Hitchhiking is one of the cheapest ways of traveling. By tradition, hitchhiking is defined as soliciting a ride by standing at the edge of a road, facing traffic, with one's thumb extended/upwards. You can meet a lot of people and make lots of friends. You can also become very frustrated, or encounter danger on the way; today's drivers are more fearful of picking up hitchhikers than in the past. But it's also a great feeling to get a ride after you've been waiting for a long time. People who do pick up hitchhikers tend to be very friendly. However, hitchhikers also risk being picked up by someone who is an unsafe driver or even dangerous to their person.
Hitchhiking in itself is rarely illegal, but there are often rules about where you can do it (e.g. not on highways, near intersections, at bus stops), so read up on the rules first to avoid getting booked for "trespassing" or "obstructing traffic".
There is a Hitchhiking Wiki, which has quite a lot of useful information.
Although hitchhiking is easier in some regions than in others, it is possible to get nearly anywhere by thumb, even around the world. In some regions you are expected to pay a share of the expenses.
- Be prepared to walk all day. It is not easy and you need to think that it is more of a walking adventure with a chance of getting a ride more than anything else. This is the most unanticipated problem of most hitch-hikers today.
- Therefore, you also have to consider travelling light. To get to the right spot or reach destinations off the main routes, you will most always have to walk a lot—distances of 10 km per day are not uncommon. Hence, instead of carrying 20 kg of everything you deem necessary, better stick with 10 kg of what you will really need. If you travel minimalistically, also pack this way. In addition, some drivers may be reluctant to find space for you and clumsy baggage.
- Buy a map of the area, so you can determine whether a ride will actually bring you closer to your destination.
- Learn the language, at least a little. Hitchhiking can be a good way to improve your conversation skills. Often drivers pick up hikers to have some conversation on an otherwise long and lonely trip. Our hitchhiking phrasebook has a few phrases that are useful when boarding and getting off, while Talk is about how to cope with language difficulties more generally.
- Make sure to carry enough food and drink if you're going for a long trip. Gas stations are usually a bit expensive for replenishing these supplies.
- Arrange sleeping places. For example a Hospitality exchange host such as trustroots, couchsurfing.org, a youth hostel, or a squat are good places to start. If you cannot arrange a place, take a tent with you, rubberized German poncho, and/or a warm sleeping bag.
- Remember, hitchhiking may be illegal in some areas or on certain types of roads. Enforcement of laws against hitchhiking may vary. Ask locals. It is usually a bad idea to hitchhike if an encounter with the police would create additional problems (e.g. you are in possession of contraband or are subject to an outstanding arrest warrant).
- Dress in layers if the weather is uncertain. Be sure that your heavier layer will shield you from cold winds and random showers, but is light enough that it won't weigh you down too much when you remove it. Some people (for example the "Moscow school of hitchhikers") swear that bright colors with high visibility get you away quicker.
- Some hitchhikers recommend taking a foldable bike (which can be stowed in a car's back seat) as back-up transportation.
- Bring a black marker, a hat, a flashlight, a pocketknife, sunscreen, etc... it is best to be prepared and these items do not weigh much.
- A small whiteboard and associated markers make it easy to create a destination board and to change it as needed.
- Depending on the length of your trip, it may be massively useful to bring a towel.
You should have clothes and gear for the weather, but you should also think about the impression your clothing gives.
Bright clothes make you stand out, giving drivers more time to react, but do not overdo it, unless you want to look odd.
A short skirt can help girls get a ride, but often from drivers they should not accept rides from. Military-looking clothes can make you look threatening or unsympathetic – although a proper uniform may get you sympathy where conscripts use to hitchhike home for their leaves. A suit will make you seem odd – why do you not use a taxi? A more sporty outfit is probably better. A pair of light glasses can make you look more nerdy and thus less threatening and more friendly, but covering your face with sunglasses may have the opposite effect. An odd look will turn away some drivers and attract others, which sometimes is good where traffic is abundant but nobody picks you up.
It is probably good to try understanding what people are scared of and what they deem sympathetic and least threatening. This does not vary much around the world, it is mostly always the same fears that are fueled. One thing which may differ is associations to recent or ongoing conflicts: symbols such as a flag, or clothing related to some ethnic or social group, can awake very different feelings.
People are scared of criminals and bums, and contemn freeloading and non-working hippies. However, they are happy about tourists from well known and respected countries that bring money into their own country (or are otherwise seemed as sympathetic) and hopefully speak a common language. They are also sympathetic about people who look like they or their children would when hitchhiking. Some will give a ride to people from exciting places or people who seem to have good stories to tell. Use this to you advantage when deciding on a look.
Getting a ride
- The three most important factors for getting a ride are: location, location, and location. You need to find a place where you can be seen early (to give the driver time to decide to pick you up), and where the driver can safely pull over. Ideally, there should be some traffic, but not too much either, as this makes pulling over difficult and makes drivers assume that you can always get a ride with somebody else.
- Don't try to catch a ride from downtown, instead catch public transport to the edge of town. City drivers are mostly traveling short distances, and it can be difficult for you to stand out or get them to stop in heavy traffic. Check your map, or ask around, to find a good spot.
- For long-distance travel, never get taken into the center of town! You will most likely find it very difficult to get back out. Get dropped off close to the highway.
- Unattended highway rest areas are ill-advised, particularly in the USA, due to the number of "disturbing incidents" at these locales... and the reputation for them which leads many motorists to avoid them. Motorists may assume that you were thrown out of a vehicle there.
- An exception to the "rest area" rule is the commercial rest area, "oasis" or "service plaza". These are generally safer as they're staffed businesses with generally more people patronizing them. You will want to purchase a small item so as not to be trespassing on the concessionaires' leased area. A CB radio (to talk to truck drivers, and other people with CB radios passing by on the main line of the highway) is a good tool for service areas. You can purchase a handheld one for around US$40.00 at many truck stops.
- The absolute best place to catch a good ride is on a public highway on ramp, near a truck stop, but not on the truck stop property itself, as those are good places to get thrown out of for trespassing. In Northern California (US 101) and in the Seattle area, many highway on-ramps are also bus stops and thus do double duty in regards to catching a ride.
- Land borders where traffic has to stop are great. One caveat to hitching just before a border, however, is that drivers may be wary of transporting you across an international border itself, thus decreasing your chances of catching a ride. You may find better success crossing the border on foot, and hitching from the other side. If you attempt this, be aware of when a border is buffered by a militarized "no-man's land," through which it is illegal to cross on foot or camp, making it crucial to find a ride within this few-hundred-metre stretch of road before dark. The border between Turkey and Greece is one such example. Also, sneaking into countries is an option, albeit an ill-advised and illegal one. There are hitchhiking travel narratives that can show you why.
- Fuel stations where many cars stop are good. In some countries, such as Mexico, the attendants may even help you on your journey. It takes a bit more gusto, but there is a much better chance of success if you actually ask someone for a ride. Though, if you are not doing business at the station, there is a possibility of getting thrown off the property. Just be cordial and leave if you are asked to.
- Laybys and roadside picnic areas are good, although less so in the USA as roadside picnic areas tend to be in the middle of nowhere.
- Avoid places where traffic lawfully or just by logic can hardly stop. The only people likely to give you a ride from unlawful places are the police. By logic means that for instance a 3 or more lane highway makes it hard for willing drivers to switch lanes to pick you up, or where cars already have a considerable speed and feel too lazy to slow down again. However, shortly after traffic lights might be lucky, because drivers have enough time to notice you, namely when they are waiting for a green light.
- Getting a ride at night is very difficult. You might have some luck at a filling station, where people can see you, but realistically you are probably better off camping out for the night and starting off again at first light.
- Local public transit can bypass segments which are not pedestrian-friendly, such as the Windsor-Detroit border crossing, but will typically cost a few dollars.
- Take advice from non-hitchhikers as to the best places for hitching with a grain of salt.
- Check the map for popular tourist spots in the area - Rental car agencies often have good and free maps.
Attracting a ride
- Asking around doesn't hurt. If people notice you're friendly and speak their language you have a much higher chance of getting a ride from them.
- Make sure you know the right gestures used locally to stop a car. The thumb up sign doesn't work in many parts of the world. An outstretched waving arm is another common gesture, but generally defer to locals. Drivers may also use gestures: pointing downwards with the index finger means that they're staying in town. A swirling motion with a downward pointed finger is the same, but can also mean that you might see them again in a minute or so as they make the trip again. A flat hand down means that the car is weighted down, aka full.
- Sometimes walking in the direction you want to go, especially if nobody is stopping to pick you up, can attract rides. It also might bring you closer to your destination and in reach of new traffic of other junctions. On the other hand, if you wander too far from a town, people may wonder what you did to get stranded there, it might be hard to get back in case it gets dark, or put you in an inhospitable environment such as a desert or up in the mountains. Nevertheless, statistically every on-ramp you pass while walking increases the chances of a person going to your final destination passing you, and hitchhiking truly is a numbers game, the more cars that pass you the more likely you are to get a ride.
- Nod or wave thanks to all who at least give you eye contact and especially those who give you gestures explaining why they cannot take you. Not only does it lighten the fear of hitchers and make you feel much better along the way, some may even come back and pick you up. Not to be counted on though.
- A big cardboard sign with an indication of where you want to go can help. Short general directions like North, or West can be written bigger - and seen from further away - than a longer city or town, but a city is more useful for drivers.
- Nonspecific 'general' directions are really only useful at on-ramps where traffic goes in two directions, like standing before a toll plaza, otherwise, the next town with a truck stop is recommended.
- Avoid writing destinations far away, this gives you a good excuse to get off if you feel uncomfortable with the driver, you can always agree to go further if the driver turns out to be going your way. Also, indicating close destinations will attract short lifts. In Germany 200 km seems to be a good distance.
- It can be a good idea to not indicate your final destination. If you can get a ride in a direction that is not exactly the best one, it could still be a good idea to take it, since you might be able to get more rides from that spot.
- Some people do not believe in direction signs, and suggest funny ones ("I DON'T STINK") or nothing at all.
- Holding your sign upside down may sometimes help to get a ride out of pity.
- If you speak the local language, saying this on your sign may also be useful.
- Some drivers will not stop based on their own racial, cultural, or gender prejudice. While this can be upsetting, consider that you may be better off not riding with such a person.
- If you are travelling with a companion, stand together and make it obvious that you want a ride together. Drivers don't want to be surprised by an extra person. Do not let someone split you up unless you are very desperate.
- Always stay happy and send a smile—even if people react nastily.
- If you are more of an adventurous type, try hiking around with a large or unusual object. Tony Hawks hiked through Ireland with a fridge (see http://www.roundirelandwithafridge.com/) and wrote a book about it. It seems to help getting rides and... there's always something to talk about!
- If hitchhiking in the USA, you may want to buy a military-style carrying sack at a Military Surplus Store. These items are easily recognizable and can incite interest/sympathy from drivers. They're also relatively cheap. If the driver asks about your military background, a white lie such as "My cousin gave it to me" will usually do the trick. Be prepared to have a small, believable story ready if you use such an explanation. The downside to a military carrying sack is that they're harder to carry than a framed backpack.
- Another writer, based on decades of hitching in the USA, has developed these rules:
- Wear white or a very light color. It implies cleanliness and is far easier to see, plus the cops react favorably.
- Remember that the driver has only a second to see you. Stand near a highway sign so drivers have a better chance to focus in time to stop.
- If you cannot walk where you're going, don't try. Better to spend some time at a fair spot than waste that time trudging through the boonies.
- If possible, carry your belongings in a large briefcase or similar. You'll be welcome in clean new cars and in places where a duffle bag is inappropriate. Visiting a laundromat pays off in better rides.
- Use signs. A piece of yellow lightweight plastic sign material is ideal, along with strips of black electrical tape to make the letters. A big LA works better than a smaller Los Angeles.
- Do not smoke while trying to catch a ride. Decide which is more important to you.
- Finally, ask yourself...would I pick me up? Think like a driver who might enjoy giving you a ride.
Choosing a ride
- Be aware that solitary male drivers are the most likely to pick you up. Do not completely discount female drivers or families as a possibility, but they are much less common. Nevertheless, they become more likely if you are female.
- If you're waiting for a long time and all the cars that want to take you go in the wrong direction it can be a good idea to let them take you anyway - just to drop you at a better spot.
- Sometimes you get an offer that brings you a little way in the right direction. This can be okay, but if you're at a place where lots of cars stop, it could be a better idea to wait for an offer that brings you a lot further.
- Ask if you can be dropped at a good spot for getting more rides if your ride isn't bringing you to your final destination, e.g. a gas station or a toll place.
- When possible, try to agree about where to be dropped off so you don't end up in a bad place.
- A somewhat more reliable alternative is ride sharing. People who travel long distance advertise their trips on the internet and you can ask for a ride, but you are usually expected to pay. Sites in different countries use different systems, but it is best to find a site which concentrates on long-distance and one-off trips rather than regular commutes .
- Using a digital system is good for safety as it provides a record of communication between driver and passenger should anything go wrong.
- Getting over bodies of water require somewhat different strategies, see Hitchhiking boats.
Always have a backup plan in case you are unsuccessful by thumb:
- carry a tent with you
- know nearby bus and other public transport options
- hike to a better place or back to civilisation
- know nearby accommodation options
While a mobile telephone and automobile association membership may be all that prevent the average motorist becoming a hitchhiker themselves the next time their vehicle breaks down at roadside, most drivers have their own safety concerns when dealing with hitchhikers. Many will not offer rides at all because they fear a passenger may harm them or steal from them. Others may stop only if they're not already carrying passengers or valuables, or may be hesitant to stop at night or in an unfamiliar area.
There are also road safety issues.
- Make yourself visible from as long a distance as possible. Physically, the distance a vehicle needs to decelerate is proportional to velocity squared; that's four times the distance to safely stop on a busy highway vs. a half-as-fast local road. If you stand on Deadman's Curve at night in fog or blizzard conditions expecting drivers to slam on the brakes for you, this isn't making it easier for the motorist.
- The driver is doing you a favour by offering you a free ride. Don't abuse their generosity by immediately asking for handouts ("spare some change?") or trying to convince them to go far out of their way for you ("You're going to Ottawa? Could you drop me in Montréal?").
- Smoking can be an awkward issue; don't make your non-smoking driver open all the windows in -20°C winter conditions just because you couldn't wait until the next rest stop to light up. Preferably wait for a moment after your smoke before trying to get a ride. Conversely, if you're an asthma patient and your driver is hopelessly addicted to nicotine, your options are limited - you can ask to be let off at the next safe spot to try to get a ride from someone else, but that's about it.
- Border crossings can be problematic, especially given the misguided "war on drugs" and the tightening of many borders in the increasingly paranoid post-Sept 11/2001 era. Entering a foreign land is awkward enough; bringing a hitchhiker across an international boundary will give customs and immigration officials a pretext to pick apart the vehicle just that little bit more.
- Don't leave items behind when you get out of the vehicle; make sure you have everything (including any rubbish) with you when you disembark.
- Don't expect your driver to do anything unsafe or prohibited, such as an illegal U-turn on a divided motorway or a sudden stop to let you disembark in a "no stopping" or "no pedestrian" zone.
- Lastly, the driver is a complete stranger who is just trying to get safely to the next town. Save the more bizarre enquiries ("I've always had a need for adrenalin; mind if I ride on top of the car?") for someone who actually knows you and can judge whether this is real or all just some bizarre joke.
Respect is a two-way street. If you are a motorist, you are under no obligation to offer free rides but you are legally and morally responsible for the safety of any passengers you do agree to transport. Operate your vehicle responsibly, keeping your eyes on the road and your hands on the wheel; food, drink, mobile telephones and other distractions can wait. Allow passengers to disembark in safe locations with access to onward transport if they're not within walking distance of the destination.
- Take care who you get a ride with. Some criminals prey on hitchhikers. If in doubt, turn down the ride. If you're in doubt, ask the driver where they're going and tell them you're heading elsewhere.
- Note the vehicle registration, and its make, model, and color before you take a ride. If you have a cellphone, text this information to a friend.
- If possible, hitchhike with a friend.
- Choose a car with a single occupant or a couple rather than the last seat in a car full of people.
- Regardless of gender, choose wisely; some people have loose hands. It's more dangerous when you're riding with multiple people.
- Sit in the front passenger seat, if you can. Rear doors often have child locks on them, meaning they cannot be opened from the inside. If you must sit in the back, check the child lock is off before you close the door.
- Keep your bag or backpack in easy reach, so you can grab it if you need to bail out. Be prepared to lose it if it is locked in the trunk.
- Wear at least some of your valuables (i.e. passport, wallet, money, I.D., bank and credit cards, etc.) under or in your clothes, rather than in your pack. Keep them in different places, so that if you lose one item, you don't lose them all. It is a good idea to have your wallet plus two hiding places, an obvious one and a not so obvious one. A good guideline is that criminals will go for your sock before padding up the groin.
- In some places, the police take a dim view of hitchhikers and will arrest you based on the slightest excuse (or at least cost you time you could use to catch rides by running field interviews on you).
- While pedestrians may have the right to walk along most roads, doing so in some places can get you arrested, cited, ticketed, or verbally warned. Find out about which roads you can and cannot walk along.
- As a general rule, avoid walking along freeways, particularly if it looks unsafe to do so or the jurisdiction you are in prohibits it. In some areas where it is legal to walk on the freeway, it may be wiser and safer to stay on the on-ramp anyway, based on the infrastructure of the road.
- If you arrange a ride through a ride-matching website, you can request the ID number of the driver who offers the ride; give this number to someone at home. Ask for this ID when you meet the driver; most will understand this precaution.
This is a brief index of hitchhiking conditions around the world, ranking countries on four indices:
- whether hitchhiking is popular or even understood, on a scale of common → occasional → rare → unknown
- whether getting rides is generally easy, on a scale of easy → medium → hard → very hard
- whether hitchhiking is legal (outside highways and tollroads, which are nearly universally off limits to foot traffic)
- whether it's possible to hitchhike for free, or whether payment is expected if picked up by a stranger.
"Varies" means that conditions vary dramatically within the country - please consult the individual country articles linked below for more detail.
|Argentina||common||easy (south), hard (north)||yes||no|
|Australia||rare||medium (country)/hard (metropolitan)||mostly||no|
|Azerbaijan||occasional||easy to medium||yes||sometimes|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||occasional||medium||yes||no|
|China||occasional||medium to hard||no (nobody cares)||sometimes|
|Colombia||occasional||medium to hard||yes||no|
|Cuba||common||medium-difficult||yes||most of the time|
|Denmark||rare||easy to medium||yes||no|
|Germany||occasional||medium to easy||yes||no|
|Hong Kong||almost non-existent||hard||no||no|
|Indonesia||rare||medium to hard||yes||often|
|Luxembourg||rare||easy to hard||yes||no|
|Morocco||rare||medium||yes||most of the time|
|Myanmar (Burma)||rare||hard||yes - illegal for foreigners||no|
|Norway||common in summer||medium||yes||no|
|Poland||common||medium to easy||yes||no|
|Singapore||almost non-existent||very hard||no||no|
|South Africa||common||depends||yes||yes (price of minibuses)|
|United Kingdom||occasional||easy-medium (but hard in Wales)||yes||no|
|Uruguay||common||medium to easy||yes||no|