Ghana is a country in West Africa whose good infrastructure, political stability and widespread use of English make it a gratifying destination for first-time visitors to Africa (it's sometimes called "Africa for beginners"). The people are generally very helpful and welcoming. While their laid-back attitude and a lack of organised tourist sights or trips can be a little annoying to begin with, you'll quickly realise that it is one of the delights of this country.
Tourism in Ghana is growing very quickly, and tour operators are seeing increased requests for Ghana as a travel destination. Ghana has gold mines, and is a stable country with good potential for growth.
There are 16 administrative regions (formerly 10) in Ghana: the Northern Region which is the largest in terms of size, Eastern Region, Western Region, Upper East Region, Upper West Region, Central Region, Volta Region, Oti Region, Western North Region, North East Region, Ahafo Region, Savannah Region, Bono East Region, Ashanti Region, and Brong Ahafo Region which is the second largest.
|Coastal Plain (Accra, Apam, Cape Coast, Elmina, Kakum National Park, Kokrobite, Nzulezo, Sekondi-Takoradi, Ada)|
The Gulf of Guinea coastal area with the capital city, several forts, and the best-preserved rainforest in the country.
|Ashanti-Kwahu (Koforidua, Kumasi, Obuasi, Sunyani)|
Forested hills and the ancient Ashanti kingdom.
|Volta Basin (Tamale, Yendi, Yeji, Salaga, Atebubu)|
The massive Lake Volta, the river system that feeds it, and border crossings to Togo.
|Northern Plains (Bolgatanga, Mole National Park, Wa)|
Savanna plains and the traditional trade routes with Burkina Faso.
- 1 Accra — national capital and largest city.
- 2 Cape Coast — the first capital of Gold Coast (the former name of Ghana), Cape Coast is home to a slave castle that is a UNESCO World Heritage site
- 3 Koforidua — regional capital of the Eastern Region
- 4 Kumasi — former capital of the Ashanti Empire on the UNESCO World Heritage List for Ashanti traditional buildings, and Ghana's second-largest city.
- 5 Obuasi — mining town.
- 6 Sekondi-Takoradi Also known as twin city or oil city
- 7 Sunyani — the capital of Brong Ahafo Region
- 8 Tamale — largest city in the north, fastest-growing metropolis in Ghana and gateway to Mole National Park
- 9 Tema — industrial and port city on the Greenwich Meridian
- 1 Boti Falls — in a village called Boti in the Manya Krobo district in the Eastern Region. This spectacular waterfalls is in the Eastern Region of Ghana
- 2 Prampram — A town near Accra, known for beaches, colonial-era fort, and the dancing pallbearers.
- Eco Village Sognaayilli (Meet Africa) — a holiday with the local people in a traditional village in the Northern part of Ghana.
- 3 Kakum National Park — rainforest area with a long canopy walk, delightful to be above the treetops, but rare to see any wildlife except birds. Monkeys, elephants and antelope are said to live in the region. There is a good little museum and a café at the park entrance.
- 4 Mole National Park — savannah with buffalo, monkeys, antelope, and reintroduced lions & elephants; driving and walking safaris are popular, you can even camp for the night on the savannah.
- 5 Paga — a town in the north home to "sacred crocodiles" which are tame and live in Paga Crocodile Pond.
- 6 Shai Hills Reserve — a great day trip near Accra home to baboons, parrots, & antelope; you can tour the reserve on horseback.
- 7 Wli Falls — in the lush Agumatsa Wildlife Sanctuary near the Togo border.
|Currency||Ghana cedi (GHS)|
|Population||26.9 million (2017)|
|Electricity||230 volt / 50 hertz (AC power plugs and sockets: British and related types, BS 1363)|
|Emergencies||999, 191 (police), 192 (fire department), 193 (emergency medical services)|
|edit on Wikidata|
Ghana means "Warrior King" and the name of the country is derived from the ancient Ghana Empire.
There is archaeological evidence which shows that humans have lived in what is present day Ghana from about 1500 BC. Nonetheless, there is no proof that those early dwellers are related to the current inhabitants of the area. Oral tradition has it that many of Ghana's current ethnic groups such as the multi-ethnic Akan, the Ga and the Ewe arrived around the 13th century AD. However, the Dagombas are believed to be the first settlers, having been fully established by 1210 AD, before the arrival of other ethnic groups. Modern Ghanaian territory includes what was the Empire of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-Saharan Africa before colonial rule. Its capital, Kumasi, was said to be one of the most vibrant and impressive cities in pre-colonial Africa, but was largely destroyed and looted by the British during the Third Anglo-Ashanti War in 1874.
Early European contact by the Portuguese, who came to Ghana in the 15th century, focused on the extensive availability of gold. By 1548, the Dutch had joined them, and built forts at Komenda and Kormantsi. Other European traders joined in by the mid 17th century, largely English, Danes and Swedes. British merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it the Gold Coast, while French merchants, impressed with the trinkets worn by the coastal people, named the area to the west "Côte d'Ivoire", or Ivory Coast. The Gold Coast was known for centuries as 'The White Man's Grave' because many of the Europeans who went there died of malaria and other tropical diseases.
After the Dutch withdrew in 1874, Britain made the Gold Coast a protectorate. Following conquest by the British in 1896, until independence in March 1957, the territory of modern Ghana excluding the Volta Region (British Togoland), was known as the Gold Coast.
Many wars occurred between the colonial powers and the various nation-states in the area and even under colonial rule the chiefs and people often resisted the policies of the British. Moves toward de-colonisation intensified after World War II and after an intense struggle, on March 6, 1957 elected parliamentary leader Kwame Nkrumah declared Ghana as "free forever". The nation thus became the first sub-Saharan African country to gain its independence.
Kwame Nkrumah was a champion of pan-Africanism and his popularity was a major concern for the West. Nkrumah was overthrown by the military while he was abroad in February 1966. A series of coups from 1966 to 1981 ended with the ascension to power of the flamboyant Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings in 1981. These changes resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and the banning of political parties. The economy suffered a severe decline soon after, and many Ghanaians migrated to other countries.
Rawlings changed many old economic policies and the economy soon began to recover. A new constitution restoring multi-party politics was instigated in 1992, and Rawlings was elected as president then and again in 1996. In 2009, John Atta Mills took office as president marking the second time that power had been transferred from one legitimately elected leader to another, and securing Ghana's status as a stable democracy.
There are two main seasons in Ghana, the wet and the dry seasons. Northern Ghana experiences its rainy season from March to November while the south, including the capital Accra, experiences the season from April to Mid-November.
The largest ethnic group in Ghana is the Akan, but there are many others, including the Ashanti.
- New Year's Day (January 1)
- Independence Day (March 6)
- Easter (Good Friday and Easter Monday)
- Republic Day (July 1)
- Founder's Day (September 21)
- Eid al-Adha (various)-Islamic religious observances
- December 25 (Christmas)
- December 26 (Boxing Day)
Foreign nationals of the following countries can enter Ghana for a maximum of 30 days, or for a maximum of 90 days:
Otherwise, unless in direct airside transit through a Ghanaian airport, all other foreign nationals require a visa to enter Ghana. For information about obtaining visas for Ghana, visit the official website of the Ghana Immigration Service [formerly dead link].
There is no such thing as a visa on arrival for Western countries. It's thus best to play it safe and get a visa in advance. The Ghanaian government's online Ghana list of embassies is out of date. A three-month single-entry visa costs US$60; a one-year, multiple entry visa costs US$100. You must have a yellow fever vaccination certificate which will be presented to customs when entering. Malaria course essential.
- In London a 3-month visa cost £60 and takes 10 working days to get.
If you require a visa to enter Ghana, you might be able to apply for one at a British embassy, high commission or consulate in the country where you legally reside if there is no Ghanaian embassy or consulate. For example, the British embassies/consulates in , Bogotá Amman, Helsinki , Hong Kong  and Tripoli  accept Ghanaian visa applications (this list is not exhaustive). British diplomatic posts charge UK£50 to process a Ghanaian visa application and an extra £70 if the authorities in Ghana require the visa application to be referred to them. The authorities in Ghana can also decide to charge an additional fee if they correspond with you directly.
Travellers who are staying longer than their entry visa (a maximum of 30 or 60 days are usually granted for tourists) are advised to bring their passport for visa extension to Immigration Service early and expect delays in getting their passports back. Two weeks are provided as the guideline for processing time, but this can often take much longer. Be careful about what dates are stamped in your passport. Sometimes Immigration puts a 60-day stamp on a visa for 3 months: the stamps is what counts. If you don't want to go through the hassle of Immigration Service, you may consider going to Togo and back to get a visa stamp at the border.
Ghana plans to introduce e-visas from 2018.
All international flights are through Kotoka International Airport at Accra (ACC). ACC is very central and there are always airport shuttles and lots of taxis available to connect you to other parts of the vity. Terminal 3 at Kotoka International operates as a "first world" facility - very efficient and modern. Almost 29 international airlines fly to Kotoka International Airport with annual air traffic of over 4 million
TAP Air Portugal has some of the lowest fares from Europe via Lisbon to Accra. Air Portugal also fly from Accra to Sao Tome. Air Delta Air Lines serves Accra from New York City (JFK) while South African Airlines operates several times a week from Washington-Dulles, with continuing service to Johannesburg. British Airways flies from London Heathrow. KLM flies daily from Schiphol, Amsterdam and Brussels Airlines operates regular flights to Brussels. Lufthansa daily direct flights from Frankfurt and Milan respectively, with a short stop in Lagos, Nigeria. Emirates flies daily non-stop from Dubai in the Middle East and Middle East Airlines (with connections to Asia and the Far East). Ethiopian Airlines flies daily non-stops from Addis Ababa (with stopover, you can visit another African country). Also, Egypt Air flies non-stop to Accra. If coming from Brazil or nearby, the flight from Rio de Janeiro to Luanda, Angola on Angola Airlines or Sao Paulo via Lome, through Ethiopian Airlines and their partner airline ASKY would be the quickest routing. Turkish Airlines flies from İstanbul to Accra.
Royal Air Maroc also has several flights a week to Accra out of Casablanca. Arik Air and operates flights to Nigeria.
The lowest fares to Ghana outside of Africa are usually from London, but that doesn't necessarily mean British Airways is the cheapest (i.e. a transfer inside continental Europe may be required). TAP from Portugal flies daily to Accra. Those living in North America might be able to save by getting a cheap ticket to London from their home country. (Beware that there are two separate London international airports, Gatwick and Heathrow, and allow lots of connection time.)
See further down for domestic flight information.
No international rail connections exist. However some major mining towns and villages are linked by the rail.
The border at Aflao with Togo is an entertaining scene. It appears very disorderly and human traffic seems to flow freely. However it is unlikely that a white person can pass through without all the formalities. The border guards are professional enough where you will not be asked for bribes—although some women may get marriage proposals! A visa into Ghana can be bought at the border at double the normal cost (because of the speedy delivery) for some GH₵110. The Togolese 7-day transit visa is a lovely cheap 5,000 CFA francs (2011). Change your money before crossing, if you need to buy a visa. Ideally, change your money at a bank in Aflao (even better to do it in advance at a ForEx in Accra) or Lomé.
While at the border crossings, keep your cameras stowed in your packs; both Ghanaian and Togolese border guards are sure to take your camera if they spot you snapping a photo, or at the least give you a good chiding.
Ghana's national bus company, State Transport Corporation, runs an inter-city bus service within Ghana and to some major West African cities. A recent public-private partnership produced Metro Mass Company, which runs services within the capital city, Accra, and within other regions in Ghana.
Coming in from Burkina Faso, the main route is a bus from Ouagadougou to Bolgatonga, Tamale and Accra. Or you can cross the border at Hamile (or Hamale, as it is called on the BF-side of the border). Take a bus from Bobo-Dioulasso. You have to cross the border by foot (after leaving Burkina Faso, you walk some 300 m through no-man's-land before reaching Ghana customs. Locals will be lingering around and will be looking to change money at fairly reasonable rates). Then take a Metro Mass bus to Wa (or hop on a tro-tro and do the trip in stages). Be sure to take an early bus from Bobo: if the bus has a delay, you may end up having to spend the night in Hamile. There is a place where you can get a room (GH₵10); the custom officers can help you find it.
There are no authorised boat services to Ghana. There are, however, pantos and ferries that work on the Volta lake linking the eastern region to the Volta region and other areas
The domestic air transportation scene in Ghana is very dynamic and appears to go through regular changes. As of October 2019 there are only two registered carriers: Passion Air serving Accra, Kumasi & Tamale, and Africa World Airlines who serve the same centres in addition to Takoradi. All aircraft are of a high standard, as is the service level of airline staff, flights run on time and are reasonably priced. There are no scheduled services to Sunyani or Obuasi.
The rail network in Ghana has long been dormant, however as of 2020 there are signs of rehabilitation on some stretches and intercity passenger services might materialize within a few years. The only services that operate as of early 2021 are commuter lines in Sekondi-Takoradi and between the capital Accra and Tema.
Roads are variable. In Accra most are fairly good. Significant improvements are being made on the main road between Accra and Kumasi. Most of the roads outside Accra apart from the major ones are dirt tracks. The road between Techiman and Bole is particularly bad and should be avoided if possible. For travel on most roads in the North of the country a 4x4 is required, a saloon car will cope with some of them in the dry season but is not recommended.
Cars with foreign registration are not allowed to circulate at night 18:00-06:00. Only Ghanaian registered vehicles are allowed on the road at this time. Non compliance can result in fines and the impounding of the vehicle for the night.
With the collapse of the state owned transport company (STC), many private own companies are springing up and providing better service to passengers. Companies such as VIP Bus, O.A. Travel and Tours, M Plaza, and Diplomatic Transport ply the major cities and towns of the country. The VIP bus company is now the major carrier between Accra, Kumasi, Sunyani, Takoradi etc. Fare depends on preferred company and destination of travel. Most of these buses are a/c coaches, there are no advance tickets and there are meal and wash-room stops when aboard.
However these private buses don't travel to rural areas of the country. Metro bus which is a state company is by far the cheapest means of travel to consider when travelling between towns.
A 'tro-tro' is almost any sort of vehicle that has been adapted to fit in as many people, possessions, and occasionally livestock, as possible. Tro-tros are typically old, 12-passenger VW or Mercedes-Benz vans. Similarly to 'shared' taxis, tro-tros will run along fixed routes and have fixed fares, and will rarely run with less than capacity (so be prepared to wait). They are inexpensive (cheaper than shared taxis and STC buses) and fares should reflect distance travelled, however they have a questionable safety record and frequently breakdown. Breakdowns however are usually not too much of a problem since they will break down in a route where other tro-tros run, so you can just grab another one. Although they generally run point to point they will usually pick and drop on route if required. They make runs within the city (i.e. Circle to Osu for GH₵0.20) as well as intercity routes. They are often the only option between remote towns but are not recommended for long journeys. Tro-tros are an excellent way to meet Ghanaians, and are always great for a cultural adventure. Sometimes they will make you pay extra for luggage, and occasionally they will try to overcharge (very rarely).
If you feel like being an elite tro-tro rider, ask around for City Express, a newish service sporting the usual minivan, but with working breaks, non-stop travel, half the seats, and impressive air conditioning. It mostly runs between the larger cities along the coast, e.g., Takoradi, Accra, Aflao, et al.
Taxis are prevalent, easy to spot, safe, and as a tourist you will find they find you quick enough if you need one. To charter a taxi is more expensive than to share one, but prices are negotiable and almost always need to be bargained over. Always settle on a fare before getting in. A taxi for a very short route should be no more than GH₵1.00, longer GH₵2.50-5.00 and GH₵8.00 should be enough for most places in the city. As of December 2011, you can use a rough rate of GH₵1.00 for every 1.5 km travelled (check Google Maps for the distance between places). Fares continue to fluctuate with the fuel prices on the international market. Almost every taxi driver will start with a high price that is 1.5x-3x the local price if you're a foreigner and then you'll have to bargain them down. You'll get the best price when you start to walk away from the taxi. In Accra and the major cities most taxis that will stop for you assume you require a charter taxi and unless you are on a very strict budget it's usually easiest to do this. In more remote areas, shared taxis are most common.
English is both the official language and the lingua franca between Ghana's many peoples. English speakers will have no trouble communicating their needs anywhere in the country; Ghanaians usually speak English quite fluently, albeit with a strong accent and some quirks. Official government documents are in English, but there are over 40 distinct languages spoken in Ghana including Twi/Fante in the Ashanti and Fante regions, Ga in Greater Accra, Ewe east of Lake Volta, Dagbani, and so on. "Obruni", the Akan word for foreigner literally means "white man", is generally shouted at any tourist in the more heavily trafficked areas, black or white, male or female. This gets tiresome.
In the northern regions and among Ghanaian Muslims in general, the Hausa language is also used as a lingua franca.
Historic and UNESCO World Heritage sites
For many visitors the history of Ghana starts with the slave trade, and interaction with Europeans, but there was a long and rich history before that. Remnants of thriving civilisations can be seen in the Northern region, at both the Larabanga mosque which dates from the 15th century and the 16th-century Nalerigu Defence Wall.
With the growth in power and prestige of the Ashanti Kingdom in the 17th and 19th centuries, the capital Kumasi also grew and now contains a number of historic sights.
However the slave trade did leave its mark on Ghana, with forts built by the British, Dutch, Danish, Germans, Portuguese and Swedish dotted all along the coast. Excellent examples of these can be seen at both Cape Coast and Elmina, these forts give a glimpse of the time of slavery and a view of the last sight of Africa for thousands of people, as well as being UNESCO World Heritage sites.
Another World Heritage site is the village of Nzulezo, which is built on stilts.
- See also: African wildlife
Ghana is blessed with an abundance of natural treasures, from beautiful beaches such as those at Kokrobite and Winneba, where you can relax with a cocktail, enjoy a stay at a beach front hotel or watch the fishermen at work. Alternatively you could take the waters inland instead, Volta Lake created by the damming of the River Volta at Akosombo in the mid-1960s to provide a source of electricity to Ghana now also provides a wonderful viewing point from the dam itself or trips out onto the lake itself or you can take a trip on the River Volta instead at Ada.
In the Ashanti region not far from Kumasi is Lake Bosumtwi, a 10.5 km diameter meteor impact crater lake, which was created by a meteor strike approximately 1 million years ago, as well a being extremely picturesque the lake holds a spiritual significance to the Ashanti, whose traditional belief asserts that souls of the dead meet the god Twi at the lake.
Also inland, are two more national treasures in the form of two world renowned national parks. Kakum National Park to walk of the elevated rope bridges within the forest, with the opportunity for bird watching and butterfly and other nature spotting or to Mole National Park to enjoy a safari experience, with the chance to see Elephants, big cats and other animals on the savannah.
There is also the mountaintop village of Wli Todzi, in the rain forest near Wli Falls, which is known for its dramatic scenery and is popular for its ecotourism offerings.
For where to go to see Ghana's butterflies, all images taken by Wikimedia Commons user Charlesjsharp have precise geolocation information . The images can be found in the category gallery of butterflies .
The 1st and 2nd cities of Ghana offer plenty to see and to do. Accra offers history at the historic sites, such as Independence Square, the Kwame Nkrumah mausoleum and the WB Dubois Centre. Shopping in a number of markets, including Makola market in the centre of the city. Cultural treats include a number of museums and the national theatre. Outside of the city at Aburi are the extensive botanical gardens.
Kumasi offers the sights based around the history of the Ashanti, including the Manhiya Palace, the Asantehene's Palace and Okomfo Anokye Sword. There are also more to discover in terms of artifacts which are deeply rooted in the culture of the Asante people like wood carvings from Ahwiaa, Adinkra designs and clothes from Ntonso and Aboaso, Kente weaving in some part of Kwabre Bonwire, Adanwomasi and Wonoo.
Exchange rates for Ghana cedis
As of January 2020:
Exchange rates fluctuate. Current rates for these and other currencies are available from XE.com
The new Ghana cedi, denoted by the symbol "GH₵" (ISO currency code: GHS) was introduced on 1 July 2007 at a rate equal to 10,000 old cedis. When it was introduced, it was the highest-valued currency unit issued by a sovereign African country.
You will encounter a variety of currency notations locally. Banknotes are issued in 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1 new Ghana cedi denominations.
One new Ghana cedi is divided into one hundred new Ghana pesewas (Gp). Coins of GH₵1, 0.50 0.20, 0.10, 0.05 and 0.01 circulate. The one pesewa coins are rare in the system since you hardly find items that can be bought for less than 5 pesewas. Some Ghanaians still think in old currency. This can be very confusing (and costly). 10,000 old cedis are habitually referred to as ten (or twenty, or thirty). This would, today, be one, two, or three "new" Ghana cedis. So always think whether the quoted price makes sense before buying or agreeing on a taxi fare. If in doubt ask whether this is new cedis.
US dollars are accepted by some of the major tourist hotels, but you shouldn't rely on this. As in all West African countries, older US dollar bills will be rejected by banks and Forex bureaus. If you intend to take dollar notes make sure that they are all from the 2009 series or above.
Euros, dollars and pounds sterling in cash are the most useful currencies to take with you and are easily and safely changed at numerous air con booths open to 21:00.
There are many forex bureaus in Accra, and a few in the other major cities. It is very difficult to change travellers cheques and certainly almost impossible outside Accra and Kumasi, unless you change them at a major bank. Barclays has branches in Accra, Kumasi, Cape Coast, and even Tamale where you can change travelers cheques. Expect lines.
There are Ecobank, Standard Chartered Bank, Stanbic Bank and GT Bank ATMs all over Ghana. which accept Mastercard and Visa. You can use Mastercard and Visa cards in hotels and some shopping malls and airline offices.
Credit card fraud is very common in many places, so be careful.
Bargaining is very much expected in the markets. Ask for a third of the price and work your way up from there.
Large cities such as Accra have markets open every day, but travellers get the true flavour of the country if they have the opportunity to visit a village market on the day of the week that it is open. Most goods will be staple goods, but cloth, beads, musical instruments, bags, and even CDs are usually available.
Kente cloth, drums and wooden designs, such as masks and "sacred stools" can be found on almost any street in any tourist area in Ghana.
The Accra Mall is a shopping centre on the spintex road of the Tetteh Quarshie Interchange.
Adinkrah symbols and sacred stools
The sacred stools have traditional Adinkrah "motif" designs in them that can mean many things having to do with God, love, strength and community. Finding a guidebook which will tell you what each symbol means is advisable to prevent the possibility of buying a stool that doesn't mean what you think it is.
Gye Nyame is by far the most popular Adinkrah symbol. It means "Only God". Other popular stools are the "Wisdom Knot" and the one with the character holding many sticks together, which cannot be broken, to symbolize the strength of community.
Traditional food is fun to try and easy to enjoy. Fufu, the most widely served traditional dish, consists of pounded balls of yam, plantain, or cassava served with a variety of soups and meat or fish stews. Soups are typically made of groundnuts, palm nut, okra and other vegetables. Banku is a fermented corn version of the dish typically eaten with grilled tilapia fish or okra soup.
Rice dishes are also typical, but not considered a "real" meal by many Ghanaians, males especially. Jollof rice is a dish as varied as its chef, but generally consists of white rice cooked with vegetables, meat pieces, spices in a tomato based sauce. Waakye is a mix of beans and rice, typically served with gari, a powder of ground cassava. Often rice dishes are served with shredded lettuce, cucumber and tomatoes on the side with a dollop of Heinz salad cream or mayonnaise. Such meals are extremely cheap from street vendors and cost GH₵1.50-2.50.
Plantains, yams, and sweet potatoes are prepared in various ways and serve as small snacks. Kelewele, a spiced fried plantain snack, is especially delicious. Fresh fruits such as pineapple, mango, papaya, coconut, oranges, and bananas are delightful when in season and come when applicable by the bag for as little as 10 cents.
A great African meal in a restaurant can cost GH₵3-7. For instance, a lobster and shrimp dinner can cost GH₵6. There are also a number of Western and Chinese style restaurants available especially in Osu, a trendy suburb of Accra.
There is also banku and tilapia.The price of the tilapia varies based on the size as well as where you buy it from. There are other local traditional meals that are not so common example are the Aprapransa, mpotompoto etc
In Accra's expat visited bars, a beer will cost GH₵2-4. Fruit juices GHS1.50, water GH₵1.00-1.50. Star and Club are two of the more popular beers served. For a more interesting and rewarding experience, visit a "spot," a bar signified by the blue and white stripes on the outside of the building. They are cheaper and you will undoubtedly be able to meet some local Ghanaians and hear the newest hip-life songs.
A soft drink such as Coke, Alvaro, Fanta, 7UP (called "minerals" by locals) are widely available for GH₵0.70.
The bottles that minerals or beer is served to you in are owned by the bottling company: if you do not return it to the seller, they stand to lose GH₵0.50 — more than you most likely paid for the drink. If you are not going to consume the drink at the "spot" or at the roadside stand, make sure you let the seller know. Often, you will be asked for a deposit which will be returned upon the return of the bottle.There also traditional drinks like "pito", asaana, burkina, and bisarrp drink (sobolo).
There are many wonderful places to stay in Ghana. There are many options including lavish hotels or more rustic places to stay. Cheap, decent hotel rooms can run as low as GH₵12. A better room can go as low as GH₵20. For high-end hotels, prices are higher than a comparable hotel in the USA.
For longer stays (a few months) it is possible to rent a house. Houses for rent are advertised in local newspapers and also in those places frequented by expats - Koala supermarket, Ryan's Irish pub, etc.
Ghana has three major public universities. The largest of these is the University of Ghana, located in Legon, a suburb of the capital, Accra. Other universities are located at Cape Coast (University of Cape Coast), and Kumasi (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, or "Tech"). Smaller public universities include the University of Education at Winneba, the University of Development Studies with a main campus at Tamale and several other campuses around the north, and the University of Mines and Technology in Tarkwa, Western Region. There are also several private universities and colleges, both religious and non-religious.
There are some good schools while others aren't that great. Teachers are usually very strict and respect from the students is very important.
A popular method of travelling around Ghana is to volunteer with the many organizations that Ghana boasts.
- Africa Calling
- AIESEC University students
- Global-Cultural Solution (GCS)
- Light for Children
- Operation Groundswell (OG). Nonprofit offers affordable "backpacktivist" volunteer programs which fund only local, community-requested projects.
- Thrive Africa
- Volunteering Solutions
- [dead link] Ultimate Voluntary Organization. Offers opportunities for teaching, football coaching and/or medical volunteering. This grassroots organization is near the Volta and provides volunteers with a real sense of what Ghana is all about.
- Volunteer Partnerships for West Africa
- The Humanity Exchange [dead link] - Funded program provides low cost volunteering with excellent provisions and support in Esiama, Western Ghana.
Ghana is a very safe, stable country with relatively low crime levels compared to other West African countries. Take sensible precautions but be assured it is quite safe.
Bywel's bar in Osu is a frequent hangout of expats on Thursday nights meaning that it is target for muggings. Be sure to leave in a large group and enter a taxi immediately upon exiting the bar.
While female homosexuality is legal, male homosexuality is illegal.
Cases have also been reported of people snatching mobile phones in the streets. Avoid using your mobile phone out in the open if you do not absolutely need to. You may run the risk of having someone snatch it from you.
Accidental gas tanker explosions (including occurrences in heavily populated residential & industrial areas throughout the country) have been a recurring problem, with 8 such cases in the past 3 years (from 2015 to 2017).
Chloroquine-resistant malaria is widespread and you must take sufficient malaria protection including mosquito avoidance, mosquito repellants, and chemical prophylaxis. Yellow fever vaccination is required for entry into the country.
Get vaccinations against Hepatitis A & B, Cholera and Typhoid fever if you are planning to travel within the country.
There is a very high risk of meningitis in the northern third of Ghana which is a part of the Meningitis belt of Africa. This applies especially during the dry windy periods from December to June. A polysaccharide vaccine is available for Meningitis types A, C, Y and W135.
Although the AIDS/HIV rate is lower than other sub-Saharan African countries, do not have unprotected sex! Also you should avoid contact with still freshwater as there is a risk of schistosomiasis.
Some restaurants will approach European health standards, but be prepared to pay for this. Smaller restaurants, often called "chop bars," will likely not meet these standards.
Because of the tropical climate near the coast, travellers will need to stay hydrated. Bottled water is available everywhere. Voltic Water has been a reliable brand over the years, but do check to make sure the seal has not been broken.
Drinking water from the tap is not generally considered to be safe, so choices include plastic bottled water (e.g. Voltic, 1.5 L, c. GH₵1.00), boiled or filtered tap water, and "pure water" sachets. These sachets are filtered and come in 500 mL. portions. Many foreigners prefer bottled water.
At least one study  has suggested bottled water to be the safest choice. Although "pure water" sachets are more easily accessible, 2.3% of sachets tested were found to contain faecal bacteria. If you want to play it safe, stick with carbonated beverages or bottled water.
For the latest traveller's health information pertaining to Ghana, including advisories and recommendations, visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention destination Ghana website.
Ramadan is the 9th and holiest month in the Islamic calendar and lasts 29–30 days. Muslims fast every day for its duration and most restaurants will be closed until the fast breaks at dusk. Nothing (including water and cigarettes) is supposed to pass through the lips from dawn to sunset. Non-Muslims are exempt from this, but should still refrain from eating or drinking in public as this is considered very impolite. Working hours are decreased as well in the corporate world. Exact dates of Ramadan depend on local astronomical observations and may vary somewhat from country to country. Ramadan concludes with the festival of Eid al-Fitr, which may last several days, usually three in most countries.
If you're planning to travel to Ghana during Ramadan, consider reading Travelling during Ramadan.
Do try and pick up on respectful practice (such as not eating or offering with your left hand), but in general Ghanaians are quite accepting of tourists getting it wrong. Greetings are very important. Ghanaians are not forgiving of people who do not take time to greet others. Sometimes greetings come in the form of a salute accompanied by a "good morning" or "good afternoon". The expected response is the same (a salute with a "good morning or afternoon"). Inquiring how the person is doing is also a good idea.
The Ghanaian hand shake is a typical handshake, quickly followed by the snapping of thumb and middle finger. The technique will be introduced to you the first time you shake hands - it will take you by surprise as it involves sliding your hand down the other persons hand, taking their middle finger between your thumb and middle finger as they take your middle finger between their thumb and middle finger, then snapping your finger together as they do likewise. It is unique. Smile, make new friends, and give them a Ghanaian handshake - they will smile and nod!
Telephone and postal services can be unreliable within Ghana itself but international post, at least to and from Accra is reasonably reliable (approx a week either way to the UK for example). Ghana Telecom (now majority owned by and re-branded Vodafone) is the most widespread phone company, but is not yet entirely reliable or widespread. There are 6 mobile phone networks operating in the country. All 6 networks have 3G/HSPA/EVDO coverage in the regional capitals and other major cities, and there has been a corresponding boom in internet access via USB sticks (expect to pay around GH₵60 for a stick with a 2GB allowance). Coverage is good in the urban areas, and is increasing in the rural areas and along major highways.
In the country's urban areas, you're never too far away from an internet cafe where one hour of internet access should cost GH₵0.50-1.00. Many hotels also boast broadband access via wireless hotspots.