- Rouyn-Noranda—Abitibi-Témiscamingue's capital, it is often referred to as "La capitale nationale du Cuivre" (National Copper Capital).
- Val-d'Or—Second economic centre of the region.
- Amos—Town of 14 000 habitants, northeast of Rouyn-Noranda
- Ville-Marie—Located in Témiscamingue
- La Sarre—Town of 10 000 habitants, northwest of Rouyn-Noranda.
- Notre-Dame-du-Nord—On the shores of lake Témiscamingue
- Senneterre–Small (pop 2950) forestry town on the Bell River.
Despite its proximity to Ontario, Abitibi has surprisingly few native English speakers. Most people here speak French, except for young people who may also understand and speak English. Aboriginal languages are spoken increasingly infrequently in reserves.
- From Montréal, route 117 passes through the Réserve Faunique de La Vérendrye.
- From Chibougamau, route 113 passes via Senneterre
- From northern Québec (Nord-du-Québec), route 109 passes via Amos.
- From northeastern Ontario, route 66 passes from Kirkland Lake, Ontario to Arntfield. Route 101 between Matheson, Ontario, and Duparquet, Quebec may be shorter, but it is isolated and narrow.
- From North Bay, route 63 reaches Témiscaming.
- Via Rail, toll-free: . offers a few weekly runs from Montreal region to Senneterre station which take about eleven and a half hours. $193 return.
Autobus Maheux runs daily between the principal towns and cities in the region, offering three departures daily to and from Montréal. The trip to Val d'Or takes about seven hours and costs about $82 (one adult, in 2009). The same company provides connections to Ontario (North Bay) and James Bay (connection at Chibougamau).