2002 film "Sum of all Fears". Carp is in a rural area of West Carleton, west of Ottawa.
- Underground Project 131 ("131"地下工程; "131" Dìxià gōngchéng), Gaoqiao Township (高桥镇) in Xianning in Hubei, China. A nuclear bunker and set of tunnels built in 1969 in order to provide shelter from a possible nuclear attack from the former USSR. This is still a military installation, and non-Chinese nationals may not be allowed to visit.
Nuclear weapon sites
- Minuteman Missile National Historic Site, Interstate-90 exit 131, east of Wall (South Dakota), ☎ . Daily 08:00-16:30 (visitor centre), closed weekends in winter. 1960s Delta-01 Launch Control Facility, Launch Facility/ Missile Silo: Delta-09, visitor centre with information on Cold War history. This Minuteman ICBM site 75 miles east of Rapid City SD could rain down nuclear devastation six thousand miles away in 30 minutes. Guided free tours of launch control are available from the visitor centre but numbers are limited so large groups will need to book a few weeks ahead.
- Strategic Missile Forces Museum, вул. Одеська, 121, Первомайськ, Миколаївська обл. (Pervomaisk, Mykolayiv Oblast, Ukraine), ☎ . Former missile base (46th Missile Nizhnedneprovsk Order of the October Revolution, Red Division). Samples of rocket engines, auxiliary vehicles, mock nuclear warhead. Missiles: SS-24 "Scalpel" silo-based and RS-20 missile (SS-18 "Satan").
- Olenya Bay Navel Base Submarine Graveyard. An incredible Soviet submarine graveyard can be seen here, with Diesel and Nuclear vessels literally dumped in the waters, some with intact nuclear reactors.
Black hole's shelves were filled with all kinds of second hand scientific equipment for sale: any use for a Dewar bottle or a photomultiplier tube? Or at least a can of "organic plutonium"?
Black hole was scaled down after Ed Grothus's death in 2009 and closed down altogether in 2011.
- Ship Lucky Dragon 5, Tokyo, Japan ( Daigo Fukuryū Maru), Yumenoshima Park, 3-2 Yumenoshima, Koto Ward, Tokyo, ☎ . Tu-Su. The restored fishing boat Lucky Dragon which crew became unfortunate victims of nuclear fallout fallowing a thermonuclear test at Bikini Atoll is on display at Tokyo Metropolitan Daigo Fukuryū Maru Exhibition Hall. On 1 March 1954, 23 fishermen were hunting tuna near the Marshall Islands, when they witnessed the larger than predicted Castle Bravo nuclear test conducted by the US. Later on the fishermen were subjected to a strange white rain containing particles of radioactive fallout mixed with the coral reef debris. Unaware of the danger of the contamination on their bodies and the ship's surfaces, the fishermen headed back to Japan and over the following days developed symptoms of acute radiation syndrome. One crew member died later in hospital. Free.
- A Memorial to the X-ray martyrs of the world in Hamburg (Ehrenmal der Radiologie) (Garden of St. Georg hospital). This monument is devoted to researchers, physicians, physicists, radiographers, laboratory technicians and nurses who died from injuries or illnesses caused by prolonged exposure to radiation used in medicine. On the list of about 360 names of radiologists from 23 countries perhaps the best known are Marie Sklodowska-Curie and her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie.
One obvious concern in touring nuclear sites is radiation. In fact, good news is that most of the sites listed above are safe from this point of view. Where obvious danger exists, you should be usually stopped by fence and other security measures.
In case you happen to find yourself in a less safe situation or unknown suspicious area, you will probably be equipped with a radiation monitor and good knowledge of how to use it. It's important to know how to interpret the readings and/or convert the units. Although officially there is nothing like a safe level or radiation, there are some levels that can help to put the numbers into context. These are some examples:
- The typical yearly dose from purely natural background, consisting mainly of radon gas we breathe, building materials surrounding us, radionuclides in food we eat and from the cosmic radiation that keeps bombarding us. This value is 2.4 thousandths of Sievert (mSv) on average, with a large range between 1-13 mSv depending mainly on the geological background of the place you live.
- Additionally to natural sources, artificial radiation contributes to radiation exposure of some of us. The main contributor here is medical diagnosis and treatment using radiation or radionuclides. Here the exposition varies widely based on number and type of such measures. Globally, an average person receives 0.6 mSv/yr, while in countries with well developed medical systems the numbers are higher, for example 3.14 mSv in USA. One bone scintigraphy scan with the use of medial isotope Tc-99m results in a one-time dose of about 5 mSv. A chest CT scan can give a dose of 5-10 mSv, which is much higher than a simple chest x-ray of 0.2 mSv.
- Members of flight crews receive some 1.5 mSv annual dose due to increased cosmic radiation in high altitudes.
- The limit for the Fukushima exclusion zone was set as 20 mSv/yr.
- Occupational limits for radiation workers are usually at 50 mSv/yr.
The way to protect yourself against external radiation exposure (like radiation coming from soil polluted with radioactive fallout) is to limit the time spent in the polluted area and keep your distance from the source (hot spots).
During your exploration you certainly want to avoid internal contamination, that means ingesting radionuclides by eating or drinking contaminated food, or inhaling radioactive particles. Some easy protective measures are therefore avoiding eating and drinking and wearing a respirator.
Another kind of more general risks can arise from exploration of abandoned and off-limits urban locations. These include injuries or possible legal consequences. For more details check Urbex article.