- Rouyn-Noranda—Abitibi-Témiscamingue's capital, it is often referred to as "La capitale nationale du Cuivre" (National Copper Capital).
- Val-d'Or—Second economic centre of the region.
- Amos—Town of 14 000 habitants, northeast of Rouyn-Noranda
- Ville-Marie—Located in Témiscamingue
- La Sarre—Town of 10 000 habitants, northwest of Rouyn-Noranda.
- Notre-Dame-du-Nord—On the shores of lake Témiscamingue
Despite its proximity to Ontario, Abitibi has a surprisingly low number of native English speakers. Most people here speak strictly French, except for young people who may understand and speak some English. Aboriginal languages are spoken in reserves.
- From Montréal, route 117 passes through the Réserve Faunique de La Vérendrye.
- From Chibougamau, route 113 passes via Senneterre
- From northern Québec (Nord-du-Québec), route 109 passes via Amos.
- From northeastern Ontario, route 66 passes from Kirkland Lake, Ont to Arntfield. Route 101 between Matheson, Ont and Duparquet, Qc may prove shorter, but isolated and narrow.
- From North Bay, route 63 reaches Témiscaming.
Via Rail offers a few weekly runs from the Montréal region to Senneterre station which take about eleven and a half hours and cost about $85 (economy class, one adult, 2007).
Autobus Maheux runs daily between the principal towns and cities in the region, offering three departures daily to and from Montréal. The trip to Val d'Or takes about seven hours and costs about $82 (one adult, in 2009). The same company provides connections to Ontario (North Bay) and James Bay (connection at Chibougamau).