Baden-Württemberg is a federal state (Bundesland) in Germany. Its world famous Black Forest and the celebrated, romantic city of Heidelberg are top tourist destinations within Germany and Central Europe, but there is much more to see.
It's part of the southern German speaking world where dialect and tradition remain strong and shares many traditions with its neighbours in Alsace, France to the west and in Switzerland and Vorarlberg, (Austria) to the south. It's also much more rural and bucolic than central and northern Germany; this makes it a popular destination for visiting natural spas with supposed curative properties or going on long hikes in its many old-growth forests.
Alternative spellings of the Land's name are Baden-Wuerttemberg and Baden-Wurttemberg.
Lake Constance, on the border with both Switzerland and Austria, is Germany's largest lake, a source of drinking water for millions and a haven for hikers, cyclists and sailors. Around its banks, you can discover Stone Age settlements, the "Flower Island" Mainau. Further inland, the region boasts many cities with history reaching deep into the Middle Ages, like Ravensburg, famous worldwide for jigsaw puzzles.
The world famous Schwarzwald was declared the first national park in Baden-Württemberg in 2014. The region around it is the heart of historic Baden, with Kurorts such as Baden-Baden, as well as rich history reaching back to the early medieval times, exemplified by the university city of Freiburg.
The Schwäbische Alb in the south is a rough landscape with limestone geology, featuring huge caves, deep blue lakes (e.g. the Blautopf) and long walking trails.
The dense yet very green metropolitan area around the Land's capital on the river Neckar can surprise with the beauty of its vineyard-adorned landscape and wealth of cultural attractions.
The northern part of the Land is quite densely urban, especially in its west, with important and famed cities like Mannheim, Karlsruhe, Heilbronn and Heidelberg.
- Stuttgart - the green capital with its world-class opera house the Staatstheater, city castle and famous gallery of modern art
- Karlsruhe - a fan-shaped city towards the beautiful Karlsruhe palace
- Mannheim - the "Squared City" is almost unique in Germany in being a planned, rectilinear city and has one of the most important theatres (the National Theatre)
- Freiburg - the "Jewel of the Black Forest" is a laid-back, beautiful university city which enjoys one of the sunniest and warmest climates among German cities
- Heidelberg - the romantic student city with its famed castle, Germany's oldest University and scenic setting at the opening of the Neckar valley into the Rhine valley is an absolute must for most tourists
- Ulm - the Calvinist city with the world's tallest church
- Heilbronn - a wealthy economic city at the Neckar river
- Tübingen - beautiful university town with crooked half-timbered houses in a charming historical city centre
- Konstanz - on the border to Switzerland at Lake Constance
- Baden-Baden - spa town built on thermal springs at the edge of the Black Forest
- Bergstraße - a route with vineyards and several attractive towns between Darmstadt and Heidelberg
- Upper Swabia (Oberschwaben) also known as the Westallgäu area of Allgäu
Among the West-German states, Baden-Württemberg is one of the youngest, having been founded in 1952 through a unification of administrative areas that, until the end of WWI in 1919, had been mostly covered by the kingdom of Württemberg, the grand-duchy of Baden and the kingdom of Hohenzollern. The consequence of this - and that's the important bit a traveller should know - is that there are now two tribes living together in the state: Badener in the west and Schwaben in the east. Both speak different dialects (see below) and share a love-hate relationship towards each other that's nurtured with a lot of humour. For what unites both tribes and the rest of the people living here is a pride for "their" Baden-Württemberg and what they have made of it since its creation, that's surprising for Germans from up north. Since 1999, the state has been advertising itself all over Germany with the slogan "We can do everything - except speak Standard German." (Wir können alles, außer Hochdeutsch), a tongue-in-cheek play on the infamous dialects (see below).
And indeed, Baden-Württemberg is doing quite well in terms of economics compared to other places in Germany. It boasts the lowest unemployment rate of the Federation, some of the best universities in Germany, a GDP per capita that rivals Switzerland and is the only German state that still has a higher birth than death rate. The European Statistics Office (Eurostat) has called Baden-Württemberg the "high-tech central of Europe". And, famously, the percentage of people owning their own home is by far the highest in Germany.
The main reason for all those superlatives lies deeply in the history of the land: Although nowadays there are about as many non-Catholics as Catholics living in Baden-Württemberg (and a third group of comparable size without religious faith), during the reformation South-West Germany was strongly influenced by the schools of Martin Luther, John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, which left behind a society with moral values circling around hard work, self-control and the general motto "God helps those who help themselves".
Hence the country that was once dirt poor, having to struggle with hard winters and frequent famines, today is plastered with high technology companies. The most important sectors are mechanical engineering (most famously Robert Bosch Inc.), Chemistry, Biotechnology and, above all, motor vehicles (which were, in fact, invented here, as everyone will be happy to point out). Daimler and Porsche were founded and still have their headquarters around Stuttgart; Audi, Volkswagen and others have large plants in the state. If one counts in the small and medium-sized suppliers, every other employee in Baden-Württemberg is working for the car industry, directly or indirectly. As Max Weber, a philosopher at Heidelberg University said, around here, it's "Capitalism as it was meant to be".
While every region in Germany has its own Germanic "dialect" in addition to Standard German (Hochdeutsch) Baden-Württemberg (together with parts of Bavaria and Saxony), is among those regions where the "dialect" is actually the native language of the near-majority of the population (except in the north).
The traditional "dialect" in most of the state is Alemannic (Alemannisch) which is by far the main language in German-speaking Switzerland, Liechteinstein and Vorarlberg in Austria, as well as being spoken natively by many is western Bavaria and as a minority language in Alsace in eastern France. As it is divided into numerous local dialects and has its own written language, it is very disputed as to whether it is a dialect or in fact a separate language. More and more people understandably state the latter.
The exact proportion between native speakers of Standard German and Alemannic is unclear; however in general more Alemannic speakers are found in rural areas than in say, Stuttgart, where Standard German nowadays seems to be the more common mother tongue.
Kurpfälzisch is the traditional language in the north of the state (i.e. the region surrounding Mannheim and Heidelberg) but standard German is what dominates in most places. That said, it is still spoken by many people in the rural areas.
As good as all Alemannic-speakers are fluent in Standard German and many also in English, even in rural areas, but also tend to be surprisingly proud of their "dialect" and learning a few words or phrases in it might in fact not be the most foolish thing to do. Although native Standard German-speakers are a majority in many cities, you still will encounter plenty of native Alemannic-speakers as well, some of whom might in fact be uneasy about speaking Standard German (mostly rural elders).
All in all though, language is not a major barrier, and even a monolingual English-speaker should have no difficulty truly enjoying this sunny part of Germany.
Stuttgart has an international airport which is served by all major carriers. Frankfurt airport (IATA: FRA), the busiest airport in mainland Europe, although not in Baden-Württemberg, is well within reach by train (1 hour from FRA to Stuttgart main station via the high-speed ICE connection). For most "traditional" airlines and many German charter airlines, a train ticket from FRA can be booked together with the flight for a reduced price or even for free. See rail air alliances for details. Low-fare airlines offer services to the local airports of Karlsruhe-Baden Baden and Friedrichshafen.
Travellers beware: "Frankfurt Hahn" (IATA: HHN), the big hub for low-fare airlines, should not be confused with FRA. In stark contrast, it has no train station and is in a rather remote location. It is possible to get from Hahn into Baden-Württemberg rather conveniently, but it definitely takes a lot longer and is much more hassle than from FRA.
For the southern part of Baden-Württemberg, the airports in Zurich, Switzerland, and the EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse on French territory are convenient, too. Another option is Memmingen (IATA: FMM) which is deceptively marketed as being close to Munich, while in actuality it is much closer to southern Baden Württemberg than to Munich.
All major cities are well connected through the Deutsche Bahn (DB) rail system. Ulm, Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Heidelberg, Stuttgart and Freiburg even have ICE connections (slick, comfortable, white high speed trains travelling at up to 250km/h). Tickets can be booked via the Deutsche Bahn website.
Baden-Württemberg (as well as some other regions in Germany) offers a special regional train ticket (in this case, the Baden-Württemberg-Ticket). It's valid for 18 hours from 09:00 until 03:00 the next day on any day you choose. A second class ticket for one person was priced at €23 (with each extra additional passenger just €4) in September 2014. First class tickets cost €31 with each extra additional passenger €12. The ticket can be used on all regional trains within Baden-Württemberg except InterCity(IC), InterCityExpress(ICE), EuroCity(EC) and some special trains.
The long-distance bus market is exploding in Germany, since a new law was passed in 2013. There are dozens of daily services from most major cities, which are often significantly cheaper than trains. Most buses offer amenities like Wi-Fi and power outlets and some can even transport bicycles.
By train and bus
Baden-Württemberg has an excellent rail network, serving even quite remote areas. Especially rural villages are served by buses which generally leave from main train stations in larger towns and cities. Buses are quite frequent near big cities, but especially on weekend in rural areas there are only 2–4 bus connections a day. All connections can be checked at this website.
If you're travelling within Baden-Württemberg, you can purchase the Baden-Württemberg-Ticket, which will give you all-day travel in regional trains (categories S, RB, RE and IRE) within Baden-Württemberg and also to some cities closely beyond the state's boundaries, like Basel, Lindau and Würzburg. You can use it for trains of all operators, and most of local buses and city transport. On working days the ticket is valid 09:00-15:00 the following day. On weekends it is valid the entire day. It is sold on most ticket vending machines within the region. These are the variants of Baden-Württemberg-Ticket:
- Baden-Württemberg-Ticket (€23 for single traveller, + €5 for each additional traveller, up to five total travellers)
- Baden-Württemberg-Ticket Nacht ("Night", €20 + €4 for each additional traveller) -- for groups of up to five people, valid from 6PM to 6AM the following day (7AM if the following day is weekend or public holiday)
- There also is a first-class variant, starting at 31 €.
For general information about Länder-Tickets see Rail travel in Germany#Länder-Tickets.
For the Stuttgart Metropolitan Region ("Metropolregion Stuttgart"), which covers nearly half of Baden-Württemberg's territory and much of what can be practically be reached on a day trip from Stuttgart, the Metropolticket is a slightly cheaper day ticket than the Baden-Württemberg-Ticket: 20 € for the first traveller, 5 € extra for additional travellers, up to five total travellers. The allowed times of day are the same as for the Baden-Württemberg-Ticket. They also are sold at most ticket vending machines within the region.
Not to be confused with the Stuttgart Metropolitan Region, the Stuttgart Region ("Region Stuttgart") covers a smaller area of roughly 40 kilometres (25 mi) around the center of Stuttgart and offers tickets at still lower prices valid within their region. See Stuttgart Region#Get around.
There are about 20 distinct local transport authorities ("Verkehrsverbünde", Map) all over the state, offering tickets valid for both their respective regional trains and buses.
Of course you can always use your car. If you are travelling in the Black Forest or the Swabian Alb during winter, bring snow chains as some smaller roads may not see snow ploughs frequently enough. When travelling on the Autobahn, the same precautions as everywhere on German high speed roads apply: If you're not willing (and prepared) to drive consistently at or above the official reference speed of 130 kilometres per hour (81 mph), stay on the right. Move to the right if that lane is vacant for a stretch long enough to safely use it, use your common sense, don't drive faster than you can think.
For those interested in high culture:
- Stuttgart. The green capital with its world-class opera house the Staatstheater, city castle and famous gallery of modern art.
- Mannheim. The "Squared City" is almost unique in Germany in being a planned, rectilinear city and has one of the most important theatres (the National Theatre) besides being the first city in the world to have cars powered by an internal combustion engine driving on its streets.
- Heidelberg. The romantic student city with its famed castle, Germany's oldest University and scenic setting at the opening of the Neckar valley into the Rhine valley is an absolute must.
- Ulm. In the southeast, the Calvinist, protestant citizens of built the world's tallest church.
For those fond of nature:
- Black Forest. The world famous Black Forest to the east of the Rhine Valley has been declared national heritage and will gradually return into a wild state over the next century.
- Swabian Mountains. The Schwäbische Alb in the south is a rough landscape with limestone geology, featuring huge caves, deep blue lakes (e.g. the Blautopf) and long walking trails.
- Lake Constance. The Lake Constance (Bodensee) at the border to Switzerland and Austria is Germany's largest lake, source of drinking water for millions and a haven for hikers, cyclists and sailors. Around its banks, you can discover Stone Age settlements, the "Flower Island" Mainau and the medieval peninsula of Lindau where the living Nobel Laureates of the world meet once a year.
For those interested in touring castles
- Hohenzollern Castle. Like much of Germany, Baden-Württemberg is sprinkled with beautiful castles. From the ancient home of the Hohenzollerns (the house Kaiser Wilhelm II was a member of) to the homes of the Württemberg Dukes and Kings.
For those interested in more ancient history
- Stilt house museum (Pfahlbau Museum Unteruhldingen). Open air museum with reconstruction of stone age and bronze age stilt settlement in Uhldingen-Mühlhofen.
- Celtic museum (Keltenmuseum), Hochdorf (near Vaihingen an der Enz). Reconstruction of burial mound and farmstead. This museum was opened where a Celtic burial mound was found in 1950s.
For those interested in tourist routes
- Bertha Benz Memorial Route. The route follows the tracks of the world's first long-distance journey by automobile in the year 1888, performed by Bertha Benz, the wife of Dr Karl Benz, the inventor of the automobile. It starts and ends in Mannheim.
- Bergstraße. The route follows the western edge of the Odenwald mountain range. Along the route are vineyards and several attractive towns.
The official tourism homepage is at http://www.tourismus-bw.de/. Click on the "English" link at the top.
- With the abundance of hills, low mountains, picturesque valleys and forests, as well as quite evenly dispersed hospitable settlements, Baden-Württemberg is among the best places in Europe to go hiking
- If you prefer travelling by car, you may want to follow the Bertha Benz Memorial Route, and visit the Mercedes-Benz and Porsche museums in Stuttgart
- Enjoy the beautiful Lake Constance by getting on a boat or ship in the Bodensee Region...
- ...or fly a Zeppelin in Friedrichshafen!
- Spätzle. The "national dish" of Württemberg is Spätzle, a freshly prepared pasta made from eggs, flour, salt and water (and nothing else). It is typically served topped with cheese (Kässpätzle) or lentils and sausage (Spätzle mit Linsen und Saitenwürschdle).
- Maultaschen. Similar to ravioli, Maultaschen consists of an outer-layer of pasta dough, which encloses a filling traditionally consisting of minced meat, smoked meat, spinach, bread crumbs and onions and flavoured with various herbs and spices. Mostly served in a soup (in der Brühe) or as cut slices and fried in a pan with onions and scrambled eggs (geröstet).
- Zwiebelrostbraten (onion-topped roast beef with gravy). It is the traditional Sunday dinner dish of the Swabian cuisine and served in every better restaurant. The meat used for Zwiebelrostbraten is traditionally a standing rib roast cut, which is called "Rostbraten" in German. The fried roast beef is topped with roasted onions (German: Zwiebeln) and served with spaetzle and mostly a mixed salat.
- Swabian potato salad (Kartoffelsalat). Mostly eaten as a side-dish, the Swabian potato salad (Kartoffelsalat) which, in contrast to the northern German variety is prepared with broth instead of mayonnaise, creating in effect a completely different dish.
- Beer. With 185 different breweries Baden-Württemberg is on the second rank after Baveria. There are some breweries of note in the region, of which the state-owned Rothaus or Welde are two beers which enjoys cult status.
- Wine. Baden-Württemberg contains some of Germany's most significant wine-growing regions. Much of the wine economy is in the hands of local co-operatives and the locals enjoy the wine in old-fashioned wine cellars. The best wine grows in an area called the Kaiserstuhl in Baden.
- Spirits. Fruit brandies, e.g. Obstler (distilled from apples and pears) and Zwetschgenwasser (plums) are just two of the most common spirits. The queen of Schnapps is without any doubt the Kirschwasser (also sometimes referred to as Kirschwaesserle) made out of Morello cherries from the black forest area. These are commonly drunk after a meal in a restaurant.
Baden-Württemberg is one of the safest regions in Germany. In large cities like Mannheim and especially Stuttgart, be aware of theft. Other regions are safe and you can travel alone without any problems. Even walking alone late at night is no problem. When out hiking and trekking have a map and take proper clothing. The forests are thick and dark and surprisingly rural considering the population density of Central Europe. Whilst walking in forests, you should be aware of ticks as they carry Lyme disease. Take extra care and if you see a tick you should brush it off immediately and seek medical advice if a noticeable bite occurs.