- For other places with the same name, see Babylon (disambiguation).
Alexander the Great chose Babylon to be the capital of the great empire he had created, and died there while planning further conquests.
It is likely that Babylon was founded in the third millennium BC and rose to prominence over the next thousand years. By the 18th century BC the city was the centre of the empire of Hammurabi. Various empires controlled Babylon over the following centuries. Babylon briefly regained independence during the Neo-Babylonian empire towards the end of the 7th century BC, most notably under the reign of king Nebuchadnezzar II, but came under Persian rule in the 6th century BC. In the 4th century BC, Alexander the Great captured Babylon. Babylon remained a notable Persian province until the 7th century AD, and then fell into decline.
The ruins of Babylon have suffered greatly due to looting and destructive policies. Parts of Nebuchadnezzar's palace and some of the old city walls remain. Saddam Hussein commissioned a non-scientific, much controversial "restoration" of ancient Babylon on part of the site, in the process destroying much of the ancient site all the way to the foundations for the purpose. A modern palace was constructed for him on what was purported to have been Nebuchadnezzar's ancient palace. A reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate is displayed in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
- 1 Ishtar Gate. While the original gate was dismantled and reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin, this replica is similar in looks but smaller then the original.
- 2 Lion of Babylon. Built by the Chaldean Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 BC).
- Kasr also called Palace or Castle. It is the location of the Neo-Babylonian ziggurat Etemenanki of Nabopolassar and later Nebuchadnezzar and lies in the center of the site.
- Amran Ibn Ali to the south and the highest of the mounds at 25 m. It is the site of Esagila, a temple of Marduk which also contained shrines to Ea and Nabu.
- Homera a reddish colored mound on the west side. Most of the Hellenistic remains are here.
- Babil in the northern end of the site, about 22 m in height. It has been extensively subject to brick robbing since ancient times. It held a palace built by Nebuchadnezzar.
There are no hotels at the site, but nearby Hillah has several.